Abstract

Core-shell slanted nanocolumnar thin films (SCTFs) were produced by e-beam glancing angle deposition of SiO2 and subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiN. Conformity of the ALD film over the slanted columns was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mappings. Angle resolved spectrophotometry characterization revealed angle-dependent transmission of the films, akin to their fully metallic counterparts. We found that such inclined core-shell nanocolumn films enable tailoring of the angular selectivity independently from the SCTF thickness and density.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. C. G. Granqvist, “Applications of Transparent Conductors to Solar Energy and Energy Efficiency,” in Handbook of Transparent Conductors, D. S. Ginley, ed. (Springer US, 2011), pp. 353–423.
  2. G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Angular Selective Window Coatings: Theory and Experiment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(15), 2103–2122 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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  4. M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 25(5), 1317 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. B. Smith, “Theory of angular selective transmittance in oblique columnar thin films containing metal and voids,” Appl. Opt. 29(25), 3685–3693 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. J. Ditchburn and G. B. Smith, “Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(6), 3769–3771 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. V. Leontyev, M. Hawkeye, A. Kovalenko, and M. J. Brett, “Omnidirectional reflection from nanocolumnar TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 084317 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Lichter and J. Chen, “Model for Columnar Microstructure of Thin Solid Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(13), 1396–1399 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Asgharizadeh, M. Sutton, K. Robbie, and T. Brown, “X-ray reflectometry characterization of porous silicon films prepared by a glancing-angle deposition method,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125405 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  16. D. Schmidt, “Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 571, 364–370 (2014).
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  18. A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. P. Smetaniuk, and M. J. Brett, “Decoupling sensor morphology and material: Atomic layer deposition onto nanocolumn scaffolds,” Sens. Actuators, B 162(1), 1–6 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. Trottier-Lapointe, O. Zabeida, T. Schmitt, and L. Martinu, “Ultralow refractive index optical films with enhanced mechanical performance obtained by hybrid glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8796–8805 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Yang and Y. Zhang, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of porous SiO2 films prepared by glancing angle deposition,” Surf. Interface Anal. 45(11-12), 1690–1694 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. K.-E. Elers, J. Winkler, K. Weeks, and S. Marcus, “TiCl4 as a Precursor in the TiN Deposition by ALD and PEALD,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G589–G593 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. Van De Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023534 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  28. N. Schönberg, W. G. Overend, A. Munthe-Kaas, and N. A. Sörensen, “An X-Ray Investigation on Ternary Phases in the Ta-Me-N Systems (Me = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni),” Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 213–220 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, and H. T. G. Hentzell, “Mechanisms of reactive sputtering of titanium nitride and titanium carbide II: Morphology and structure,” Thin Solid Films 105(4), 367–384 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  31. C.-C. Jiang, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Non-stoichiometry of titanium nitride plates prepared by chemical vapour deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 190(2), 197–200 (1993).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Trottier-Lapointe, O. Zabeida, T. Schmitt, and L. Martinu, “Ultralow refractive index optical films with enhanced mechanical performance obtained by hybrid glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8796–8805 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

P. Patsalas, N. Kalfagiannis, and S. Kassavetis, “Optical Properties and Plasmonic Performance of Titanium Nitride,” Materials 8(6), 3128–3154 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Guler, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonics on the slope of enlightenment: the role of transition metal nitrides,” Faraday Discuss. 178, 71–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. Schmidt, “Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 571, 364–370 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yang and Y. Zhang, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of porous SiO2 films prepared by glancing angle deposition,” Surf. Interface Anal. 45(11-12), 1690–1694 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

V. Leontyev, M. Hawkeye, A. Kovalenko, and M. J. Brett, “Omnidirectional reflection from nanocolumnar TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 084317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. P. Smetaniuk, and M. J. Brett, “Decoupling sensor morphology and material: Atomic layer deposition onto nanocolumn scaffolds,” Sens. Actuators, B 162(1), 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011912 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Asgharizadeh, M. Sutton, K. Robbie, and T. Brown, “X-ray reflectometry characterization of porous silicon films prepared by a glancing-angle deposition method,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125405 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 25(5), 1317 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. Van De Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023534 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K.-E. Elers, J. Winkler, K. Weeks, and S. Marcus, “TiCl4 as a Precursor in the TiN Deposition by ALD and PEALD,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G589–G593 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Angular Selective Window Coatings: Theory and Experiment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(15), 2103–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C.-C. Jiang, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Non-stoichiometry of titanium nitride plates prepared by chemical vapour deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 190(2), 197–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. J. Ditchburn and G. B. Smith, “Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(6), 3769–3771 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

S. Lichter and J. Chen, “Model for Columnar Microstructure of Thin Solid Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(13), 1396–1399 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, and H. T. G. Hentzell, “Mechanisms of reactive sputtering of titanium nitride and titanium carbide II: Morphology and structure,” Thin Solid Films 105(4), 367–384 (1983).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

N. Schönberg, W. G. Overend, A. Munthe-Kaas, and N. A. Sörensen, “An X-Ray Investigation on Ternary Phases in the Ta-Me-N Systems (Me = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni),” Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 213–220 (1954).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, O.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asgharizadeh, S.

S. Asgharizadeh, M. Sutton, K. Robbie, and T. Brown, “X-ray reflectometry characterization of porous silicon films prepared by a glancing-angle deposition method,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, J.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baker, J. H.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balogh, A. G.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

U. Guler, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonics on the slope of enlightenment: the role of transition metal nitrides,” Faraday Discuss. 178, 71–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brett, M. J.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. P. Smetaniuk, and M. J. Brett, “Decoupling sensor morphology and material: Atomic layer deposition onto nanocolumn scaffolds,” Sens. Actuators, B 162(1), 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Leontyev, M. Hawkeye, A. Kovalenko, and M. J. Brett, “Omnidirectional reflection from nanocolumnar TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 084317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 25(5), 1317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Briley, C.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brown, T.

S. Asgharizadeh, M. Sutton, K. Robbie, and T. Brown, “X-ray reflectometry characterization of porous silicon films prepared by a glancing-angle deposition method,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brudnik, A.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cadien, K. C.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

S. Lichter and J. Chen, “Model for Columnar Microstructure of Thin Solid Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(13), 1396–1399 (1986).
[Crossref]

Convey, D.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ditchburn, R. J.

R. J. Ditchburn and G. B. Smith, “Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(6), 3769–3771 (1991).
[Crossref]

Elers, K.-E.

K.-E. Elers, J. Winkler, K. Weeks, and S. Marcus, “TiCl4 as a Precursor in the TiN Deposition by ALD and PEALD,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G589–G593 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[Crossref]

Foroughi-Abari, A.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[Crossref]

Görlitz, D.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goto, T.

C.-C. Jiang, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Non-stoichiometry of titanium nitride plates prepared by chemical vapour deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 190(2), 197–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

Granqvist, C. G.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Angular Selective Window Coatings: Theory and Experiment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(15), 2103–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. G. Granqvist, “Applications of Transparent Conductors to Solar Energy and Energy Efficiency,” in Handbook of Transparent Conductors, D. S. Ginley, ed. (Springer US, 2011), pp. 353–423.

Grundmann, M.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guan, J.

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guild, J.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Guler, U.

U. Guler, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonics on the slope of enlightenment: the role of transition metal nitrides,” Faraday Discuss. 178, 71–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harris, K. D.

M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. P. Smetaniuk, and M. J. Brett, “Decoupling sensor morphology and material: Atomic layer deposition onto nanocolumn scaffolds,” Sens. Actuators, B 162(1), 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hawkeye, M.

V. Leontyev, M. Hawkeye, A. Kovalenko, and M. J. Brett, “Omnidirectional reflection from nanocolumnar TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 084317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hawkeye, M. M.

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 25(5), 1317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heil, S. B. S.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. Van De Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023534 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hentzell, H. T. G.

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, and H. T. G. Hentzell, “Mechanisms of reactive sputtering of titanium nitride and titanium carbide II: Morphology and structure,” Thin Solid Films 105(4), 367–384 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hirai, T.

C.-C. Jiang, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Non-stoichiometry of titanium nitride plates prepared by chemical vapour deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 190(2), 197–200 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, T.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
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Jiang, C.-C.

C.-C. Jiang, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Non-stoichiometry of titanium nitride plates prepared by chemical vapour deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 190(2), 197–200 (1993).
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Jim, S. R.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
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Johansson, B.-O.

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, and H. T. G. Hentzell, “Mechanisms of reactive sputtering of titanium nitride and titanium carbide II: Morphology and structure,” Thin Solid Films 105(4), 367–384 (1983).
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Kalfagiannis, N.

P. Patsalas, N. Kalfagiannis, and S. Kassavetis, “Optical Properties and Plasmonic Performance of Titanium Nitride,” Materials 8(6), 3128–3154 (2015).
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Karlsson, S.-E.

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, and H. T. G. Hentzell, “Mechanisms of reactive sputtering of titanium nitride and titanium carbide II: Morphology and structure,” Thin Solid Films 105(4), 367–384 (1983).
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Kassavetis, S.

P. Patsalas, N. Kalfagiannis, and S. Kassavetis, “Optical Properties and Plasmonic Performance of Titanium Nitride,” Materials 8(6), 3128–3154 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kessels, W. M. M.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. Van De Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023534 (2006).
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Kildishev, A. V.

U. Guler, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonics on the slope of enlightenment: the role of transition metal nitrides,” Faraday Discuss. 178, 71–86 (2015).
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W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
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Kim-Ngan, N.-T. H.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
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Kinsey, N.

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Chapter 9 - Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Functional Coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings (Third Edition), P. M. Martin, ed., 3rd Edition (William Andrew Publishing, 2010), pp. 392–465.

Korlacki, R.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
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V. Leontyev, M. Hawkeye, A. Kovalenko, and M. J. Brett, “Omnidirectional reflection from nanocolumnar TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 084317 (2012).
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Krause, K. M.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kupsta, M.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kusior, E.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Langereis, E.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. Van De Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023534 (2006).
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Leontyev, V.

V. Leontyev, M. Hawkeye, A. Kovalenko, and M. J. Brett, “Omnidirectional reflection from nanocolumnar TiO2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 084317 (2012).
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Li, P.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
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S. Lichter and J. Chen, “Model for Columnar Microstructure of Thin Solid Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(13), 1396–1399 (1986).
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Marcus, S.

K.-E. Elers, J. Winkler, K. Weeks, and S. Marcus, “TiCl4 as a Precursor in the TiN Deposition by ALD and PEALD,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G589–G593 (2005).
[Crossref]

Martinu, L.

W. Trottier-Lapointe, O. Zabeida, T. Schmitt, and L. Martinu, “Ultralow refractive index optical films with enhanced mechanical performance obtained by hybrid glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8796–8805 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Chapter 9 - Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Functional Coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings (Third Edition), P. M. Martin, ed., 3rd Edition (William Andrew Publishing, 2010), pp. 392–465.

Mbise, G.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Angular Selective Window Coatings: Theory and Experiment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(15), 2103–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mock, A.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Munthe-Kaas, A.

N. Schönberg, W. G. Overend, A. Munthe-Kaas, and N. A. Sörensen, “An X-Ray Investigation on Ternary Phases in the Ta-Me-N Systems (Me = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni),” Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 213–220 (1954).
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Naik, G. V.

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nielsch, K.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Niklasson, G. A.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Angular Selective Window Coatings: Theory and Experiment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(15), 2103–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Overend, W. G.

N. Schönberg, W. G. Overend, A. Munthe-Kaas, and N. A. Sörensen, “An X-Ray Investigation on Ternary Phases in the Ta-Me-N Systems (Me = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni),” Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 213–220 (1954).
[Crossref]

Pamula, E.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Patsalas, P.

P. Patsalas, N. Kalfagiannis, and S. Kassavetis, “Optical Properties and Plasmonic Performance of Titanium Nitride,” Materials 8(6), 3128–3154 (2015).
[Crossref]

Patzig, C.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Radecka, M.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rauschenbach, B.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rheinländer, B.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Robbie, K.

S. Asgharizadeh, M. Sutton, K. Robbie, and T. Brown, “X-ray reflectometry characterization of porous silicon films prepared by a glancing-angle deposition method,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, D.

D. Schmidt, “Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 571, 364–370 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011912 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Generalized Ellipsometry Characterization of Sculptured Thin Films Made by Glancing Angle Deposition,” in Ellipsometry at the Nanoscale (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 341–410.

Schmitt, T.

Schönberg, N.

N. Schönberg, W. G. Overend, A. Munthe-Kaas, and N. A. Sörensen, “An X-Ray Investigation on Ternary Phases in the Ta-Me-N Systems (Me = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni),” Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 213–220 (1954).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011912 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Generalized Ellipsometry Characterization of Sculptured Thin Films Made by Glancing Angle Deposition,” in Ellipsometry at the Nanoscale (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 341–410.

Schubert, M.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011912 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Generalized Ellipsometry Characterization of Sculptured Thin Films Made by Glancing Angle Deposition,” in Ellipsometry at the Nanoscale (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 341–410.

Sekora, D.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

U. Guler, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonics on the slope of enlightenment: the role of transition metal nitrides,” Faraday Discuss. 178, 71–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shao, J.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[Crossref]

Singh, N.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinitskii, A.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Smetaniuk, D. P.

M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. P. Smetaniuk, and M. J. Brett, “Decoupling sensor morphology and material: Atomic layer deposition onto nanocolumn scaffolds,” Sens. Actuators, B 162(1), 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, G. B.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, and C. G. Granqvist, “Angular Selective Window Coatings: Theory and Experiment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(15), 2103–2122 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. J. Ditchburn and G. B. Smith, “Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(6), 3769–3771 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. B. Smith, “Theory of angular selective transmittance in oblique columnar thin films containing metal and voids,” Appl. Opt. 29(25), 3685–3693 (1990).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. M.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, T.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Sörensen, N. A.

N. Schönberg, W. G. Overend, A. Munthe-Kaas, and N. A. Sörensen, “An X-Ray Investigation on Ternary Phases in the Ta-Me-N Systems (Me = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni),” Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 213–220 (1954).
[Crossref]

Sturm, C.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sundgren, J.-E.

J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, S.-E. Karlsson, and H. T. G. Hentzell, “Mechanisms of reactive sputtering of titanium nitride and titanium carbide II: Morphology and structure,” Thin Solid Films 105(4), 367–384 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sutton, M.

S. Asgharizadeh, M. Sutton, K. Robbie, and T. Brown, “X-ray reflectometry characterization of porous silicon films prepared by a glancing-angle deposition method,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taschuk, M. T.

S. R. Jim, A. Foroughi-Abari, K. M. Krause, P. Li, M. Kupsta, M. T. Taschuk, K. C. Cadien, and M. J. Brett, “Ultrathin-layer chromatography nanostructures modified by atomic layer deposition,” J. Chromatogr. A 1299, 118–125 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. P. Smetaniuk, and M. J. Brett, “Decoupling sensor morphology and material: Atomic layer deposition onto nanocolumn scaffolds,” Sens. Actuators, B 162(1), 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tiwald, T.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tompkins, H. G.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trenczek-Zajac, A.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Trottier-Lapointe, W.

Van De Sanden, M. C. M.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. Van De Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023534 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weeks, K.

K.-E. Elers, J. Winkler, K. Weeks, and S. Marcus, “TiCl4 as a Precursor in the TiN Deposition by ALD and PEALD,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G589–G593 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wilson, P.

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Winkler, J.

K.-E. Elers, J. Winkler, K. Weeks, and S. Marcus, “TiCl4 as a Precursor in the TiN Deposition by ALD and PEALD,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(8), G589–G593 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xia, G.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Yang and Y. Zhang, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of porous SiO2 films prepared by glancing angle deposition,” Surf. Interface Anal. 45(11-12), 1690–1694 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zabeida, O.

W. Trottier-Lapointe, O. Zabeida, T. Schmitt, and L. Martinu, “Ultralow refractive index optical films with enhanced mechanical performance obtained by hybrid glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8796–8805 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Chapter 9 - Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Functional Coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings (Third Edition), P. M. Martin, ed., 3rd Edition (William Andrew Publishing, 2010), pp. 392–465.

Zakrzewska, K.

M. Radecka, E. Pamula, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska, A. Brudnik, E. Kusior, N.-T. H. Kim-Ngan, and A. G. Balogh, “Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and impedance spectroscopy of titanium oxynitride TiNxOy thin films,” Solid State Ionics 192(1), 693–698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. Yang and Y. Zhang, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of porous SiO2 films prepared by glancing angle deposition,” Surf. Interface Anal. 45(11-12), 1690–1694 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zierold, R.

O. Albrecht, R. Zierold, C. Patzig, J. Bachmann, C. Sturm, B. Rheinländer, M. Grundmann, D. Görlitz, B. Rauschenbach, and K. Nielsch, “Tubular magnetic nanostructures based on glancing angle deposited templates and atomic layer deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1365–1371 (2010).
[Crossref]

Acta Chem. Scand. (1)

N. Schönberg, W. G. Overend, A. Munthe-Kaas, and N. A. Sörensen, “An X-Ray Investigation on Ternary Phases in the Ta-Me-N Systems (Me = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni),” Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 213–220 (1954).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Schmidt, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films passivated by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011912 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, C. Briley, D. Sekora, T. Hofmann, P. Wilson, A. Sinitskii, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert, “Anisotropy, band-to-band transitions, phonon modes, and oxidation properties of cobalt-oxide core-shell slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scanning electron micrograph of a SiO2 slanted columnar thin film taken prior to ALD functionalization.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Micrographs of a TiN-coated SiO2 nanocolumn obtained by transmission electron microscopy. (a) TEM bright field nanocolumn image used for measuring the TiN shell thickness. (b) Selected-area electron diffractogram taken over the TiN-coated SiO2 nanocolumn shown in (a). Mappings of (c) titanium and (d) silicon EDS counts over the nanocolumn shown in (a).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) p- (left y-axis) and s-polarized (right y-axis) transmission spectra of a SiO2 slanted columnar thin film coated with 500 cycles of TiN by ALD measured at three different angles. Transmission at positive and negative angles are identical for s-polarized light; (b) relative AS and (c) absolute AS at 60° for core-shell SCTFs with 400, 500 and 600 cycles of ALD.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Luminous transmittance (lum) as a function of incidence angle ($\theta $) for SiO2 SCTFs coated with, from left to right, 0, 400, 500 and 600 cycles of TiN using ALD. The curves present s- and p-polarizations as well as unpolarized light (u).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Relative luminous angular selectivity ($T_u^{lum}({ + 60^\circ } )/T_u^{lum}({ - 60^\circ } )$) vs. maximum transmittance ($T_u^{lum}({ + 60^\circ } )$) of unpolarized light. TiN-SiO­­2 core-shell SCTFs values are compared with data published by Mbise et. al. for evaporated (e) and sputtered (s) Cr SCTFs as well as reactive DC sputtered Al2O3 SCTFs with metallic Al inclusions [2].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. SiO2 SCTF characteristics prior to ALD functionalization. Thickness, porosity and refractive index were determined by ellipsometry whereas the column angle was measured by SEM imaging.