Abstract

The optical emission of four InGaN/InGaN light-emitting diode samples with double-quantum wells (DQW) with varying indium content in quantum barrier (QB) layers are investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction, temperature-dependent photoluminescence excited by a 325-nm He-Cd laser and a 405-nm semiconductor laser, photoluminescence microscopy, and by atomic force microscope. We demonstrate that the introduction of a small amount of indium in quantum barriers can improve the uniformity and change the luminescence properties of quantum wells. It is found that the InxGa1-xN DQW has the best uniformity when the indium content x in QB layers is 0.15%.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
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  2. A. David, N. G. Young, C. A. Hurni, and M. D. Craven, “Quantum Efficiency of III-Nitride Emitters: Evidence for Defect-Assisted Nonradiative Recombination and its Effect on the Green Gap,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(3), 031001 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. D. Moustakas and R. Paella, “Optoelectronic device physics and technology of nitride semiconductors from the UV to the terahertz,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(10), 106501 (2017).
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  4. L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN∕GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Nakamura, “The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Y. Xiong, S. W. Zheng, and G. H. Fan, “Performance Enhancement of Blue InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers and Dip-Shaped Last Barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3925–3929 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Y. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. M. Chen, Y. T. Kuo, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improved Quantum Efficiency in Green InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(1), 55–58 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. Q. Li, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, and S. Y. Tong, “A model for steady-state luminescence of localized-state ensemble,” Europhys. Lett. 71(6), 994–1000 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. G. Zolina, V. E. Kudryashov, A. N. Turkin, A. E. Yunovich, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence Spectra Of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, e11 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2019 (4)

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. David, N. G. Young, C. A. Hurni, and M. D. Craven, “Quantum Efficiency of III-Nitride Emitters: Evidence for Defect-Assisted Nonradiative Recombination and its Effect on the Green Gap,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(3), 031001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. D. Moustakas and R. Paella, “Optoelectronic device physics and technology of nitride semiconductors from the UV to the terahertz,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(10), 106501 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Y. Xiong, S. W. Zheng, and G. H. Fan, “Performance Enhancement of Blue InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers and Dip-Shaped Last Barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3925–3929 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. M. Chen, Y. T. Kuo, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improved Quantum Efficiency in Green InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(1), 55–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN∕GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, and S. Y. Tong, “A model for steady-state luminescence of localized-state ensemble,” Europhys. Lett. 71(6), 994–1000 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. Nakamura, “The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. G. Zolina, V. E. Kudryashov, A. N. Turkin, A. E. Yunovich, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence Spectra Of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, e11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Barnard, J. S.

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. Y.

J. Y. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. M. Chen, Y. T. Kuo, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improved Quantum Efficiency in Green InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(1), 55–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. A.

J. Y. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. M. Chen, Y. T. Kuo, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improved Quantum Efficiency in Green InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(1), 55–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Che, C. M.

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. M.

J. Y. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. M. Chen, Y. T. Kuo, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improved Quantum Efficiency in Green InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(1), 55–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W. C.

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y. H.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

A. David, N. G. Young, C. A. Hurni, and M. D. Craven, “Quantum Efficiency of III-Nitride Emitters: Evidence for Defect-Assisted Nonradiative Recombination and its Effect on the Green Gap,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(3), 031001 (2019).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David, N. G. Young, C. A. Hurni, and M. D. Craven, “Quantum Efficiency of III-Nitride Emitters: Evidence for Defect-Assisted Nonradiative Recombination and its Effect on the Green Gap,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(3), 031001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dawson, P.

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Duan, L. H.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fan, G. H.

J. Y. Xiong, S. W. Zheng, and G. H. Fan, “Performance Enhancement of Blue InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers and Dip-Shaped Last Barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3925–3929 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gainer, G. H.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Godfrey, M. J.

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Graham, D. M.

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. J.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hirao, T.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, C. J.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN∕GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

A. David, N. G. Young, C. A. Hurni, and M. D. Craven, “Quantum Efficiency of III-Nitride Emitters: Evidence for Defect-Assisted Nonradiative Recombination and its Effect on the Green Gap,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(3), 031001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, M.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D. S.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L. R.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kappers, M. J.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN∕GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kasahara, D.

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kozuru, K.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

Kudryashov, V. E.

K. G. Zolina, V. E. Kudryashov, A. N. Turkin, A. E. Yunovich, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence Spectra Of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, e11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y. K.

J. Y. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. M. Chen, Y. T. Kuo, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improved Quantum Efficiency in Green InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(1), 55–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y. T.

J. Y. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. M. Chen, Y. T. Kuo, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improved Quantum Efficiency in Green InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(1), 55–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[Crossref]

Li, D. S.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, D. Y.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, and S. Y. Tong, “A model for steady-state luminescence of localized-state ensemble,” Europhys. Lett. 71(6), 994–1000 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. C.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, F.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. S.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Masui, S.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moustakas, T. D.

T. D. Moustakas and R. Paella, “Optoelectronic device physics and technology of nitride semiconductors from the UV to the terahertz,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(10), 106501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).
[Crossref]

Nagao, Y.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. G. Zolina, V. E. Kudryashov, A. N. Turkin, A. E. Yunovich, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence Spectra Of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, e11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakatsu, Y.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

Okahisa, E.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

Oliver, R. A.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN∕GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

Osinski, M.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[Crossref]

Paella, R.

T. D. Moustakas and R. Paella, “Optoelectronic device physics and technology of nitride semiconductors from the UV to the terahertz,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(10), 106501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Perlin, P.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osinski, “Blue temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569–571 (1997).
[Crossref]

Seong, T. Y.

M. Kneissl, T. Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sexton, T. M.

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. S.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Soltani-Vala, A.

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Song, J. J.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thrush, E. J.

D. M. Graham, A. Soltani-Vala, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. M. Sexton, J. S. Barnard, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and E. J. Thrush, “Optical and misconstruction studies of InGaN∕GaN single-quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tian, A. Q.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tong, S. Y.

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, and S. Y. Tong, “A model for steady-state luminescence of localized-state ensemble,” Europhys. Lett. 71(6), 994–1000 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M. C.

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Turkin, A. N.

K. G. Zolina, V. E. Kudryashov, A. N. Turkin, A. E. Yunovich, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence Spectra Of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, e11 (1996).
[Crossref]

van der Laak, N. K.

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN∕GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, M. H.

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, and S. Y. Tong, “A model for steady-state luminescence of localized-state ensemble,” Europhys. Lett. 71(6), 994–1000 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J. Y.

J. Y. Xiong, S. W. Zheng, and G. H. Fan, “Performance Enhancement of Blue InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers and Dip-Shaped Last Barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3925–3929 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. J.

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, and S. Y. Tong, “A model for steady-state luminescence of localized-state ensemble,” Europhys. Lett. 71(6), 994–1000 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z. B.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yanamoto, T.

Y. Nakatsu, Y. Nagao, K. Kozuru, T. Hirao, E. Okahisa, S. Masui, T. Yanamoto, and S. Nagahama, “High-efficiency blue and green laser diodes for laser displays,” Proc. SPIE 10918, 109181D (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, S. J. Xu, W. C. Cheng, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Tong, C. M. Che, and H. Yang, “Thermal redistribution of localized excitons and its effect on the luminescence band in InGaN ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(12), 1810–1812 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, Hui

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yen, S. H.

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Young, N. G.

A. David, N. G. Young, C. A. Hurni, and M. D. Craven, “Quantum Efficiency of III-Nitride Emitters: Evidence for Defect-Assisted Nonradiative Recombination and its Effect on the Green Gap,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(3), 031001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. B.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yunovich, A. E.

K. G. Zolina, V. E. Kudryashov, A. N. Turkin, A. E. Yunovich, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence Spectra Of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, e11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. Q.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Liqun

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. M.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. G.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S. W.

J. Y. Xiong, S. W. Zheng, and G. H. Fan, “Performance Enhancement of Blue InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes With InGaN Barriers and Dip-Shaped Last Barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3925–3929 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X. H.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J. M.

X. H. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. B. Yan, H. B. Yu, D. S. Li, Y. J. Han, Q. Huang, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of TMIn flow rate of barrier layer on the optical and structural properties of InxGa1-xN/InyGa1-yN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 326–332 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. J.

F. Liang, J. Yang, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with a lifetime longer than 1000 h,” J. Semicond. 40(2), 022801 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. S. Liu, P. Chen, J. J. Zhu, D. S. Jiang, Y. S. Shi, H. Wang, L. H. Duan, Liqun Zhang, and Hui Yang, “Fabrication of room temperature continuous-wave operation GaN-based ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 38(5), 051001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zolina, K. G.

K. G. Zolina, V. E. Kudryashov, A. N. Turkin, A. E. Yunovich, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence Spectra Of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 1, e11 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode emitting at 420 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 981–983 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. K. van der Laak, R. A. Oliver, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Role of gross well-width fluctuations in bright, green-emitting single InGaN∕GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121911 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic structure of four LED samples with DQW.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. HRXRD Omega-2theta curves on GaN (0002) plane for samples A-D. The dark and red lines are the measurement data and fitting data, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. TDPL spectra of samples A (a), B (b), C (c) and D (d) at a temperature range of 30-300 K excited by 325-nm He-Cd laser.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. PL emission peak energy as a function of temperature for samples A (a), B (b), C (c) and D (d) excited by 325-nm He-Cd laser. The solid blue lines are theoretical fitting curves using LSE model and the circle dots are the experimental data.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PL emission peak energy as a function of temperature for samples A (a), B (b), C (c) and D (d) excited by 405-nm semiconductor laser with 40-mW incident optical power. The solid blue lines are theoretical fitting curves using LSE model, and the squares are the experimental data.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PL emission peak energy as a function of temperature for samples B (a) and C (b) excited by 405-nm semiconductor laser with 1-mW incident optical power. The solid blue lines are theoretical fitting curves using LSE model, and the squares are the experimental data.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Photoluminescence microscopy images of samples A-D, the bigger and smaller dark region are marked in white and red circle, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Atomic force microscopy images of first quantum barrier (FQB) in four samples A-D.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Distribution of depth of v-pits for the first quantum barrier in four samples A-D.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Structural parameter of InGaN/InGaN DQW of samples A-D determined by HRXRD measurements.

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Table 2. Fitting parameters of PL peak energy in the LSE model for samples A-D excited by 325-nm He-Cd laser.

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Table 3. Fitting parameters in the LSE model for samples A-D excited by 405-nm semiconductor laser with 40-mW incident optical power.

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Table 4. Fitting parameters of PL peak energy in the LSE model for samples B and C excited by 405-nm semiconductor laser with 1-mW incident optical power.

Equations (1)

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{ E ( T ) = E 0 α T 2 θ + T x k B T x e x = [ ( σ k B T ) 2 x ] ( τ r τ t r ) e ( E 0 E a / k B T )