Abstract

Synthesis and characterization of gallium nitride (GaN) thin films via microwave plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (MPALD) is reported in this research. The GaN thin films grown by this technique were amorphous or nanocrystalline as it was demonstrated by electron microscopy. The optical response of these GaN thin films showed a broad peak between 400 nm and 750 nm wavelengths due mostly to carbon and oxygen impurities as has been demonstrated by XPS. That emission from these GaN thin films is located at the border of white and yellow-green emission according to CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram with coordinates, x = 0.3491 and y = 0.4312.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Ozgit, I. Donmez, M. Alevli, and N. Biyikli, “Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 30(1), 01A124 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. B. Profijt, S. E. Potts, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and Challenges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 29(5), 050801 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Gungor and M. Alevli, “Visible/infrared refractive index and phonon properties of GaN films grown on sapphire by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 37(5), 050901 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Alevli and N. Gungor, “Influence of N2/H2 and N2 plasma on binary III-nitride films prepared by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 36(1), 01A110 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. K. Sprenger, A. S. Cavanagh, H. Sun, K. J. Wahl, A. Roshko, and M. S. George, “Electron Enhanced Growth of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Thin Films at Room Temperature and 100 °C Using Sequential Surface Reactions” Chem,” Chem. Mater. 28(15), 5282–5294 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Motamedi, N. Dalilib, and K. Cadien, “A route to low temperature growth of single crystal GaN on sapphire,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(28), 7428–7436 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. R. Kuykendall, A. M. Schwartzberg, and S. Aloni, “Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources,” Adv. Mater. 27(38), 5805–5812 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Cabrera-German, G. Molar-Velázquez, G. Gómez-Sosa, W. de la Cruz, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Detailed peak fitting analysis of the Zn 2 p photoemission spectrum for metallic films and its initial oxidation stages,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(11), 1078–1087 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Bravo Sanchez, J. A. Huerta-Ruelas, D. Cabrera-German, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Composition assessment of ferric oxide by accurate peak fitting of the Fe 2 p photoemission spectrum,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(4), 253–260 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl. 17(2), 142–144 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Lou and J. Hao, “Cathodoluminescence of rare-earth-doped zinc aluminate films,” Thin Solid Films 450(2), 334–340 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Herrera-Gomez, M. Bravo-Sanchez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, and M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, “Practical methods for background subtraction in photoemission spectra,” Surf. Interface Anal. 46(10-11), 897–905 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Kumar, S. Kumar, N. Chauhan, D. S. Kumar, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Study of GaN nanowires converted from β -Ga 2 O 3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(8), 085012 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. B. Thapa, S. Christiansen, and R. Singh, “XPS study of triangular GaN nano/micro-needles grown by MOCVD technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 186, 89–93 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. S. Kushvaha, M. S. Kumar, M. Maheshwari, A. K. Shukla, P. Pal, and K. K. Maurya, “Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial GaN layer grown on sapphire (0001) using laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Res. Express 1(3), 035903 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Romo-Garcia, H. J. Higuera-Valenzuela, D. Cabrera-German, D. Berman-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Carrazco, H. Tiznado, G. A. Hirata, O. E. Contreras, and R. Garcia-Gutierrez, “Optoelectronic attenuation behavior of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 669, 419–424 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

N. Gungor and M. Alevli, “Visible/infrared refractive index and phonon properties of GaN films grown on sapphire by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 37(5), 050901 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Romo-Garcia, H. J. Higuera-Valenzuela, D. Cabrera-German, D. Berman-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Carrazco, H. Tiznado, G. A. Hirata, O. E. Contreras, and R. Garcia-Gutierrez, “Optoelectronic attenuation behavior of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 669, 419–424 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. Alevli and N. Gungor, “Influence of N2/H2 and N2 plasma on binary III-nitride films prepared by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 36(1), 01A110 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Cabrera-German, G. Molar-Velázquez, G. Gómez-Sosa, W. de la Cruz, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Detailed peak fitting analysis of the Zn 2 p photoemission spectrum for metallic films and its initial oxidation stages,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(11), 1078–1087 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bravo Sanchez, J. A. Huerta-Ruelas, D. Cabrera-German, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Composition assessment of ferric oxide by accurate peak fitting of the Fe 2 p photoemission spectrum,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(4), 253–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kumar, S. Kumar, N. Chauhan, D. S. Kumar, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Study of GaN nanowires converted from β -Ga 2 O 3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(8), 085012 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. K. Sprenger, A. S. Cavanagh, H. Sun, K. J. Wahl, A. Roshko, and M. S. George, “Electron Enhanced Growth of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Thin Films at Room Temperature and 100 °C Using Sequential Surface Reactions” Chem,” Chem. Mater. 28(15), 5282–5294 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

P. Motamedi, N. Dalilib, and K. Cadien, “A route to low temperature growth of single crystal GaN on sapphire,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(28), 7428–7436 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. R. Kuykendall, A. M. Schwartzberg, and S. Aloni, “Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources,” Adv. Mater. 27(38), 5805–5812 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. B. Thapa, S. Christiansen, and R. Singh, “XPS study of triangular GaN nano/micro-needles grown by MOCVD technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 186, 89–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kushvaha, M. S. Kumar, M. Maheshwari, A. K. Shukla, P. Pal, and K. K. Maurya, “Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial GaN layer grown on sapphire (0001) using laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Res. Express 1(3), 035903 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Herrera-Gomez, M. Bravo-Sanchez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, and M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, “Practical methods for background subtraction in photoemission spectra,” Surf. Interface Anal. 46(10-11), 897–905 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Ozgit, I. Donmez, M. Alevli, and N. Biyikli, “Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 30(1), 01A124 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. B. Profijt, S. E. Potts, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and Challenges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 29(5), 050801 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Z. Lou and J. Hao, “Cathodoluminescence of rare-earth-doped zinc aluminate films,” Thin Solid Films 450(2), 334–340 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl. 17(2), 142–144 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aguirre-Tostado, F. S.

A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alevli, M.

N. Gungor and M. Alevli, “Visible/infrared refractive index and phonon properties of GaN films grown on sapphire by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 37(5), 050901 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Alevli and N. Gungor, “Influence of N2/H2 and N2 plasma on binary III-nitride films prepared by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 36(1), 01A110 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Ozgit, I. Donmez, M. Alevli, and N. Biyikli, “Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 30(1), 01A124 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aloni, S.

T. R. Kuykendall, A. M. Schwartzberg, and S. Aloni, “Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources,” Adv. Mater. 27(38), 5805–5812 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baranowski, I.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berman-Mendoza, D.

F. Romo-Garcia, H. J. Higuera-Valenzuela, D. Cabrera-German, D. Berman-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Carrazco, H. Tiznado, G. A. Hirata, O. E. Contreras, and R. Garcia-Gutierrez, “Optoelectronic attenuation behavior of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 669, 419–424 (2019).
[Crossref]

Biyikli, N.

C. Ozgit, I. Donmez, M. Alevli, and N. Biyikli, “Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 30(1), 01A124 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bravo Sanchez, M.

M. Bravo Sanchez, J. A. Huerta-Ruelas, D. Cabrera-German, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Composition assessment of ferric oxide by accurate peak fitting of the Fe 2 p photoemission spectrum,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(4), 253–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bravo-Sanchez, M.

A. Herrera-Gomez, M. Bravo-Sanchez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, and M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, “Practical methods for background subtraction in photoemission spectra,” Surf. Interface Anal. 46(10-11), 897–905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cabrera-German, D.

F. Romo-Garcia, H. J. Higuera-Valenzuela, D. Cabrera-German, D. Berman-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Carrazco, H. Tiznado, G. A. Hirata, O. E. Contreras, and R. Garcia-Gutierrez, “Optoelectronic attenuation behavior of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 669, 419–424 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Cabrera-German, G. Molar-Velázquez, G. Gómez-Sosa, W. de la Cruz, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Detailed peak fitting analysis of the Zn 2 p photoemission spectrum for metallic films and its initial oxidation stages,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(11), 1078–1087 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bravo Sanchez, J. A. Huerta-Ruelas, D. Cabrera-German, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Composition assessment of ferric oxide by accurate peak fitting of the Fe 2 p photoemission spectrum,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(4), 253–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cadien, K.

P. Motamedi, N. Dalilib, and K. Cadien, “A route to low temperature growth of single crystal GaN on sapphire,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(28), 7428–7436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cavanagh, A. S.

J. K. Sprenger, A. S. Cavanagh, H. Sun, K. J. Wahl, A. Roshko, and M. S. George, “Electron Enhanced Growth of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Thin Films at Room Temperature and 100 °C Using Sequential Surface Reactions” Chem,” Chem. Mater. 28(15), 5282–5294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ceballos-Sanchez, O.

A. Herrera-Gomez, M. Bravo-Sanchez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, and M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, “Practical methods for background subtraction in photoemission spectra,” Surf. Interface Anal. 46(10-11), 897–905 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chauhan, N.

M. Kumar, S. Kumar, N. Chauhan, D. S. Kumar, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Study of GaN nanowires converted from β -Ga 2 O 3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(8), 085012 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, S.

M. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. B. Thapa, S. Christiansen, and R. Singh, “XPS study of triangular GaN nano/micro-needles grown by MOCVD technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 186, 89–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Conti, G.

A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
[Crossref]

Contreras, O. E.

F. Romo-Garcia, H. J. Higuera-Valenzuela, D. Cabrera-German, D. Berman-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Carrazco, H. Tiznado, G. A. Hirata, O. E. Contreras, and R. Garcia-Gutierrez, “Optoelectronic attenuation behavior of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 669, 419–424 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dalilib, N.

P. Motamedi, N. Dalilib, and K. Cadien, “A route to low temperature growth of single crystal GaN on sapphire,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(28), 7428–7436 (2015).
[Crossref]

de la Cruz, W.

D. Cabrera-German, G. Molar-Velázquez, G. Gómez-Sosa, W. de la Cruz, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Detailed peak fitting analysis of the Zn 2 p photoemission spectrum for metallic films and its initial oxidation stages,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(11), 1078–1087 (2017).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Donmez, I.

C. Ozgit, I. Donmez, M. Alevli, and N. Biyikli, “Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 30(1), 01A124 (2012).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, H.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Gutierrez, R.

F. Romo-Garcia, H. J. Higuera-Valenzuela, D. Cabrera-German, D. Berman-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Carrazco, H. Tiznado, G. A. Hirata, O. E. Contreras, and R. Garcia-Gutierrez, “Optoelectronic attenuation behavior of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 669, 419–424 (2019).
[Crossref]

George, M. S.

J. K. Sprenger, A. S. Cavanagh, H. Sun, K. J. Wahl, A. Roshko, and M. S. George, “Electron Enhanced Growth of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Thin Films at Room Temperature and 100 °C Using Sequential Surface Reactions” Chem,” Chem. Mater. 28(15), 5282–5294 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gómez-Sosa, G.

D. Cabrera-German, G. Molar-Velázquez, G. Gómez-Sosa, W. de la Cruz, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Detailed peak fitting analysis of the Zn 2 p photoemission spectrum for metallic films and its initial oxidation stages,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(11), 1078–1087 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gungor, N.

N. Gungor and M. Alevli, “Visible/infrared refractive index and phonon properties of GaN films grown on sapphire by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 37(5), 050901 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Alevli and N. Gungor, “Influence of N2/H2 and N2 plasma on binary III-nitride films prepared by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 36(1), 01A110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gunning, B. P.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

Z. Lou and J. Hao, “Cathodoluminescence of rare-earth-doped zinc aluminate films,” Thin Solid Films 450(2), 334–340 (2004).
[Crossref]

Herrera-Gomez, A.

M. Bravo Sanchez, J. A. Huerta-Ruelas, D. Cabrera-German, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Composition assessment of ferric oxide by accurate peak fitting of the Fe 2 p photoemission spectrum,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(4), 253–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Cabrera-German, G. Molar-Velázquez, G. Gómez-Sosa, W. de la Cruz, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Detailed peak fitting analysis of the Zn 2 p photoemission spectrum for metallic films and its initial oxidation stages,” Surf. Interface Anal. 49(11), 1078–1087 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Herrera-Gomez, M. Bravo-Sanchez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, and M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, “Practical methods for background subtraction in photoemission spectra,” Surf. Interface Anal. 46(10-11), 897–905 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
[Crossref]

Higuera-Valenzuela, H. J.

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M. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. B. Thapa, S. Christiansen, and R. Singh, “XPS study of triangular GaN nano/micro-needles grown by MOCVD technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 186, 89–93 (2014).
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Kumar, M. S.

S. S. Kushvaha, M. S. Kumar, M. Maheshwari, A. K. Shukla, P. Pal, and K. K. Maurya, “Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial GaN layer grown on sapphire (0001) using laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Res. Express 1(3), 035903 (2014).
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M. Kumar, S. Kumar, N. Chauhan, D. S. Kumar, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Study of GaN nanowires converted from β -Ga 2 O 3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(8), 085012 (2017).
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M. Kumar, S. Kumar, N. Chauhan, D. S. Kumar, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Study of GaN nanowires converted from β -Ga 2 O 3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(8), 085012 (2017).
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T. R. Kuykendall, A. M. Schwartzberg, and S. Aloni, “Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources,” Adv. Mater. 27(38), 5805–5812 (2015).
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S. S. Kushvaha, M. S. Kumar, M. Maheshwari, A. K. Shukla, P. Pal, and K. K. Maurya, “Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial GaN layer grown on sapphire (0001) using laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Res. Express 1(3), 035903 (2014).
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S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
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H. B. Profijt, S. E. Potts, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and Challenges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 29(5), 050801 (2011).
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H. B. Profijt, S. E. Potts, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and Challenges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 29(5), 050801 (2011).
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M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
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T. R. Kuykendall, A. M. Schwartzberg, and S. Aloni, “Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources,” Adv. Mater. 27(38), 5805–5812 (2015).
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C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
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C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
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S. S. Kushvaha, M. S. Kumar, M. Maheshwari, A. K. Shukla, P. Pal, and K. K. Maurya, “Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial GaN layer grown on sapphire (0001) using laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Mater. Res. Express 1(3), 035903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

M. Kumar, S. Kumar, N. Chauhan, D. S. Kumar, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Study of GaN nanowires converted from β -Ga 2 O 3 and photoconduction in a single nanowire,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(8), 085012 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. B. Thapa, S. Christiansen, and R. Singh, “XPS study of triangular GaN nano/micro-needles grown by MOCVD technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 186, 89–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. K. Sprenger, A. S. Cavanagh, H. Sun, K. J. Wahl, A. Roshko, and M. S. George, “Electron Enhanced Growth of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Thin Films at Room Temperature and 100 °C Using Sequential Surface Reactions” Chem,” Chem. Mater. 28(15), 5282–5294 (2016).
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C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
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C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
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Sun, H.

J. K. Sprenger, A. S. Cavanagh, H. Sun, K. J. Wahl, A. Roshko, and M. S. George, “Electron Enhanced Growth of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Thin Films at Room Temperature and 100 °C Using Sequential Surface Reactions” Chem,” Chem. Mater. 28(15), 5282–5294 (2016).
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S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. B. Thapa, S. Christiansen, and R. Singh, “XPS study of triangular GaN nano/micro-needles grown by MOCVD technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 186, 89–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

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F. Romo-Garcia, H. J. Higuera-Valenzuela, D. Cabrera-German, D. Berman-Mendoza, A. Ramos-Carrazco, H. Tiznado, G. A. Hirata, O. E. Contreras, and R. Garcia-Gutierrez, “Optoelectronic attenuation behavior of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates grown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 669, 419–424 (2019).
[Crossref]

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A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
[Crossref]

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H. B. Profijt, S. E. Potts, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and Challenges,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 29(5), 050801 (2011).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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J. K. Sprenger, A. S. Cavanagh, H. Sun, K. J. Wahl, A. Roshko, and M. S. George, “Electron Enhanced Growth of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Thin Films at Room Temperature and 100 °C Using Sequential Surface Reactions” Chem,” Chem. Mater. 28(15), 5282–5294 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
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[Crossref]

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C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
[Crossref]

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X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

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S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
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Zhao, Y.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T.-H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
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S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
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Zhu, D.-X.

C.-Y. Sun, X.-L. Wang, X. Zhang, C. Qin, P. Li, Z.-M. Su, D.-X. Zhu, G.-G. Shan, K.-Z. Shao, H. Wu, and J. Li, “Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal–organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2717 (2013).
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Acta Mater. (1)

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

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A. Herrera-Gomez, F. S. Aguirre-Tostado, P. G. Mani-Gonzalez, M. O. Vazquez-Lepe, A. Sanchez-Martinez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, R. M. Wallace, G. Conti, and Y. Uritsky, “Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(8-10), 487–500 (2011).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A (4)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the homemade MPALD system used to synthesize GaN thin films.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dosing time saturation of the TMG used in the deposition cycles in the GaN growth.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (A) CL spectra of GaN and (B) CIE1931chromaticity diagram.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. X-ray Photoemission spectra of the GaN thin films.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. HRTEM images (A) interfaces GaN and substrate, (B) two crystallographic planes (002) and (101) characteristic of the wurtzite structure for GaN.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Atomic percent of the GaN film as determined by an approach that considers that scattering attenuates photoemission signal of each core level [10]. It is noteworthy, that only these signals are considered to pertain the GaN film, which is evaluated as a bulk film possessing a carbon overlayer of approximately 18 Å.

Equations (3)

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% C i e = [ A t / A i e ] ( 100 % )
C C T = 449 n 3 + 3525 n 2 + 6823.8 n + 5520.33
C P = ( x x i ) 2 + ( y y i ) 2 ( x d x i ) 2 + ( y d y i ) 2 ( 100 % )