Abstract

Gap plasmon-based optical metasurfaces have been extensively used for demonstration of flat optical elements with various functionalities efficiently operating at near-infrared and telecom wavelengths. Extending their operation to the visible is however impeded by the progressively increased plasmon absorption for shorter wavelengths. We investigate the possibility to improve the performance of gap plasmon-based metasurfaces in the visible by employing monocrystalline gold flakes as substrates instead of evaporated polycrystalline gold films, while using the electron-beam lithography patterning of the evaporated thin gold films for fabrication of top gold nanobricks, which define gap-plasmon resonator elements of the metasurfaces. We demonstrate that the efficiency can be improved by modest but noticeable amount of $\approx 5\%$ if all other configuration parameters are preserved.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (7)

S. Boroviks, C. Wolff, J. Linnet, Y. Yang, F. Todisco, A. S. Roberts, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Hecht, and N. A. Mortensen, “Interference in edge-scattering from monocrystalline gold flakes,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3688–3697 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, E. Khaidarov, S. Choi, V. Leong, R. M. Bakker, X. Liang, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. A. Krivitsky, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “A metalens with a near-unity numerical aperture,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 2124–2132 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, R. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Bifunctional gap-plasmon metasurfaces for visible light: polarization-controlled unidirectional surface plasmon excitation and beam steering at normal incidence,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 17178 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: Polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Yang, A. Deshpande Rucha, and I. Bozhevolnyi Sergey, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Krauss, R. Kullock, X. Wu, P. Geisler, N. Lundt, M. Kamp, and B. Hecht, “Controlled growth of high-aspect-ratio single-crystalline gold platelets,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(3), 1297–1302 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional interleaved geometric-phase dielectric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zárate, S. Kruk, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Hsiao, C. H. Chu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fundamentals and applications of metasurfaces,” Small Methods 1(4), 1600064 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-dimensional active tuning of an aluminum plasmonic array for full-spectrum response,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6034–6039 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Choudhury, U. Guler, A. Shaltout, V. M. Shalaev, A. V. Kildishev, and A. Boltasseva, “Pancharatnam–Berry phase manipulating metasurface for visible color hologram based on low loss silver thin film,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700196 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Méjard, A. Verdy, O. Demichel, M. Petit, L. Markey, F. Herbst, R. Chassagnon, G. Colas-des Francs, B. Cluzel, and A. Bouhelier, “Advanced engineering of single-crystal gold nanoantennas,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1157–1168 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Frank, P. Kahl, D. Podbiel, G. Spektor, M. Orenstein, L. Fu, T. Weiss, M. Horn-von Hoegen, T. J. Davis, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, and H. Giessen, “Short-range surface plasmonics: Localized electron emission dynamics from a 60-nm spot on an atomically flat single-crystalline gold surface,” Sci. Adv. 3(7), e1700721 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

B. Hoffmann, M. Y. Bashouti, T. Feichtner, M. Mačković, C. Dieker, A. M. Salaheldin, P. Richter, O. D. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “New insights into colloidal gold flakes: structural investigation, micro-ellipsometry and thinning procedure towards ultrathin monocrystalline layers,” Nanoscale 8(8), 4529–4536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. B. Glybovski, S. A. Tretyakov, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Simovski, “Metasurfaces: From microwaves to visible,” Phys. Rep. 634, 1–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, R. Kullock, E. Krauss, and B. Hecht, “Single-crystalline gold microplates grown on substrates by solution-phase synthesis,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 50(8), 595–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kern, R. Kullock, J. Prangsma, M. Emmerling, M. Kamp, and B. Hecht, “Electrically driven optical antennas,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 582–586 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Wang, H.-Y. Chen, L. Sun, W.-L. Chen, Y.-M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, X.-X. Liu, and A. Alù, “Recent advances on optical metasurfaces,” J. Opt. 16(12), 123001 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Dai, F.-C. Lin, C.-B. Huang, and J.-S. Huang, “Mode conversion in high-definition plasmonic optical nanocircuits,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3881–3886 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient and broadband quarter-wave plates by gap-plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2942–2952 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Schmidt, B. Piglosiewicz, D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, P. Vasa, N. Park, D.-S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing on ultrasmooth single-crystalline gold tapers creates a 10-nm-sized light source with few-cycle time resolution,” ACS Nano 6(7), 6040–6048 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. C. Prangsma, J. Kern, A. G. Knapp, S. Grossmann, M. Emmerling, M. Kamp, and B. Hecht, “Electrically connected resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3915–3919 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Radha and G. U. Kulkarni, “A real time microscopy study of the growth of giant au microplates,” Cryst. Growth Des. 11(1), 320–327 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Cardano, M. Maffei, F. Massa, B. Piccirillo, C. de Lisio, G. De Filippis, V. Cataudella, E. Santamato, and L. Marrucci, “Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry,” Nat. Commun. 1(1), 150 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Controlled plasmon resonance in closed metal/insulator/metal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211126 (2006).
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1994 (1)

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, and R. Whyman, “Synthesis of thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid–liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 0(7), 801–802 (1994).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Agafonov, V. N.

H. Siampour, O. Wang, V. A. Zenin, S. Boroviks, P. Siyushev, Y. Yang, V. A. Davydov, L. F. Kulikova, V. N. Agafonov, A. Kubanek, N. A. Mortensen, F. Jelezko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Unidirectional single-photon emission from germanium-vacancy zero-phonon lines: Deterministic emitter-waveguide interfacing at plasmonic hot spots,” arXiv:1903.05446.

Ahn, H.

C.-Y. Wang, H.-Y. Chen, L. Sun, W.-L. Chen, Y.-M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Albrektsen, O.

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
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A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
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Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, X.-X. Liu, and A. Alù, “Recent advances on optical metasurfaces,” J. Opt. 16(12), 123001 (2014).
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Atwater, H. A.

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Bakker, R. M.

R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, E. Khaidarov, S. Choi, V. Leong, R. M. Bakker, X. Liang, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. A. Krivitsky, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “A metalens with a near-unity numerical aperture,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 2124–2132 (2018).
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Barnes, W. L.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
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Bashouti, M. Y.

B. Hoffmann, M. Y. Bashouti, T. Feichtner, M. Mačković, C. Dieker, A. M. Salaheldin, P. Richter, O. D. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “New insights into colloidal gold flakes: structural investigation, micro-ellipsometry and thinning procedure towards ultrathin monocrystalline layers,” Nanoscale 8(8), 4529–4536 (2016).
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Bauer, A.

Belov, P. A.

S. B. Glybovski, S. A. Tretyakov, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Simovski, “Metasurfaces: From microwaves to visible,” Phys. Rep. 634, 1–72 (2016).
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Bethell, D.

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, and R. Whyman, “Synthesis of thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid–liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 0(7), 801–802 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
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Boltasseva, A.

S. Choudhury, U. Guler, A. Shaltout, V. M. Shalaev, A. V. Kildishev, and A. Boltasseva, “Pancharatnam–Berry phase manipulating metasurface for visible color hologram based on low loss silver thin film,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700196 (2017).
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A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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Boroviks, S.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: Polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
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S. Boroviks, C. Wolff, J. Linnet, Y. Yang, F. Todisco, A. S. Roberts, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Hecht, and N. A. Mortensen, “Interference in edge-scattering from monocrystalline gold flakes,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3688–3697 (2018).
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H. Siampour, O. Wang, V. A. Zenin, S. Boroviks, P. Siyushev, Y. Yang, V. A. Davydov, L. F. Kulikova, V. N. Agafonov, A. Kubanek, N. A. Mortensen, F. Jelezko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Unidirectional single-photon emission from germanium-vacancy zero-phonon lines: Deterministic emitter-waveguide interfacing at plasmonic hot spots,” arXiv:1903.05446.

Bouhelier, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. Boroviks, C. Wolff, J. Linnet, Y. Yang, F. Todisco, A. S. Roberts, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Hecht, and N. A. Mortensen, “Interference in edge-scattering from monocrystalline gold flakes,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3688–3697 (2018).
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F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: Polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, R. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Bifunctional gap-plasmon metasurfaces for visible light: polarization-controlled unidirectional surface plasmon excitation and beam steering at normal incidence,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 17178 (2018).
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A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient and broadband quarter-wave plates by gap-plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2942–2952 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and T. Søndergaard, “General properties of slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: nano-antennas and resonators,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10869–10877 (2007).
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H. Siampour, O. Wang, V. A. Zenin, S. Boroviks, P. Siyushev, Y. Yang, V. A. Davydov, L. F. Kulikova, V. N. Agafonov, A. Kubanek, N. A. Mortensen, F. Jelezko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Unidirectional single-photon emission from germanium-vacancy zero-phonon lines: Deterministic emitter-waveguide interfacing at plasmonic hot spots,” arXiv:1903.05446.

Bozhevolnyi Sergey, I.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, A. Deshpande Rucha, and I. Bozhevolnyi Sergey, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
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Brener, I.

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
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Brongersma, M. L

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional interleaved geometric-phase dielectric metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).
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Brongersma, M. L.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brust, M.

M. Brust, M. Walker, D. Bethell, D. J. Schiffrin, and R. Whyman, “Synthesis of thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase liquid–liquid system,” J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 0(7), 801–802 (1994).
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Camacho-Morales, R.

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zárate, S. Kruk, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
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Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cardano, F.

F. Cardano, M. Maffei, F. Massa, B. Piccirillo, C. de Lisio, G. De Filippis, V. Cataudella, E. Santamato, and L. Marrucci, “Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry,” Nat. Commun. 1(1), 150 (2010).
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Casses, L.

K. J. Kaltenecker, E. Krauss, L. Casses, M. Geisler, B. Hecht, N. A. Mortensen, P. U. Jepsen, and N. Stenger, “Mono-crystalline gold platelets: A high quality platform for surface plasmon polaritons,” arXiv:1909.08321.

Cataudella, V.

F. Cardano, M. Maffei, F. Massa, B. Piccirillo, C. de Lisio, G. De Filippis, V. Cataudella, E. Santamato, and L. Marrucci, “Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry,” Nat. Commun. 1(1), 150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-M.

C.-Y. Wang, H.-Y. Chen, L. Sun, W.-L. Chen, Y.-M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chassagnon, R.

Chen, H.

M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zárate, S. Kruk, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible thermal tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(31), 1700580 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Y.

C.-Y. Wang, H.-Y. Chen, L. Sun, W.-L. Chen, Y.-M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-L.

C.-Y. Wang, H.-Y. Chen, L. Sun, W.-L. Chen, Y.-M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

Choi, S.

R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, E. Khaidarov, S. Choi, V. Leong, R. M. Bakker, X. Liang, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. A. Krivitsky, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “A metalens with a near-unity numerical aperture,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 2124–2132 (2018).
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Chong, P. H. J.

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, S.

S. Choudhury, U. Guler, A. Shaltout, V. M. Shalaev, A. V. Kildishev, and A. Boltasseva, “Pancharatnam–Berry phase manipulating metasurface for visible color hologram based on low loss silver thin film,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700196 (2017).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, S.

B. Hoffmann, M. Y. Bashouti, T. Feichtner, M. Mačković, C. Dieker, A. M. Salaheldin, P. Richter, O. D. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “New insights into colloidal gold flakes: structural investigation, micro-ellipsometry and thinning procedure towards ultrathin monocrystalline layers,” Nanoscale 8(8), 4529–4536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. H.

H.-H. Hsiao, C. H. Chu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fundamentals and applications of metasurfaces,” Small Methods 1(4), 1600064 (2017).
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Cluzel, B.

Colas-des Francs, G.

Dai, W.-H.

W.-H. Dai, F.-C. Lin, C.-B. Huang, and J.-S. Huang, “Mode conversion in high-definition plasmonic optical nanocircuits,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3881–3886 (2014).
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Davis, T. J.

B. Frank, P. Kahl, D. Podbiel, G. Spektor, M. Orenstein, L. Fu, T. Weiss, M. Horn-von Hoegen, T. J. Davis, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, and H. Giessen, “Short-range surface plasmonics: Localized electron emission dynamics from a 60-nm spot on an atomically flat single-crystalline gold surface,” Sci. Adv. 3(7), e1700721 (2017).
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Davydov, V. A.

H. Siampour, O. Wang, V. A. Zenin, S. Boroviks, P. Siyushev, Y. Yang, V. A. Davydov, L. F. Kulikova, V. N. Agafonov, A. Kubanek, N. A. Mortensen, F. Jelezko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Unidirectional single-photon emission from germanium-vacancy zero-phonon lines: Deterministic emitter-waveguide interfacing at plasmonic hot spots,” arXiv:1903.05446.

De Filippis, G.

F. Cardano, M. Maffei, F. Massa, B. Piccirillo, C. de Lisio, G. De Filippis, V. Cataudella, E. Santamato, and L. Marrucci, “Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry,” Nat. Commun. 1(1), 150 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Leon, N. P.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
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de Lisio, C.

F. Cardano, M. Maffei, F. Massa, B. Piccirillo, C. de Lisio, G. De Filippis, V. Cataudella, E. Santamato, and L. Marrucci, “Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry,” Nat. Commun. 1(1), 150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref]

Demichel, O.

Deshpande, R.

F. Ding, R. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Bifunctional gap-plasmon metasurfaces for visible light: polarization-controlled unidirectional surface plasmon excitation and beam steering at normal incidence,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 17178 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, R. A.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: Polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deshpande Rucha, A.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, A. Deshpande Rucha, and I. Bozhevolnyi Sergey, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R. C.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dibos, A.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dieker, C.

B. Hoffmann, M. Y. Bashouti, T. Feichtner, M. Mačković, C. Dieker, A. M. Salaheldin, P. Richter, O. D. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “New insights into colloidal gold flakes: structural investigation, micro-ellipsometry and thinning procedure towards ultrathin monocrystalline layers,” Nanoscale 8(8), 4529–4536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, F.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, A. Deshpande Rucha, and I. Bozhevolnyi Sergey, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, R. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Bifunctional gap-plasmon metasurfaces for visible light: polarization-controlled unidirectional surface plasmon excitation and beam steering at normal incidence,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(4), 17178 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

Emmerling, M.

J. Kern, R. Kullock, J. Prangsma, M. Emmerling, M. Kamp, and B. Hecht, “Electrically driven optical antennas,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 582–586 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Prangsma, J. Kern, A. G. Knapp, S. Grossmann, M. Emmerling, M. Kamp, and B. Hecht, “Electrically connected resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3915–3919 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eriksen, R. L.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feichtner, T.

B. Hoffmann, M. Y. Bashouti, T. Feichtner, M. Mačković, C. Dieker, A. M. Salaheldin, P. Richter, O. D. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “New insights into colloidal gold flakes: structural investigation, micro-ellipsometry and thinning procedure towards ultrathin monocrystalline layers,” Nanoscale 8(8), 4529–4536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Frank, B.

B. Frank, P. Kahl, D. Podbiel, G. Spektor, M. Orenstein, L. Fu, T. Weiss, M. Horn-von Hoegen, T. J. Davis, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, and H. Giessen, “Short-range surface plasmonics: Localized electron emission dynamics from a 60-nm spot on an atomically flat single-crystalline gold surface,” Sci. Adv. 3(7), e1700721 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

B. Frank, P. Kahl, D. Podbiel, G. Spektor, M. Orenstein, L. Fu, T. Weiss, M. Horn-von Hoegen, T. J. Davis, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, and H. Giessen, “Short-range surface plasmonics: Localized electron emission dynamics from a 60-nm spot on an atomically flat single-crystalline gold surface,” Sci. Adv. 3(7), e1700721 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. H.

R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. F. Yu, E. Khaidarov, S. Choi, V. Leong, R. M. Bakker, X. Liang, Y. H. Fu, V. Valuckas, L. A. Krivitsky, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “A metalens with a near-unity numerical aperture,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 2124–2132 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fumeaux, C.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10(1), 133–141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geisler, M.

K. J. Kaltenecker, E. Krauss, L. Casses, M. Geisler, B. Hecht, N. A. Mortensen, P. U. Jepsen, and N. Stenger, “Mono-crystalline gold platelets: A high quality platform for surface plasmon polaritons,” arXiv:1909.08321.

Geisler, P.

E. Krauss, R. Kullock, X. Wu, P. Geisler, N. Lundt, M. Kamp, and B. Hecht, “Controlled growth of high-aspect-ratio single-crystalline gold platelets,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(3), 1297–1302 (2018).
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Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Gholipour, B.

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
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Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
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Giessen, H.

B. Frank, P. Kahl, D. Podbiel, G. Spektor, M. Orenstein, L. Fu, T. Weiss, M. Horn-von Hoegen, T. J. Davis, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, and H. Giessen, “Short-range surface plasmonics: Localized electron emission dynamics from a 60-nm spot on an atomically flat single-crystalline gold surface,” Sci. Adv. 3(7), e1700721 (2017).
[Crossref]

Glybovski, S. B.

S. B. Glybovski, S. A. Tretyakov, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Simovski, “Metasurfaces: From microwaves to visible,” Phys. Rep. 634, 1–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gordan, O. D.

B. Hoffmann, M. Y. Bashouti, T. Feichtner, M. Mačković, C. Dieker, A. M. Salaheldin, P. Richter, O. D. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “New insights into colloidal gold flakes: structural investigation, micro-ellipsometry and thinning procedure towards ultrathin monocrystalline layers,” Nanoscale 8(8), 4529–4536 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grossmann, S.

J. C. Prangsma, J. Kern, A. G. Knapp, S. Grossmann, M. Emmerling, M. Kamp, and B. Hecht, “Electrically connected resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3915–3919 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Beam-steering GSP metasurface on a monocrystalline gold flake: artistic view.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Design and fabrication of the beam steering gradient GSP metasurface: (a) metasurface unit cell; (b) reflection phase and amplitude of the elements of the supercell; (c) dimensions of the supercell elements; (d) Scanning-electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated metasurface supercell.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Efficiency characterization of the metasurface: comparison of numerical simulations (dashed lines) and experiment (solid lines).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SPP propagation length measurement at $\lambda _0=633$ nm: measured data points and exponential fit. Inset: DF optical image of the gratings fabricated on the gold flake for $L_\textrm {SPP}$ measurement.

Equations (2)

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Δ ϕ r = 2 π λ 0 sin θ r = 2 π Λ s
θ r = sin 1 Δ ϕ r λ 0 2 π = sin 1 λ 0 Λ s = sin 1 λ 0 Λ n el .

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