Abstract

We reported on a passively Q-switched double-clad thulium-doped fiber laser by using oxygen vacancies (OVs) enriched with MoO3-x as a saturable absorber (SA). The MoO3-x was successfully embedded in polyvinyl alcohol and acted as the SA for a stable Q-switching operation in the 2 µm wavelength region. Stable Q-switched pulses were obtained at a central wavelength of ∼1992.1 nm with a maximum output power of ∼62.7 mW, maximum pulse energy of ∼1.63 µJ and a minimum pulse duration of ∼2 µs. The repetition rate of the pulses can be tuned from ∼15.5 kHz to ∼38.5 kHz with increasing the pump power. Our experiment was the first demonstrated use of MoO3-x as a SA for pulse laser generation, in which OVs were considered as the original reason for the optical saturable absorption. Moreover, it provides a novel idea for optical SA preparation by controlling the vacancy defects in such materials.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (5)

T. Xian, L. Zhan, L. Gao, W. Zhang, and W. Zhang, “Passively Q-switched fiber lasers based on pure water as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 863–866 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Jia, D. Wu, E. Wu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, Z. Shi, T. Xu, X. Huang, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “self-powered high-performance photodetector based on a MoS2/GaAs heterojunction with high polarization sensitivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(13), 3817–3821 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. He, L. Tao, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, and J. Li, “Emerging 2D materials beyond graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 11(6), 2577–2593 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Wu, D. Wu, C. Jia, Y. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zeng, T. Xu, Z. Shi, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “In Situ Fabrication of 2D WS2/Si Type-II Heterojunction for Self-Powered Broadband Photodetector with Response up to Mid-Infrared,” ACS Photonics 6(2), 565–572 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, Y. Long, H. Yi, Z. Yang, L. Pang, Z. Jin, Q. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Cui, J. Lu, X. Peng, H. Liang, S. Ruan, and Y.-J. Zeng, “Multifunctional molybdenum oxide for solar-driven water evaporation and charged dyes adsorption,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 491, 328–334 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

W. Wang, W. Yue, Z. Liu, T. Shi, J. Du, Y. Leng, R. Wei, Y. Ye, C. Liu, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Optical Response in Plasmonic 2D Molybdenum Oxide Nanosheets for Mode-Locked Pulse Generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(17), 1700948 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Zhuo, Y. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Lou, Z. Shi, T. Xu, J. Xu, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “High-performance self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector based on MoS2/GaN p–n heterojunction,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(2), 299–303 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, J. Alaniz-Baylón, M. Bello-Jiménez, P. Prieto-Cortés, and E. A. Kuzin, “Passively Q-Switched Thulium-Doped Fiber Laser Using Alcohol,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(20), 1768–1771 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

A. A. Latiff, M. F. M. Rusdi, M. B. Hisyam, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “A generation of 2 µm Q-switched thulium-doped fibre laser based on anatase titanium(IV) oxide film saturable absorber,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(2), 187–190 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. D. Hanson, L. Lajaunie, S. Hao, B. D. Myers, F. Shi, A. A. Murthy, C. Wolverton, R. Arenal, and V. P. Dravid, “Systematic study of oxygen vacancy tunable transport properties of few-layer MoO3-x enabled by vapor-based synthesis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(17), 1605380 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Kim, J. B. Cook, H. Lin, J. S. Ko, S. H. Tolbert, V. Ozolins, and B. Dunn, “Oxygen vacancies enhance pseudocapacitive charge storage properties of MoO3-x,” Nat. Mater. 16(4), 454–460 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, A. Muhamad, A. S. Sharbirin, M. Z. Samion, and M. F. Ismail, “Tunable Q-switched thulium-doped Fiber Laser using multiwall carbon nanotube and Fabry-Perot Etalon filter,” Opt. Commun. 383, 359–365 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Z. Zheng, D. Ouyang, M. Liu, X. Ren, S. Ruan, and W. Xie, “70-W Graphene-Oxide Passively Q-Switched Thulium-Doped Double-Clad Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 13–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Niu, Q. Chen, R. Sun, B. Man, and H. Zhang, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on SnS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 3934–3943 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Ding, W. Huang, C. Song, M. Yan, C. Guo, and S. Liu, “Non-stoichiometric MoO3-x quantum dots as a light-harvesting material for interfacial water evaporation,” Chem. Commun. 53(50), 6744–6747 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

W. Xie, M. Su, Z. Zheng, Y. Wang, L. Gong, F. Xie, W. Zhang, Z. Luo, J. Y. Luo, and P. Liu, “Nanoscale insights into the hydrogenation process of layered α-MoO3,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1662–1670 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear Saturable Absorption of Liquid-Exfoliated Molybdenum/Tungsten Ditelluride Nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, R. Miao, T. D. Huan, I. M. Mosa, A. S. Poyraz, W. Zhong, J. E. Cloud, D. A. Kriz, S. Thanneeru, J. He, Y. Zhang, R. Ramprasad, and S. L. Suib, “Mesoporous MoO3-x Material as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reactions,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(16), 1600528 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 603–609 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. Z. Samion, A. Muhamad, A. S. Sharbirin, and M. F. Ismail, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser with silver-nanoparticle film as the saturable absorber for operation at 2.0 µm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(12), 126201 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Saidin, D. I. M. Zen, F. Ahmad, H. Haris, H. Ahmad, K. Dimyati, S. W. Harun, A. Halder, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “Q-switched 2 µm thulium bismuth co-doped fiber laser with multi-walled carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 83, 89–93 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 1440–1456 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Zhan, M. Qin, J. Wu, L. Zhang, Z. Zou, and K. Qian, “Passively Q-Switched Er-Doped Fiber Lasers Using Alcohol,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(23), 4857–4861 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Azooz, S. W. Harun, H. Ahmad, A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. Das, and S. K. Bhadra, “A Q-switched fibre laser operating in the 2 µm region based on nonlinear polarization rotation technique,” Ukr. J. Phys. Opt. 16(1), 32–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, Q. Sheng, X. Zhu, W. Shi, J. Yao, G. Shi, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passive Q-switching of an all-fiber laser induced by the Kerr effect of multimode interference,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17255–17262 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Wang, C. Chen, C. Huang, and H. Chen, “Passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Optik 125(9), 2154–2156 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm fibre lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014). ).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator Passively Q-Switched Double-Clad Fiber Laser at 2 µm Wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

Y. Tang, X. Yu, X. Li, Z. Yan, and Q. J. Wang, “High-power thulium fiber laser Q switched with single-layer grapheme,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 614–617 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for the fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “2-µm fiber laser sources for sensing,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 061609 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Jung, J. Koo, Y. M. Chang, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “An all fiberized, 1.89-µm Q-switched laser employing carbon nanotube evanescent field interaction,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 669–673 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Brezesinski, J. Wang, S. H. Tolbert, and B. Dunn, “Ordered mesoporous α-MoO3 with iso-oriented nanocrystalline walls for thin-film pseudocapacitors,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 146–151 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. Shi, B. Guo, S. A. Corr, Q. Shi, Y. S. Hu, K. R. Heier, L. Chen, R. Seshadri, and G. D. Stucky, “Ordered Mesoporous Metallic MoO2 Materials with Highly Reversible Lithium Storage Capacity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4215–4220 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Siano, M. Giamello, L. Bartoli, A. Mencaglia, V. Parfenov, and R. Salimbeni, “Laser cleaning of stone by different laser pulse duration and wavelength,” Laser Phys. 18(1), 27–36 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Dieterle, G. Weinberg, and G. Mestl, “Raman spectroscopy of molybdenum oxides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(5), 812–821 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

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S. M. Azooz, S. W. Harun, H. Ahmad, A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. Das, and S. K. Bhadra, “A Q-switched fibre laser operating in the 2 µm region based on nonlinear polarization rotation technique,” Ukr. J. Phys. Opt. 16(1), 32–33 (2015).
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E. D. Hanson, L. Lajaunie, S. Hao, B. D. Myers, F. Shi, A. A. Murthy, C. Wolverton, R. Arenal, and V. P. Dravid, “Systematic study of oxygen vacancy tunable transport properties of few-layer MoO3-x enabled by vapor-based synthesis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(17), 1605380 (2017).
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E. D. Hanson, L. Lajaunie, S. Hao, B. D. Myers, F. Shi, A. A. Murthy, C. Wolverton, R. Arenal, and V. P. Dravid, “Systematic study of oxygen vacancy tunable transport properties of few-layer MoO3-x enabled by vapor-based synthesis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(17), 1605380 (2017).
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A. A. Latiff, M. F. M. Rusdi, M. B. Hisyam, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “A generation of 2 µm Q-switched thulium-doped fibre laser based on anatase titanium(IV) oxide film saturable absorber,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(2), 187–190 (2017).
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N. Saidin, D. I. M. Zen, F. Ahmad, H. Haris, H. Ahmad, K. Dimyati, S. W. Harun, A. Halder, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “Q-switched 2 µm thulium bismuth co-doped fiber laser with multi-walled carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 83, 89–93 (2016).
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S. M. Azooz, S. W. Harun, H. Ahmad, A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. Das, and S. K. Bhadra, “A Q-switched fibre laser operating in the 2 µm region based on nonlinear polarization rotation technique,” Ukr. J. Phys. Opt. 16(1), 32–33 (2015).
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F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene passively Q-switched two-micron fiber lasers,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), JW2A.72.

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A. A. Latiff, M. F. M. Rusdi, M. B. Hisyam, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “A generation of 2 µm Q-switched thulium-doped fibre laser based on anatase titanium(IV) oxide film saturable absorber,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(2), 187–190 (2017).
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R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015).
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R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
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M. Wang, C. Chen, C. Huang, and H. Chen, “Passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Optik 125(9), 2154–2156 (2014).
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S. Huang, Y. Long, H. Yi, Z. Yang, L. Pang, Z. Jin, Q. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Cui, J. Lu, X. Peng, H. Liang, S. Ruan, and Y.-J. Zeng, “Multifunctional molybdenum oxide for solar-driven water evaporation and charged dyes adsorption,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 491, 328–334 (2019).
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Huang, W.

D. Ding, W. Huang, C. Song, M. Yan, C. Guo, and S. Liu, “Non-stoichiometric MoO3-x quantum dots as a light-harvesting material for interfacial water evaporation,” Chem. Commun. 53(50), 6744–6747 (2017).
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Huang, X.

C. Jia, D. Wu, E. Wu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, Z. Shi, T. Xu, X. Huang, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “self-powered high-performance photodetector based on a MoS2/GaAs heterojunction with high polarization sensitivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(13), 3817–3821 (2019).
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R. Zhuo, Y. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Lou, Z. Shi, T. Xu, J. Xu, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “High-performance self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector based on MoS2/GaN p–n heterojunction,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(2), 299–303 (2018).
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E. Wu, D. Wu, C. Jia, Y. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zeng, T. Xu, Z. Shi, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “In Situ Fabrication of 2D WS2/Si Type-II Heterojunction for Self-Powered Broadband Photodetector with Response up to Mid-Infrared,” ACS Photonics 6(2), 565–572 (2019).
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R. Zhuo, Y. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Lou, Z. Shi, T. Xu, J. Xu, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “High-performance self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector based on MoS2/GaN p–n heterojunction,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(2), 299–303 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

D. Ding, W. Huang, C. Song, M. Yan, C. Guo, and S. Liu, “Non-stoichiometric MoO3-x quantum dots as a light-harvesting material for interfacial water evaporation,” Chem. Commun. 53(50), 6744–6747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

Yang, D.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear Saturable Absorption of Liquid-Exfoliated Molybdenum/Tungsten Ditelluride Nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

S. Huang, Y. Long, H. Yi, Z. Yang, L. Pang, Z. Jin, Q. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Cui, J. Lu, X. Peng, H. Liang, S. Ruan, and Y.-J. Zeng, “Multifunctional molybdenum oxide for solar-driven water evaporation and charged dyes adsorption,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 491, 328–334 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Ye, Y.

W. Wang, W. Yue, Z. Liu, T. Shi, J. Du, Y. Leng, R. Wei, Y. Ye, C. Liu, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Optical Response in Plasmonic 2D Molybdenum Oxide Nanosheets for Mode-Locked Pulse Generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(17), 1700948 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yi, H.

S. Huang, Y. Long, H. Yi, Z. Yang, L. Pang, Z. Jin, Q. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Cui, J. Lu, X. Peng, H. Liang, S. Ruan, and Y.-J. Zeng, “Multifunctional molybdenum oxide for solar-driven water evaporation and charged dyes adsorption,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 491, 328–334 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yin, K.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 603–609 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Yuan, H.

E. Wu, D. Wu, C. Jia, Y. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zeng, T. Xu, Z. Shi, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “In Situ Fabrication of 2D WS2/Si Type-II Heterojunction for Self-Powered Broadband Photodetector with Response up to Mid-Infrared,” ACS Photonics 6(2), 565–572 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yue, W.

W. Wang, W. Yue, Z. Liu, T. Shi, J. Du, Y. Leng, R. Wei, Y. Ye, C. Liu, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Optical Response in Plasmonic 2D Molybdenum Oxide Nanosheets for Mode-Locked Pulse Generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(17), 1700948 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zen, D. I. M.

N. Saidin, D. I. M. Zen, F. Ahmad, H. Haris, H. Ahmad, K. Dimyati, S. W. Harun, A. Halder, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “Q-switched 2 µm thulium bismuth co-doped fiber laser with multi-walled carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 83, 89–93 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear Saturable Absorption of Liquid-Exfoliated Molybdenum/Tungsten Ditelluride Nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

E. Wu, D. Wu, C. Jia, Y. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zeng, T. Xu, Z. Shi, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “In Situ Fabrication of 2D WS2/Si Type-II Heterojunction for Self-Powered Broadband Photodetector with Response up to Mid-Infrared,” ACS Photonics 6(2), 565–572 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.-J.

S. Huang, Y. Long, H. Yi, Z. Yang, L. Pang, Z. Jin, Q. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Cui, J. Lu, X. Peng, H. Liang, S. Ruan, and Y.-J. Zeng, “Multifunctional molybdenum oxide for solar-driven water evaporation and charged dyes adsorption,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 491, 328–334 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

Zhang, H.

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S. Huang, Y. Long, H. Yi, Z. Yang, L. Pang, Z. Jin, Q. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Cui, J. Lu, X. Peng, H. Liang, S. Ruan, and Y.-J. Zeng, “Multifunctional molybdenum oxide for solar-driven water evaporation and charged dyes adsorption,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 491, 328–334 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Zhan, M. Qin, J. Wu, L. Zhang, Z. Zou, and K. Qian, “Passively Q-Switched Er-Doped Fiber Lasers Using Alcohol,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(23), 4857–4861 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear Saturable Absorption of Liquid-Exfoliated Molybdenum/Tungsten Ditelluride Nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
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Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Z. Zheng, D. Ouyang, M. Liu, X. Ren, S. Ruan, and W. Xie, “70-W Graphene-Oxide Passively Q-Switched Thulium-Doped Double-Clad Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 13–19 (2017).
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D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear Saturable Absorption of Liquid-Exfoliated Molybdenum/Tungsten Ditelluride Nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
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Zhao, Z.

C. Jia, D. Wu, E. Wu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, Z. Shi, T. Xu, X. Huang, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “self-powered high-performance photodetector based on a MoS2/GaAs heterojunction with high polarization sensitivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(13), 3817–3821 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Zheng, Z.

J. Zhao, Z. Zheng, D. Ouyang, M. Liu, X. Ren, S. Ruan, and W. Xie, “70-W Graphene-Oxide Passively Q-Switched Thulium-Doped Double-Clad Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 13–19 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Xie, M. Su, Z. Zheng, Y. Wang, L. Gong, F. Xie, W. Zhang, Z. Luo, J. Y. Luo, and P. Liu, “Nanoscale insights into the hydrogenation process of layered α-MoO3,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1662–1670 (2016).
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[Crossref]

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J. He, L. Tao, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, and J. Li, “Emerging 2D materials beyond graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 11(6), 2577–2593 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Zhuo, R.

R. Zhuo, Y. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Lou, Z. Shi, T. Xu, J. Xu, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “High-performance self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector based on MoS2/GaN p–n heterojunction,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(2), 299–303 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zou, Z.

ACS Nano (1)

W. Xie, M. Su, Z. Zheng, Y. Wang, L. Gong, F. Xie, W. Zhang, Z. Luo, J. Y. Luo, and P. Liu, “Nanoscale insights into the hydrogenation process of layered α-MoO3,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1662–1670 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

E. Wu, D. Wu, C. Jia, Y. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zeng, T. Xu, Z. Shi, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “In Situ Fabrication of 2D WS2/Si Type-II Heterojunction for Self-Powered Broadband Photodetector with Response up to Mid-Infrared,” ACS Photonics 6(2), 565–572 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Z. Luo, R. Miao, T. D. Huan, I. M. Mosa, A. S. Poyraz, W. Zhong, J. E. Cloud, D. A. Kriz, S. Thanneeru, J. He, Y. Zhang, R. Ramprasad, and S. L. Suib, “Mesoporous MoO3-x Material as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reactions,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(16), 1600528 (2016).
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W. Wang, W. Yue, Z. Liu, T. Shi, J. Du, Y. Leng, R. Wei, Y. Ye, C. Liu, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Optical Response in Plasmonic 2D Molybdenum Oxide Nanosheets for Mode-Locked Pulse Generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(17), 1700948 (2018).
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Chem. Commun. (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

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Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator Passively Q-Switched Double-Clad Fiber Laser at 2 µm Wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).

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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-µm fibre lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4679–4686 (2014). ).
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J. Mater. Chem. C (2)

C. Jia, D. Wu, E. Wu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, Z. Shi, T. Xu, X. Huang, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “self-powered high-performance photodetector based on a MoS2/GaAs heterojunction with high polarization sensitivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(13), 3817–3821 (2019).
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R. Zhuo, Y. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Lou, Z. Shi, T. Xu, J. Xu, Y. Tian, and X. Li, “High-performance self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector based on MoS2/GaN p–n heterojunction,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(2), 299–303 (2018).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) SEM image of MoO3-x (insert figures are powders of MoO3-x (dark blue one) and MoO3 (off-white one), respectively), (b) Raman spectra of MoO3-x and MoO3, (c) XPS spectra of MoO3-x and MoO3, (d) the relative absorption curves of MoO3-x and MoO3. Note that part of the results of MoO3-x samples are taken from previous work for comparison [41].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabrication procedure of MoO3-x-PVA film.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Nonlinear optical absorption properties of MoO3-x-PVA film.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Q-switched pulse trains at different pump power, (a) ∼2.26 W; (b) ∼2.55 W; (c) ∼2.83 W; (d) ∼2.97 W.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Profile of Q-switched pulse at pump power ∼2.97 W; (b) Corresponding output spectrum; (c) Output radio-frequency spectra
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Pulse duration and repetition rate versus pump power; (b) Average output power and pulse energy variation with pump power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of our work with the typical passively Q-switched Tm-doped ring-cavity fiber lasers by other thin-film SAs