Abstract

Loss of sight significantly degrades the quality of human life. Various methods for restoring the vision of blind patients have been studied and range from biological ways to electronic devices. Ever since a visual prosthesis device demonstrated that electrical signals have the beneficial effect of generating phosphenes, their subsequent development has progressed rapidly. Implantation of an electronic prosthetic device in a visually-impaired person allows the individual to recognize the phase and movement of an object. In addition, several commercially approved prosthetic devices have demonstrated successful long-term stability. However, there are some challenges that need to be solved. In this work, we assess the current technology levels of retinal prosthesis devices (categorized by implant location), and then suggest possible directions for future retinal prosthesis devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Electrophysiological assessment of visual deficit in glaucoma

Vesna G. Sutija, S. Barry Eiden, Donna Wicker, David Horn, Jeffrey Cooper, and Warren Appleman
Appl. Opt. 26(8) 1421-1431 (1987)

Integrative Processes in Central Visual Pathways of the Cat*

David H. Hubel
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53(1) 58-66 (1963)

Chromatic visual evoked potentials in young patients with demyelinating disease

Manca Tekavčič Pompe, Jelka Brecelj, and Branka Stirn Kranjc
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(4) A82-A86 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Greenbaum and D. Zhou, Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications (2009).
  3. D. Pascolini and S. P. Mariotti, “Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 614–618 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. T. Fahim, S. P. Daiger, and R. G. Weleber, “Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa Overview,” in GeneReviews®, M. P. Adam, H. H. Ardinger, R. A. Pagon, S. E. Wallace, L. J. Bean, K. Stephens, and A. Amemiya, eds. (University of Washington, Seattle, 1993).
  5. A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. J. Lee, C. Choi, D.-H. Kim, and Y. M. Song, “Bioinspired Artificial Eyes: Optic Components, Digital Cameras, and Visual Prostheses,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705202 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Wyatt and J. Rizzo, “Ocular implants for the blind,” IEEE Spectrum 33(5), 47–53 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Clausen, Visual Sensations (Phosphenes) Produced by AC Sine Wave Stimulation, Visual Sensations (Phosphenes) Produced by AC Sine Wave Stimulation (Ejnar Munksgaard, 1955).
  13. V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Marc, R. Pfeiffer, and B. Jones, “Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches,” ACS Chem. Neurosci. 5(10), 895–901 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. E. MacLaren and R. A. Pearson, Stem Cell Therapy and the Retina (Nature Publishing Group, 2007), p. 1352.
  19. R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. W. Jones and R. E. Marc, “Retinal remodeling during retinal degeneration,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(2), 123–137 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Petit and C. Punzo, “Gene Therapy Approaches For The Treatment Of Retinal Disorders,” Discov. Med. 22(121), 221–229 (2016).
  25. R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Lok, “Curing blindness: Vision quest,” Nature 513(7517), 160–162 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. S. Brindley and W. S. Lewin, “The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 196(2), 479–493 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. Leroy, “Ou l’on rend compte de quelques tentatives que l’on a faites pour guerir plusieurs maladies par l’electricite,” Hist Acad Roy Sci. Memoires Math Phys 60, 87–95 (1755).
  30. T. Guenther, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Bionic vision: system architectures – a review,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 9(1), 33–48 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  35. V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).
  36. W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  39. R. A. Normann, E. M. Maynard, P. J. Rousche, and D. J. Warren, “A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2577–2587 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  40. P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  41. M. E. Brelén, V. Vince, B. Gérard, C. Veraart, and J. Delbeke, “Measurement of Evoked Potentials after Electrical Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(10), 5351–5355 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  42. H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  43. X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  44. K. J. Wu, C. Zhang, W. C. Huang, L. M. Li, and Q. S. Ren, “Current research of C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind,” in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2010), pp. 5875–5878.
  45. A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  46. K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  47. H. Gerding, F. P. Benner, and S. Taneri, “Experimental implantation of epiretinal retina implants (EPI-RET) with an IOL-type receiver unit,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S38–S49 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  48. T. Stieglitz, W. Haberer, C. Lau, and M. Goertz, “Development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis,” inThe 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2004), 2, pp. 4178–4181.
  49. W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.
  50. R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.
  51. A. Brandli, C. D. Luu, R. H. Guymer, and L. N. Ayton, “Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update,” Eye Brain 8, 15–25 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  52. J. F. I. Rizzo, “Update on Retinal Prosthetic Research: The Boston Retinal Implant Project,” J. Neuroophthalmol. 31(2), 160–168 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  53. A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.
  54. E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  55. K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  56. H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  57. A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  58. K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  59. L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  60. H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  61. D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  62. Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  63. T. Fujikado, “Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS), Japanese Approach,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 139–150.
  64. R. J. Greenberg, “Visual Prostheses: A Review,” Neuromodulation Technol. Neural Interface 3(3), 161–165 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  65. G. S. Brindley, P. E. Donaldson, M. A. Falconer, and D. N. Rushton, “The extent of the region of occipital cortex that when stimulated gives phosphenes fixed in the visual field,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 57P–58P (1972).
  66. W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, and J. P. Girvin, “Artificial Vision for the Blind: Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex Offers Hope for a Functional Prosthesis,” Science 183(4123), 440–444 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  67. G. S. Brindley, “The variability of the human striate cortex,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 1P–3P (1972).
  68. H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  69. E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
    [Crossref]
  70. P. J. Rousche and R. A. Normann, “Chronic recording capability of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array in cat sensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. Methods 82(1), 1–15 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  71. A. C. Hoogerwerf and K. D. Wise, “A three-dimensional microelectrode array for chronic neural recording,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41(12), 1136–1146 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  72. M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  73. B. A. Wandell and J. Winawer, “Imaging retinotopic maps in the human brain,” Vision Res. 51(7), 718–737 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  74. A. M. Ni and J. H. R. Maunsell, “Microstimulation Reveals Limits in Detecting Different Signals from a Local Cortical Region,” Curr. Biol. 20(9), 824–828 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  75. B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  76. C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  77. E. Bloch, Y. Luo, and L. da Cruz, “Advances in retinal prosthesis systems,” Ophthalmol. Eye Dis. 11, 251584141881750 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  78. R. Eckmiller, “Learning Retina Implants with Epiretinal Contacts,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 281–289 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  79. R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  80. C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  81. S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  82. M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).
  83. M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  84. L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  85. C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  86. D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  87. M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  88. E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  89. A. Y. Chow and V. Y. Chow, “Subretinal electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina,” Neurosci. Lett. 225(1), 13–16 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  90. R. E. Marc, B. W. Jones, C. B. Watt, and E. Strettoi, “Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22(5), 607–655 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  91. E. Zrenner, “Will retinal implants restore vision?” Science 295(5557), 1022–1025 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  92. H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  93. J. O. Winter, S. F. Cogan, and J. F. Rizzo, “Retinal prostheses: current challenges and future outlook,” J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. 18(8), 1031–1055 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  94. A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  95. L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.
  96. N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  97. T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  98. T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  99. T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

E. Bloch, Y. Luo, and L. da Cruz, “Advances in retinal prosthesis systems,” Ophthalmol. Eye Dis. 11, 251584141881750 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. J. Lee, C. Choi, D.-H. Kim, and Y. M. Song, “Bioinspired Artificial Eyes: Optic Components, Digital Cameras, and Visual Prostheses,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705202 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

A. Brandli, C. D. Luu, R. H. Guymer, and L. N. Ayton, “Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update,” Eye Brain 8, 15–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Petit and C. Punzo, “Gene Therapy Approaches For The Treatment Of Retinal Disorders,” Discov. Med. 22(121), 221–229 (2016).

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Marc, R. Pfeiffer, and B. Jones, “Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches,” ACS Chem. Neurosci. 5(10), 895–901 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Lok, “Curing blindness: Vision quest,” Nature 513(7517), 160–162 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Pascolini and S. P. Mariotti, “Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 614–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Guenther, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Bionic vision: system architectures – a review,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 9(1), 33–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

B. A. Wandell and J. Winawer, “Imaging retinotopic maps in the human brain,” Vision Res. 51(7), 718–737 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. I. Rizzo, “Update on Retinal Prosthetic Research: The Boston Retinal Implant Project,” J. Neuroophthalmol. 31(2), 160–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. M. Ni and J. H. R. Maunsell, “Microstimulation Reveals Limits in Detecting Different Signals from a Local Cortical Region,” Curr. Biol. 20(9), 824–828 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Gerding, F. P. Benner, and S. Taneri, “Experimental implantation of epiretinal retina implants (EPI-RET) with an IOL-type receiver unit,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S38–S49 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. O. Winter, S. F. Cogan, and J. F. Rizzo, “Retinal prostheses: current challenges and future outlook,” J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. 18(8), 1031–1055 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

B. W. Jones and R. E. Marc, “Retinal remodeling during retinal degeneration,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(2), 123–137 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Marc, B. W. Jones, C. B. Watt, and E. Strettoi, “Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22(5), 607–655 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. Zrenner, “Will retinal implants restore vision?” Science 295(5557), 1022–1025 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. J. Greenberg, “Visual Prostheses: A Review,” Neuromodulation Technol. Neural Interface 3(3), 161–165 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. A. Normann, E. M. Maynard, P. J. Rousche, and D. J. Warren, “A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2577–2587 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. J. Rousche and R. A. Normann, “Chronic recording capability of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array in cat sensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. Methods 82(1), 1–15 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

R. Eckmiller, “Learning Retina Implants with Epiretinal Contacts,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 281–289 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Chow and V. Y. Chow, “Subretinal electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina,” Neurosci. Lett. 225(1), 13–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

J. Wyatt and J. Rizzo, “Ocular implants for the blind,” IEEE Spectrum 33(5), 47–53 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. C. Hoogerwerf and K. D. Wise, “A three-dimensional microelectrode array for chronic neural recording,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41(12), 1136–1146 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
[Crossref]

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, and J. P. Girvin, “Artificial Vision for the Blind: Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex Offers Hope for a Functional Prosthesis,” Science 183(4123), 440–444 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

G. S. Brindley, “The variability of the human striate cortex,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 1P–3P (1972).

G. S. Brindley, P. E. Donaldson, M. A. Falconer, and D. N. Rushton, “The extent of the region of occipital cortex that when stimulated gives phosphenes fixed in the visual field,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 57P–58P (1972).

1968 (1)

G. S. Brindley and W. S. Lewin, “The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 196(2), 479–493 (1968).
[Crossref]

1755 (1)

C. Leroy, “Ou l’on rend compte de quelques tentatives que l’on a faites pour guerir plusieurs maladies par l’electricite,” Hist Acad Roy Sci. Memoires Math Phys 60, 87–95 (1755).

Ahluwalia, T.

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahuja, A. K.

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Akinin, A.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ali, R. R.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allen, P. J.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allikmets, R.

K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ambrus, G. G.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Antal, A.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arditi, A.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Artoni, F.

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

Awatramani, G. B.

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ayton, L. N.

A. Brandli, C. D. Luu, R. H. Guymer, and L. N. Ayton, “Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update,” Eye Brain 8, 15–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bainbridge, J. W. B.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bak, M.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bak, M. J.

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

Balya, D.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Banarji, A.

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barale, P.-O.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A. R.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bartz-Schmidt, K. U.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauchner, S.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benav, H.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benner, F. P.

H. Gerding, F. P. Benner, and S. Taneri, “Experimental implantation of epiretinal retina implants (EPI-RET) with an IOL-type receiver unit,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S38–S49 (2007).
[Crossref]

Benosman, R.

H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Berg, J.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bergen, D.

F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
[Crossref]

Berson, E. L.

D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bertsch, A.

H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
[Crossref]

Besch, D.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bevilacqua, M.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bhadauria, M.

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bi, A.

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biel, M.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Birch, D.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Black, G. C. M.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blackford, S. J. I.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blamey, P. J.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blatsios, G.

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bloch, E.

E. Bloch, Y. Luo, and L. da Cruz, “Advances in retinal prosthesis systems,” Ophthalmol. Eye Dis. 11, 251584141881750 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boinagrov, D.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bola, M.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bondzio, L.

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brandli, A.

A. Brandli, C. D. Luu, R. H. Guymer, and L. N. Ayton, “Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update,” Eye Brain 8, 15–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brandt, S. A.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Braun, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brawn, T.-L. E.

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

Brelén, M. E.

M. E. Brelén, V. Vince, B. Gérard, C. Veraart, and J. Delbeke, “Measurement of Evoked Potentials after Electrical Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(10), 5351–5355 (2010).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. J.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, P. E. Donaldson, M. A. Falconer, and D. N. Rushton, “The extent of the region of occipital cortex that when stimulated gives phosphenes fixed in the visual field,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 57P–58P (1972).

G. S. Brindley, “The variability of the human striate cortex,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 1P–3P (1972).

G. S. Brindley and W. S. Lewin, “The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 196(2), 479–493 (1968).
[Crossref]

Brown, E. N.

K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brown, G. C.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bruckmann, A.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brunton, E. K.

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Burkitt, A. N.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

Burns, O.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Busskamp, V.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cabuy, E.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, P.

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, L. S.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Caspi, A.

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Cauwenberghs, G.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cecilia-Gonzalez, C.

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cepko, C. L.

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chai, X.

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chee, C. K.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. K.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chenais, N. A. L.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chiao, C.-C.

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.

G. J. Lee, C. Choi, D.-H. Kim, and Y. M. Song, “Bioinspired Artificial Eyes: Optic Components, Digital Cameras, and Visual Prostheses,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chow, A. Y.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Chow and V. Y. Chow, “Subretinal electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina,” Neurosci. Lett. 225(1), 13–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chow, V. Y.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Chow and V. Y. Chow, “Subretinal electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina,” Neurosci. Lett. 225(1), 13–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

Christie, B. P.

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Christopher, P.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. J.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cideciyan, A. V.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clark, K. R.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clausen, J.

J. Clausen, Visual Sensations (Phosphenes) Produced by AC Sine Wave Stimulation, Visual Sensations (Phosphenes) Produced by AC Sine Wave Stimulation (Ejnar Munksgaard, 1955).

Clements, S. M.

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

Cogan, S.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cogan, S. F.

J. O. Winter, S. F. Cogan, and J. F. Rizzo, “Retinal prostheses: current challenges and future outlook,” J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. 18(8), 1031–1055 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coley, B. F.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cosendai, G.

H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cottriall, C. L.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cremers, F. P. M.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cutrone, A.

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

da Cruz, L.

E. Bloch, Y. Luo, and L. da Cruz, “Advances in retinal prosthesis systems,” Ophthalmol. Eye Dis. 11, 251584141881750 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

daCruz, L.

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Dagnelie, G.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Daiger, S. P.

A. T. Fahim, S. P. Daiger, and R. G. Weleber, “Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa Overview,” in GeneReviews®, M. P. Adam, H. H. Ardinger, R. A. Pagon, S. E. Wallace, L. J. Bean, K. Stephens, and A. Amemiya, eds. (University of Washington, Seattle, 1993).

Damle, S.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dannhauer, M.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dapper, M.

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Daschner, R.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Davis, F. A.

F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
[Crossref]

de Balthasar, C.

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Juan, E.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

de Juan Jr, E.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

de Koo, L. C. O.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

de Koo, O.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deisseroth, K.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Del Priore, L. V.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delbeke, J.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. E. Brelén, V. Vince, B. Gérard, C. Veraart, and J. Delbeke, “Measurement of Evoked Potentials after Electrical Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(10), 5351–5355 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demarco, S. C.

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

Deutsch, W.

F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, P. N.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dizhoor, A. M.

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dobelle, W. H.

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
[Crossref]

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, and J. P. Girvin, “Artificial Vision for the Blind: Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex Offers Hope for a Functional Prosthesis,” Science 183(4123), 440–444 (1974).
[Crossref]

Donaldson, P. E.

G. S. Brindley, P. E. Donaldson, M. A. Falconer, and D. N. Rushton, “The extent of the region of occipital cortex that when stimulated gives phosphenes fixed in the visual field,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 57P–58P (1972).

Dorn, J.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dorn, J. D.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Downes, S. M.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dryja, T. P.

D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
[Crossref]

Duebel, J.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duncan, J.

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Duncan, J. L.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duran, Y.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

During, M. J.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eckmiller, R.

R. Eckmiller, “Learning Retina Implants with Epiretinal Contacts,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 281–289 (1997).
[Crossref]

Edwards, T. L.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eickenscheidt, M.

M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eliott, D.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Endo, T.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Erickson, R.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Evans, J. R.

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
[Crossref]

Fahim, A. T.

A. T. Fahim, S. P. Daiger, and R. G. Weleber, “Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa Overview,” in GeneReviews®, M. P. Adam, H. H. Ardinger, R. A. Pagon, S. E. Wallace, L. J. Bean, K. Stephens, and A. Amemiya, eds. (University of Washington, Seattle, 1993).

Falabella, P.

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Falconer, M. A.

G. S. Brindley, P. E. Donaldson, M. A. Falconer, and D. N. Rushton, “The extent of the region of occipital cortex that when stimulated gives phosphenes fixed in the visual field,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 57P–58P (1972).

Fawzi, A.C.L.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ferlauto, L.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feucht, M.

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Filley, E.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Fine, I.

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Forster, V.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fradot, M.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Freda, R.

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Freeberg, M.

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Freeman, W. R.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fromherz, P.

M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujii, G.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujikado, T.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, “Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS), Japanese Approach,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 139–150.

Gabel, V. P.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gabel, V.-P.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaillet, V.

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

Galambos, L.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gall, C.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gehrs, K. M.

K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gekeler, F.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Georgiadis, A.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gérard, B.

M. E. Brelén, V. Vince, B. Gérard, C. Veraart, and J. Delbeke, “Measurement of Evoked Potentials after Electrical Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(10), 5351–5355 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gerding, H.

H. Gerding, F. P. Benner, and S. Taneri, “Experimental implantation of epiretinal retina implants (EPI-RET) with an IOL-type receiver unit,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S38–S49 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gerhardt, M.

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

Geruschat, D. R.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghezzi, D.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

Gillespie, L. N.

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gilliéron, S. C. A.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Girvin, J. P.

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
[Crossref]

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, and J. P. Girvin, “Artificial Vision for the Blind: Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex Offers Hope for a Functional Prosthesis,” Science 183(4123), 440–444 (1974).
[Crossref]

Goertz, M.

T. Stieglitz, W. Haberer, C. Lau, and M. Goertz, “Development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis,” inThe 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2004), 2, pp. 4178–4181.

Goetz, G.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez-Cordero, A.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Graf, H. G.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Greenbaum, E.

E. Greenbaum and D. Zhou, Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications (2009).

Greenberg, R.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

Greenberg, R. J.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. J. Greenberg, “Visual Prostheses: A Review,” Neuromodulation Technol. Neural Interface 3(3), 161–165 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Greenburg, R. J.

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

Greenwald, S.

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Greppmaier, U.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Groner, A. C.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Groppe, M.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guenther, E.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Guenther, T.

T. Guenther, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Bionic vision: system architectures – a review,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 9(1), 33–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gülicher, D.

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gurunadh, V.

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

Güven, D.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guymer, R.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guymer, R. H.

A. Brandli, C. D. Luu, R. H. Guymer, and L. N. Ayton, “Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update,” Eye Brain 8, 15–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ha, S.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haberer, W.

T. Stieglitz, W. Haberer, C. Lau, and M. Goertz, “Development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis,” inThe 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2004), 2, pp. 4178–4181.

Haemmerle, H.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hafezi, F.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hageman, G. S.

K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hagh Gooie, S.

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Haller, J. A.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hambrecht, F. T.

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Handa, J.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harris, J.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harscher, A.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

Hartong, D. T.

D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hasenkamp, W.

H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heriot, W.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hill, R.

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Hinton, D.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hipp, S.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hirota, M.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ho, A. C.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hoefflinger, B.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hoogerwerf, A. C.

A. C. Hoogerwerf and K. D. Wise, “A three-dimensional microelectrode array for chronic neural recording,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41(12), 1136–1146 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hornig, R.

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Horsager, A.

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hörtdörfer, G.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoyen, H. A.

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, W. C.

K. J. Wu, C. Zhang, W. C. Huang, L. M. Li, and Q. S. Ren, “Current research of C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind,” in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2010), pp. 5875–5878.

Hubank, M.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huie, P.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Humayun, M.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

Humayun, M. S.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Humphries, P.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ikuno, Y.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ishaque, K.

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Jackson, J. R.

K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jackson, T. L.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jenkner, M.

M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jing, Y.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, B.

R. Marc, R. Pfeiffer, and B. Jones, “Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches,” ACS Chem. Neurosci. 5(10), 895–901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jones, B. W.

B. W. Jones and R. E. Marc, “Retinal remodeling during retinal degeneration,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(2), 123–137 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. E. Marc, B. W. Jones, C. B. Watt, and E. Strettoi, “Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22(5), 607–655 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kamei, M.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kanda, H.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kasi, H.

H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
[Crossref]

Katona, S.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kelly, S.

J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kernstock, C.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khraiche, M. L.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kibbel, S.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

Kiel, K.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. S.

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

G. J. Lee, C. Choi, D.-H. Kim, and Y. M. Song, “Bioinspired Artificial Eyes: Optic Components, Digital Cameras, and Visual Prostheses,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kishima, H.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klock, I. B.

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koch, J.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kohler, K.

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koitschev, A.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kokelmann, M.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Konoma, K.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kropf, S.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuang, Y.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kufta, C.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kufta, C. V.

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kühlewein, L.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kusaka, S.

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kusnyerik, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

LaBree, L.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lagali, P. S.

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lakowski, J.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lau, C.

T. Stieglitz, W. Haberer, C. Lau, and M. Goertz, “Development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis,” inThe 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2004), 2, pp. 4178–4181.

Laube, T.

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lavinsky, D.

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Le Joliff, E.

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Leccardi, M. J. I. A.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. J.

G. J. Lee, C. Choi, D.-H. Kim, and Y. M. Song, “Bioinspired Artificial Eyes: Optic Components, Digital Cameras, and Visual Prostheses,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lei, X.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

LeMer, Y.

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Leroy, C.

C. Leroy, “Ou l’on rend compte de quelques tentatives que l’on a faites pour guerir plusieurs maladies par l’electricite,” Hist Acad Roy Sci. Memoires Math Phys 60, 87–95 (1755).

Lewin, W. S.

G. S. Brindley and W. S. Lewin, “The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 196(2), 479–493 (1968).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, L. M.

K. J. Wu, C. Zhang, W. C. Huang, L. M. Li, and Q. S. Ren, “Current research of C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind,” in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2010), pp. 5875–5878.

Lin, L.-J.

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, P.-K.

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

Lo, Y.-H.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Loeb, G. E.

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Loewenstein, J.

J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lok, C.

C. Lok, “Curing blindness: Vision quest,” Nature 513(7517), 160–162 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lorach, H.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lotery, A. J.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loudin, J.

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Loudin, J. D.

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lovell, N. H.

T. Guenther, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Bionic vision: system architectures – a review,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 9(1), 33–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

Lowery, A. J.

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

E. Bloch, Y. Luo, and L. da Cruz, “Advances in retinal prosthesis systems,” Ophthalmol. Eye Dis. 11, 251584141881750 (2019).
[Crossref]

Luu, C. D.

A. Brandli, C. D. Luu, R. H. Guymer, and L. N. Ayton, “Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update,” Eye Brain 8, 15–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lux, A.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.-P.

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

MacLaren, R. E.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. E. MacLaren and R. A. Pearson, Stem Cell Therapy and the Retina (Nature Publishing Group, 2007), p. 1352.

Mahadevappa, M.

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mandel, Y.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mante, A.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marc, R.

R. Marc, R. Pfeiffer, and B. Jones, “Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches,” ACS Chem. Neurosci. 5(10), 895–901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marc, R. E.

B. W. Jones and R. E. Marc, “Retinal remodeling during retinal degeneration,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(2), 123–137 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. E. Marc, B. W. Jones, C. B. Watt, and E. Strettoi, “Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22(5), 607–655 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mariotti, S. P.

D. Pascolini and S. P. Mariotti, “Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 614–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marre, O.

H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marsh, M. J.

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

Maruo, T.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mathieson, K.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, K.

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maunsell, J. H. R.

A. M. Ni and J. H. R. Maunsell, “Microstimulation Reveals Limits in Detecting Different Signals from a Local Cortical Region,” Curr. Biol. 20(9), 824–828 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maynard, E. M.

R. A. Normann, E. M. Maynard, P. J. Rousche, and D. J. Warren, “A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2577–2587 (1999).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, C. D.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

McClure, K. H.

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

McCombe, M.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

McCombe, M. F.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

McCreery, D.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

McDermott, H. J.

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

McDonald, I.

F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
[Crossref]

McGowan, C.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

McGucken, E.

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

McMahon, M. J.

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

McPhedran, M.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mech, B. V.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Memberg, W. D.

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Merlini, F.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

Micera, S.

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

Michalik, R.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Michaux, G.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Milam, A. H.

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miliczek, K. D.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mladejovsky, M. G.

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
[Crossref]

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, and J. P. Girvin, “Artificial Vision for the Blind: Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex Offers Hope for a Functional Prosthesis,” Science 183(4123), 440–444 (1974).
[Crossref]

Mohand-Said, S.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Morimoto, T.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mortimer, J. T.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Münch, T. A.

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Naeem, A.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naeem, M. A. N.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakauchi, K.

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nayagam, D. A.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nayagam, D. A. X.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

Neffendorf, J.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nemeth, J.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ni, A. M.

A. M. Ni and J. H. R. Maunsell, “Microstimulation Reveals Limits in Detecting Different Signals from a Local Cortical Region,” Curr. Biol. 20(9), 824–828 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nisch, W.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nishida, K.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

Normann, R. A.

R. A. Normann, E. M. Maynard, P. J. Rousche, and D. J. Warren, “A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2577–2587 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Rousche and R. A. Normann, “Chronic recording capability of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array in cat sensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. Methods 82(1), 1–15 (1998).
[Crossref]

O’Rourke, D. K.

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

Olshevskaya, E.

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oosawa, K.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opie, N. L.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ozawa, M.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Packo, K. H.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Palanker, D.

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Palanker, D. V.

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.-H.

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paola, D. L. D.

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

Paques, M.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Parrini, S.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pascolini, D.

D. Pascolini and S. P. Mariotti, “Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 614–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

Patel, S.

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Patyal, S.

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paulus, W.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pearson, R. A.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. MacLaren and R. A. Pearson, Stem Cell Therapy and the Retina (Nature Publishing Group, 2007), p. 1352.

Perera, T.

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peters, T.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Petit, L.

L. Petit and C. Punzo, “Gene Therapy Approaches For The Treatment Of Retinal Disorders,” Discov. Med. 22(121), 221–229 (2016).

Petoe, M. A.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

Peyman, G. A.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, R.

R. Marc, R. Pfeiffer, and B. Jones, “Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches,” ACS Chem. Neurosci. 5(10), 895–901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. H.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

Picaud, S.

H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Pinault, G. J. C.

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pins, D.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pinto, S. A. R.

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

Pollack, J. S.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Posch, C.

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Propst, R. H.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

Punzo, C.

L. Petit and C. Punzo, “Gene Therapy Approaches For The Treatment Of Retinal Disorders,” Discov. Med. 22(121), 221–229 (2016).

Qiu, G.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Quiroz-Mercado, H.

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

Raftopoulos, C.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rajan, R.

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramsden, J. D.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Regillo, C. D.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reinert, S.

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, Q.

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, Q. S.

K. J. Wu, C. Zhang, W. C. Huang, L. M. Li, and Q. S. Ren, “Current research of C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind,” in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2010), pp. 5875–5878.

Renaud, P.

H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
[Crossref]

Richard, G.

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richards, T. P.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rizzo, J.

J. Wyatt and J. Rizzo, “Ocular implants for the blind,” IEEE Spectrum 33(5), 47–53 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rizzo, J. F.

J. O. Winter, S. F. Cogan, and J. F. Rizzo, “Retinal prostheses: current challenges and future outlook,” J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. 18(8), 1031–1055 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rizzo, J. F. I.

J. F. I. Rizzo, “Update on Retinal Prosthetic Research: The Boston Retinal Implant Project,” J. Neuroophthalmol. 31(2), 160–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roberts, T. S.

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
[Crossref]

Roider, J.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Roizenblatt, R.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roska, B.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rothermel, A.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

Rousche, P. J.

R. A. Normann, E. M. Maynard, P. J. Rousche, and D. J. Warren, “A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2577–2587 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Rousche and R. A. Normann, “Chronic recording capability of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array in cat sensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. Methods 82(1), 1–15 (1998).
[Crossref]

Roy, A.

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rudorf, R.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rudorf, S.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rushton, D. N.

G. S. Brindley, P. E. Donaldson, M. A. Falconer, and D. N. Rushton, “The extent of the region of occipital cortex that when stimulated gives phosphenes fixed in the visual field,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 57P–58P (1972).

Sabel, B. A.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sachs, H.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Safran, A. B.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sahel, J.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sahel, J. A.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sahel, J.-A.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

Sailer, H.

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, H.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salzmann, J.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Santos, A.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

Saunders, A. L.

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schatz, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schauf, C.

F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
[Crossref]

Schippert, R.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schittkowski, M. P.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schleehauf, S.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, E.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, E. M.

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S.

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schor, P.

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schröder, G. S.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schuchard, R.

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seabra, M. C.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seeliger, M.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seymour, L.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, R. K.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sher, A.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shinoda, K.

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shire, D.

J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shivdasani, M. N.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Siegert, S.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Silva, G. A.

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Simpson, A.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, N. C.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Singh, M. S.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sivula, K.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. J.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, R.

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. M.

G. J. Lee, C. Choi, D.-H. Kim, and Y. M. Song, “Bioinspired Artificial Eyes: Optic Components, Digital Cameras, and Visual Prostheses,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sowden, J. C.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spencer, R.

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stanga, P.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stanga, P. E.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stett, A.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

Stieglitz, T.

T. Stieglitz, W. Haberer, C. Lau, and M. Goertz, “Development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis,” inThe 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2004), 2, pp. 4178–4181.

Stingl, K.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stingl, K. T.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Strettoi, E.

R. E. Marc, B. W. Jones, C. B. Watt, and E. Strettoi, “Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22(5), 607–655 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suaning, G. J.

T. Guenther, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Bionic vision: system architectures – a review,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 9(1), 33–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

Suzuki, S.

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

Szurman, P.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taneri, S.

H. Gerding, F. P. Benner, and S. Taneri, “Experimental implantation of epiretinal retina implants (EPI-RET) with an IOL-type receiver unit,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S38–S49 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tano, Y.

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Terasawa, Y.

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thewes, R.

M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thumann, G.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tode, J.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tolmachova, T.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Towle, V.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Triolo, R. J.

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Troelenberg, N.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Trono, D.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Troyk, P.

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tyler, D. J.

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ustariz-Gonzalez, O.

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vagni, P.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

Vallabhanath, P.

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vanlierde, A.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Varsamidis, M.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vats, D.

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

Velikay-Parel, M.

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Veraart, C.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. E. Brelén, V. Vince, B. Gérard, C. Veraart, and J. Delbeke, “Measurement of Evoked Potentials after Electrical Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(10), 5351–5355 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vichienchom, K.

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

Villalobos, J.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vince, V.

M. E. Brelén, V. Vince, B. Gérard, C. Veraart, and J. Delbeke, “Measurement of Evoked Potentials after Electrical Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(10), 5351–5355 (2010).
[Crossref]

Viney, T. J.

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walker, J. G.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wan, C.

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wandell, B. A.

B. A. Wandell and J. Winawer, “Imaging retinotopic maps in the human brain,” Vision Res. 51(7), 718–737 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wanet-Defalque, M.-C.

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Warren, D. J.

R. A. Normann, E. M. Maynard, P. J. Rousche, and D. J. Warren, “A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2577–2587 (1999).
[Crossref]

Watt, C. B.

R. E. Marc, B. W. Jones, C. B. Watt, and E. Strettoi, “Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22(5), 607–655 (2003).
[Crossref]

Webster, A. R.

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weiland, J.

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

Weiland, J. D.

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiss, S.

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weleber, R. G.

A. T. Fahim, S. P. Daiger, and R. G. Weleber, “Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa Overview,” in GeneReviews®, M. P. Adam, H. H. Ardinger, R. A. Pagon, S. E. Wallace, L. J. Bean, K. Stephens, and A. Amemiya, eds. (University of Washington, Seattle, 1993).

West, E. L.

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wieczorek, V.

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

Wilhelm, B.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilke, R.

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, C. E.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Winawer, J.

B. A. Wandell and J. Winawer, “Imaging retinotopic maps in the human brain,” Vision Res. 51(7), 718–737 (2011).
[Crossref]

Winter, J. O.

J. O. Winter, S. F. Cogan, and J. F. Rizzo, “Retinal prostheses: current challenges and future outlook,” J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. 18(8), 1031–1055 (2007).
[Crossref]

Winther-Jensen, B.

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Wise, K. D.

A. C. Hoogerwerf and K. D. Wise, “A three-dimensional microelectrode array for chronic neural recording,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41(12), 1136–1146 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wolfensberger, T. J.

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wong, D.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wrobel, W. G.

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-Y.

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, K. J.

K. J. Wu, C. Zhang, W. C. Huang, L. M. Li, and Q. S. Ren, “Current research of C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind,” in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2010), pp. 5875–5878.

Wuyyuru, V.

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, J.

J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Wyatt and J. Rizzo, “Ocular implants for the blind,” IEEE Spectrum 33(5), 47–53 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yan, E. B.

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Yanai, D.

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.-C.

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yeoh, J.

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yonezawa, E.

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yue, L.

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeck, G.

M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zehnder, T.

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

K. J. Wu, C. Zhang, W. C. Huang, L. M. Li, and Q. S. Ren, “Current research of C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind,” in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2010), pp. 5875–5878.

Zhou, C.

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.

E. Greenbaum and D. Zhou, Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications (2009).

Zrenner, E.

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, “Will retinal implants restore vision?” Science 295(5557), 1022–1025 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Chem. Neurosci. (1)

R. Marc, R. Pfeiffer, and B. Jones, “Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches,” ACS Chem. Neurosci. 5(10), 895–901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. J. Lee, C. Choi, D.-H. Kim, and Y. M. Song, “Bioinspired Artificial Eyes: Optic Components, Digital Cameras, and Visual Prostheses,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. Yanai, J. D. Weiland, M. Mahadevappa, R. J. Greenberg, I. Fine, and M. S. Humayun, “Visual Performance Using a Retinal Prosthesis in Three Subjects With Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(5), 820–827.e2 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (4)

A. Santos, M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, R. J. Greenburg, M. J. Marsh, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Preservation of the Inner Retina in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Morphometric Analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 511–515 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. M. Gehrs, J. R. Jackson, E. N. Brown, R. Allikmets, and G. S. Hageman, “Complement, Age-Related Macular Degeneration and a Vision of the Future,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 128(3), 349–358 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan, G. Dagnelie, R. J. Greenberg, R. H. Propst, and D. H. Phillips, “Visual Perception Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Retina in Blind Humans,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114(1), 40–46 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Caspi, J. D. Dorn, K. H. McClure, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and M. J. McMahon, “Feasibility Study of a Retinal Prosthesis: Spatial Vision With a 16-Electrode Implant,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(4), 398–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Artif. Organs (1)

P. Troyk, M. Bak, J. Berg, D. Bradley, S. Cogan, R. Erickson, C. Kufta, D. McCreery, E. Schmidt, and V. Towle, “A Model for Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Research,” Artif. Organs 27(11), 1005–1015 (2003).
[Crossref]

Artif. Sight (1)

R. Hornig, T. Zehnder, M. Velikay-Parel, T. Laube, M. Feucht, and G. Richard, “The IMI Retinal Implant System,” Artif. Sight, 2007, 111–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

R. Daschner, U. Greppmaier, M. Kokelmann, S. Rudorf, R. Rudorf, S. Schleehauf, and W. G. Wrobel, “Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants,” Biomed. Microdevices 19(1), 7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

L. da Cruz, B. F. Coley, J. Dorn, F. Merlini, E. Filley, P. Christopher, F. K. Chen, V. Wuyyuru, J. Sahel, P. Stanga, M. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, and G. Dagnelie, and for the A. I. S. Group, “The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 97(5), 632–636 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Besch, H. Sachs, P. Szurman, D. Gülicher, R. Wilke, S. Reinert, E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, and F. Gekeler, “Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(10), 1361–1368 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Pascolini and S. P. Mariotti, “Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 614–618 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brain (1)

E. M. Schmidt, M. J. Bak, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, D. K. O’Rourke, and P. Vallabhanath, “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the blind based on intracortical micro stimulation of the visual cortex,” Brain 119(2), 507–522 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brain Res. (1)

C. Veraart, C. Raftopoulos, J. T. Mortimer, J. Delbeke, D. Pins, G. Michaux, A. Vanlierde, S. Parrini, and M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, “Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode,” Brain Res. 813(1), 181–186 (1998).
[Crossref]

Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. (1)

A. L. Saunders, C. E. Williams, W. Heriot, R. Briggs, J. Yeoh, D. A. Nayagam, M. McCombe, J. Villalobos, O. Burns, C. D. Luu, L. N. Ayton, M. McPhedran, N. L. Opie, C. McGowan, R. K. Shepherd, R. Guymer, and P. J. Allen, “Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis,” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 42(7), 665–674 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

J. L. Duncan, T. P. Richards, A. Arditi, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. D. Dorn, A. C. Ho, L. C. O. de Koo, P.-O. Barale, P. E. Stanga, G. Thumann, Y. Wang, and R. J. Greenberg, “Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 100(2), 144–150 (2017).
[Crossref]

Curr. Biol. (1)

A. M. Ni and J. H. R. Maunsell, “Microstimulation Reveals Limits in Detecting Different Signals from a Local Cortical Region,” Curr. Biol. 20(9), 824–828 (2010).
[Crossref]

Discov. Med. (1)

L. Petit and C. Punzo, “Gene Therapy Approaches For The Treatment Of Retinal Disorders,” Discov. Med. 22(121), 221–229 (2016).

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

B. W. Jones and R. E. Marc, “Retinal remodeling during retinal degeneration,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(2), 123–137 (2005).
[Crossref]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

T. Guenther, N. H. Lovell, and G. J. Suaning, “Bionic vision: system architectures – a review,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 9(1), 33–48 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eye Brain (1)

A. Brandli, C. D. Luu, R. H. Guymer, and L. N. Ayton, “Progress in the clinical development and utilization of vision prostheses: an update,” Eye Brain 8, 15–25 (2016).
[Crossref]

Front. Neurosci. (2)

K. Stingl, R. Schippert, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. L. Cottriall, T. L. Edwards, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, K. Kiel, A. Koitschev, L. Kühlewein, R. E. MacLaren, J. D. Ramsden, J. Roider, A. Rothermel, H. Sachs, G. S. Schröder, J. Tode, N. Troelenberg, and E. Zrenner, “Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations,” Front. Neurosci. 11, 445 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. K. Brunton, B. Winther-Jensen, C. Wang, E. B. Yan, S. Hagh Gooie, A. J. Lowery, and R. Rajan, “In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes,” Front. Neurosci. 09, (2015).
[Crossref]

Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2)

T. Fujikado, T. Morimoto, H. Kanda, S. Kusaka, K. Nakauchi, M. Ozawa, K. Matsushita, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Ikuno, M. Kamei, and Y. Tano, “Evaluation of phosphenes elicited by extraocular stimulation in normals and by suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(10), 1411–1419 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Sailer, K. Shinoda, G. Blatsios, K. Kohler, L. Bondzio, E. Zrenner, and F. Gekeler, “Investigation of thermal effects of infrared lasers on the rabbit retina: a study in the course of development of an active subretinal prosthesis,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(8), 1169–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hist Acad Roy Sci. Memoires Math Phys (1)

C. Leroy, “Ou l’on rend compte de quelques tentatives que l’on a faites pour guerir plusieurs maladies par l’electricite,” Hist Acad Roy Sci. Memoires Math Phys 60, 87–95 (1755).

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

X. Chai, L. Li, K. Wu, C. Zhou, P. Cao, and Q. Ren, “C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 20–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

J. Wyatt and J. Rizzo, “Ocular implants for the blind,” IEEE Spectrum 33(5), 47–53 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. (1)

D. Boinagrov, X. Lei, G. Goetz, T. I. Kamins, K. Mathieson, L. Galambos, J. S. Harris, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 10(1), 85–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. C. Hoogerwerf and K. D. Wise, “A three-dimensional microelectrode array for chronic neural recording,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41(12), 1136–1146 (1994).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Morimoto, Y. Ikuno, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, T. Maruo, K. Konoma, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “Testing of Semichronically Implanted Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 52(7), 4726–4733 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, M. Kamei, H. Sakaguchi, H. Kanda, T. Endo, M. Hirota, T. Morimoto, K. Nishida, H. Kishima, Y. Terasawa, K. Oosawa, M. Ozawa, and K. Nishida, “One-Year Outcome of 49-Channel Suprachoroidal–Transretinal Stimulation Prosthesis in Patients With Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 57(14), 6147–6157 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rizzo, J. Wyatt, J. Loewenstein, S. Kelly, and D. Shire, “Perceptual Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation of Human Retina with a Microelectrode Array during Short-Term Surgical Trials,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44(12), 5362–5369 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Artif. Organs (1)

H. Sakaguchi, M. Kamei, T. Fujikado, E. Yonezawa, M. Ozawa, C. Cecilia-Gonzalez, O. Ustariz-Gonzalez, H. Quiroz-Mercado, and Y. Tano, “Artificial vision by direct optic nerve electrode (AV-DONE) implantation in a blind patient with retinitis pigmentosa,” J. Artif. Organs 12(3), 206–209 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. (1)

J. O. Winter, S. F. Cogan, and J. F. Rizzo, “Retinal prostheses: current challenges and future outlook,” J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed. 18(8), 1031–1055 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Neural Eng. (4)

S. Ha, M. L. Khraiche, A. Akinin, Y. Jing, S. Damle, Y. Kuang, S. Bauchner, Y.-H. Lo, W. R. Freeman, G. A. Silva, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Towards high-resolution retinal prostheses with direct optical addressing and inductive telemetry,” J. Neural Eng. 13(5), 056008 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Güven, J. D. Weiland, G. Fujii, B. V. Mech, M. Mahadevappa, R. Greenberg, R. Roizenblatt, G. Qiu, L. LaBree, X. Wang, D. Hinton, and M. S. Humayun, “Long-term stimulation by active epiretinal implants in normal and RCD1 dogs,” J. Neural Eng. 2(1), S65–S73 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Gerding, F. P. Benner, and S. Taneri, “Experimental implantation of epiretinal retina implants (EPI-RET) with an IOL-type receiver unit,” J. Neural Eng. 4(1), S38–S49 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, K. Mathieson, T. I. Kamins, J. D. Loudin, L. Galambos, G. Goetz, A. Sher, Y. Mandel, P. Huie, D. Lavinsky, J. S. Harris, and D. V. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis: implant fabrication and performance,” J. Neural Eng. 9(4), 046014 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. (2)

H. Kasi, W. Hasenkamp, G. Cosendai, A. Bertsch, and P. Renaud, “Simulation of epiretinal prostheses - Evaluation of geometrical factors affecting stimulation thresholds,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 8(1), 44 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. P. Christie, M. Freeberg, W. D. Memberg, G. J. C. Pinault, H. A. Hoyen, D. J. Tyler, and R. J. Triolo, “Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 14(1), 70 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Neuroophthalmol. (1)

J. F. I. Rizzo, “Update on Retinal Prosthetic Research: The Boston Retinal Implant Project,” J. Neuroophthalmol. 31(2), 160–168 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

M. Eickenscheidt, M. Jenkner, R. Thewes, P. Fromherz, and G. Zeck, “Electrical stimulation of retinal neurons in epiretinal and subretinal configuration using a multicapacitor array,” J. Neurophysiol. 107(10), 2742–2755 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

P. J. Rousche and R. A. Normann, “Chronic recording capability of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array in cat sensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. Methods 82(1), 1–15 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Physiol. (4)

G. S. Brindley, “The variability of the human striate cortex,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 1P–3P (1972).

G. S. Brindley, P. E. Donaldson, M. A. Falconer, and D. N. Rushton, “The extent of the region of occipital cortex that when stimulated gives phosphenes fixed in the visual field,” J. Physiol. 225(2), 57P–58P (1972).

A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. H. Packo, J. S. Pollack, G. A. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, “The Artificial Silicon Retina Microchip for the Treatment of VisionLoss From Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Physiol. 122(4), 460–469 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. S. Brindley and W. S. Lewin, “The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 196(2), 479–493 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Physiol.-Paris (1)

H. Lorach, O. Marre, J.-A. Sahel, R. Benosman, and S. Picaud, “Neural stimulation for visual rehabilitation: Advances and challenges,” J. Physiol.-Paris 107(5), 421–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lancet (2)

R. E. MacLaren, M. Groppe, A. R. Barnard, C. L. Cottriall, T. Tolmachova, L. Seymour, K. R. Clark, M. J. During, F. P. M. Cremers, G. C. M. Black, A. J. Lotery, S. M. Downes, A. R. Webster, and M. C. Seabra, “Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Lancet 383(9923), 1129–1137 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. T. Hartong, E. L. Berson, and T. P. Dryja, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Lancet 368(9549), 1795–1809 (2006).
[Crossref]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

M. Bak, J. P. Girvin, F. T. Hambrecht, C. V. Kufta, G. E. Loeb, and E. M. Schmidt, “Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 28(3), 257–259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Med. J. Armed Forces India (1)

A. Banarji, V. Gurunadh, S. Patyal, T. Ahluwalia, D. Vats, and M. Bhadauria, “Visual Prosthesis: Artificial Vision,” Med. J. Armed Forces India 65(4), 348–352 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

A. Gonzalez-Cordero, E. L. West, R. A. Pearson, Y. Duran, L. S. Carvalho, C. J. Chu, A. Naeem, S. J. I. Blackford, A. Georgiadis, J. Lakowski, M. Hubank, A. J. Smith, J. W. B. Bainbridge, J. C. Sowden, and R. R. Ali, “Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina,” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(8), 741–747 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Ferlauto, M. J. I. A. Leccardi, N. A. L. Chenais, S. C. A. Gilliéron, P. Vagni, M. Bevilacqua, T. J. Wolfensberger, K. Sivula, and D. Ghezzi, “Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 992 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Med. (1)

H. Lorach, G. Goetz, R. Smith, X. Lei, Y. Mandel, T. Kamins, K. Mathieson, P. Huie, J. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity,” Nat. Med. 21(5), 476–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

P. S. Lagali, D. Balya, G. B. Awatramani, T. A. Münch, D. S. Kim, V. Busskamp, C. L. Cepko, and B. Roska, “Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 667–675 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, J. R. Evans, T. S. Roberts, and J. P. Girvin, “‘Braille’ reading by a blind volunteer by visual cortex stimulation,” Nature 259(5539), 111–112 (1976).
[Crossref]

C. Lok, “Curing blindness: Vision quest,” Nature 513(7517), 160–162 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neurology (1)

F. A. Davis, D. Bergen, C. Schauf, I. McDonald, and W. Deutsch, “Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign,” Neurology 26(11), 1100 (1976).
[Crossref]

Neuromodulation Technol. Neural Interface (1)

R. J. Greenberg, “Visual Prostheses: A Review,” Neuromodulation Technol. Neural Interface 3(3), 161–165 (2000).
[Crossref]

Neuron (1)

A. Bi, J. Cui, Y.-P. Ma, E. Olshevskaya, M. Pu, A. M. Dizhoor, and Z.-H. Pan, “Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration,” Neuron 50(1), 23–33 (2006).
[Crossref]

Neurosci. Lett. (1)

A. Y. Chow and V. Y. Chow, “Subretinal electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina,” Neurosci. Lett. 225(1), 13–16 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic Res. (2)

E. Zrenner, K. D. Miliczek, V. P. Gabel, H. G. Graf, E. Guenther, H. Haemmerle, B. Hoefflinger, K. Kohler, W. Nisch, M. Schubert, A. Stett, and S. Weiss, “The development of subretinal microphotodiodes for replacement of degenerated photoreceptors,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 269–280 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Eckmiller, “Learning Retina Implants with Epiretinal Contacts,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 281–289 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmol. Eye Dis. (1)

E. Bloch, Y. Luo, and L. da Cruz, “Advances in retinal prosthesis systems,” Ophthalmol. Eye Dis. 11, 251584141881750 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmology (1)

A. C. Ho, M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, L. da Cruz, G. Dagnelie, J. Handa, P.-O. Barale, J.-A. Sahel, P. E. Stanga, F. Hafezi, A. B. Safran, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, D. Birch, R. Spencer, A. V. Cideciyan, E. de Juan, J. L. Duncan, D. Eliott, A.C.L. Fawzi, O. de Koo, G. C. Brown, J. A. Haller, C. D. Regillo, L. V. Del Priore, A. Arditi, D. R. Geruschat, and R. J. Greenberg, “Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind,” Ophthalmology 122(8), 1547–1554 (2015).
[Crossref]

PLoS One (2)

L. N. Ayton, P. J. Blamey, R. H. Guymer, C. D. Luu, D. A. X. Nayagam, N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, J. Yeoh, M. F. McCombe, R. J. Briggs, N. L. Opie, J. Villalobos, P. N. Dimitrov, M. Varsamidis, M. A. Petoe, C. D. McCarthy, J. G. Walker, N. Barnes, A. N. Burkitt, C. E. Williams, R. K. Shepherd, and P. J. Allen, and for the B. V. A. R. Consortium, “First-in-Human Trial of a Novel Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” PLoS One 9(12), e115239 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gall, S. Schmidt, M. P. Schittkowski, A. Antal, G. G. Ambrus, W. Paulus, M. Dannhauer, R. Michalik, A. Mante, M. Bola, A. Lux, S. Kropf, S. A. Brandt, and B. A. Sabel, “Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” PLoS One 11(6), e0156134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B (1)

E. Zrenner, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, H. Benav, D. Besch, A. Bruckmann, V.-P. Gabel, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, A. Harscher, S. Kibbel, J. Koch, A. Kusnyerik, T. Peters, K. Stingl, H. Sachs, A. Stett, P. Szurman, B. Wilhelm, and R. Wilke, “Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 278(1711), 1489–1497 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prog. Retinal Eye Res. (1)

R. E. Marc, B. W. Jones, C. B. Watt, and E. Strettoi, “Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22(5), 607–655 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

E. Zrenner, “Will retinal implants restore vision?” Science 295(5557), 1022–1025 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. H. Dobelle, M. G. Mladejovsky, and J. P. Girvin, “Artificial Vision for the Blind: Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex Offers Hope for a Functional Prosthesis,” Science 183(4123), 440–444 (1974).
[Crossref]

V. Busskamp, J. Duebel, D. Balya, M. Fradot, T. J. Viney, S. Siegert, A. C. Groner, E. Cabuy, V. Forster, M. Seeliger, M. Biel, P. Humphries, M. Paques, S. Mohand-Said, D. Trono, K. Deisseroth, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and B. Roska, “Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Science 329(5990), 413–417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (4)

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, C. K. Chee, C. L. Cottriall, F. Gekeler, M. Groppe, T. L. Jackson, R. E. MacLaren, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, J. Neffendorf, J. Nemeth, M. A. N. Naeem, T. Peters, J. D. Ramsden, H. Sachs, A. Simpson, M. S. Singh, B. Wilhelm, D. Wong, and E. Zrenner, “Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS – Clinical trial interim report,” Vision Res. 111, 149–160 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. A. Normann, E. M. Maynard, P. J. Rousche, and D. J. Warren, “A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2577–2587 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, E. de Juan Jr, J. D. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona, R. Greenberg, and S. Suzuki, “Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina,” Vision Res. 39(15), 2569–2576 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. A. Wandell and J. Winawer, “Imaging retinotopic maps in the human brain,” Vision Res. 51(7), 718–737 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (19)

C. de Balthasar, S. Patel, A. Roy, R. Freda, S. Greenwald, A. Horsager, M. Mahadevappa, D. Yanai, M. J. McMahon, M. S. Humayun, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and I. Fine, “Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.49(6), 2303–2314 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Yue, P. Falabella, P. Christopher, V. Wuyyuru, J. Dorn, P. Schor, R. J. Greenberg, J. D. Weiland, and M. S. Humayun, “Ten-Year Follow-up of a Blind Patient Chronically Implanted with Epiretinal Prosthesis Argus I,” Ophthalmology122(12), 2545–2552.e1.e1 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Humayun, J. D. Dorn, A. K. Ahuja, A. Caspi, E. Filley, G. Dagnelie, J. Salzmann, A. Santos, J. Duncan, L. daCruz, S. Mohand-Said, D. Eliott, M. J. McMahon, and R. J. Greenberg, “Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study,” Conf. Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. Annu. Conf.2009, 4566–4568 (2009).

L. N. Ayton, G. J. Suaning, N. H. Lovell, M. A. Petoe, D. A. X. Nayagam, T.-L. E. Brawn, and A. N. Burkitt, “Suprachoroidal Retinal Prostheses,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 125–138.

N. C. Sinclair, M. N. Shivdasani, T. Perera, L. N. Gillespie, H. J. McDermott, L. N. Ayton, and P. J. Blamey, “The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.57(11), 4948–4961 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. E. Brelén, V. Vince, B. Gérard, C. Veraart, and J. Delbeke, “Measurement of Evoked Potentials after Electrical Stimulation of the Human Optic Nerve,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(10), 5351–5355 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Rothermel, V. Wieczorek, L. Liu, A. Stett, M. Gerhardt, A. Harscher, and S. Kibbel, “A 1600-pixel Subretinal Chip with DC-free Terminals and ± 2 V Supply Optimized for Long Lifetime and High Stimulation Efficiency,” in 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers (2008), pp. 144–602.

K. J. Wu, C. Zhang, W. C. Huang, L. M. Li, and Q. S. Ren, “Current research of C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind,” in 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (2010), pp. 5875–5878.

T. Stieglitz, W. Haberer, C. Lau, and M. Goertz, “Development of an inductively coupled epiretinal vision prosthesis,” inThe 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2004), 2, pp. 4178–4181.

W. Liu, E. McGucken, K. Vichienchom, S. M. Clements, S. C. Demarco, M. Humayun, E. de Juan, J. Weiland, and R. Greenberg, “Retinal prosthesis to aid the visually impaired,” in IEEE SMC’99 Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Cat. No.99CH37028) (1999), 4, pp. 364–369 vol.4.

R. Hornig, M. Dapper, E. Le Joliff, R. Hill, K. Ishaque, C. Posch, R. Benosman, Y. LeMer, J.-A. Sahel, and S. Picaud, “Pixium Vision: First Clinical Results and Innovative Developments,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 99–113.

K. Stingl, K. U. Bartz-Schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann, F. Gekeler, U. Greppmaier, S. Hipp, G. Hörtdörfer, C. Kernstock, A. Koitschev, A. Kusnyerik, H. Sachs, A. Schatz, K. T. Stingl, T. Peters, B. Wilhelm, and E. Zrenner, “Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS,” Proc. Biol. Sci.280(1757), 20130077 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Yang, P.-K. Lin, C. Wan, W.-C. Yang, L.-J. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and C.-C. Chiao, “Responses of Rabbit Retinal Ganglion Cells to Subretinal Electrical Stimulation Using a Silicon-Based Microphotodiode Array,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.52(13), 9353–9361 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fujikado, “Retinal Prosthesis by Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS), Japanese Approach,” in Artificial Vision: A Clinical Guide, V. P. Gabel, ed. (Springer International Publishing, 2017), pp. 139–150.

V. Gaillet, A. Cutrone, P. Vagni, F. Artoni, S. A. R. Pinto, D. L. D. Paola, S. Micera, and D. Ghezzi, “Optic nerve intraneural stimulation allows selective visual cortex activation,” bioRxiv311035 (2018).

R. E. MacLaren and R. A. Pearson, Stem Cell Therapy and the Retina (Nature Publishing Group, 2007), p. 1352.

J. Clausen, Visual Sensations (Phosphenes) Produced by AC Sine Wave Stimulation, Visual Sensations (Phosphenes) Produced by AC Sine Wave Stimulation (Ejnar Munksgaard, 1955).

E. Greenbaum and D. Zhou, Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications (2009).

A. T. Fahim, S. P. Daiger, and R. G. Weleber, “Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa Overview,” in GeneReviews®, M. P. Adam, H. H. Ardinger, R. A. Pagon, S. E. Wallace, L. J. Bean, K. Stephens, and A. Amemiya, eds. (University of Washington, Seattle, 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Visual prosthesis along the visual pathway
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Visual Cortex stimulation. (a) Medial view of the occipital cortex showing location of V1, visual area 2 (V2), and visual area 3 (V3), based on retinotopic mapping experiments with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [73]. (b) A conceptual design of an intracortical visual prosthesis [40]. The threshold current versus geometric surface area for electrodes. TiN coated electrodes are indicated by open circles and uncoated PtIr electrodes are indicated by solid squares [69]. (d) Photograph of exposed surface of the right visual cortex of the blind subject. The overlaid dots, at ∼2.4 mm spacing, were reference points for surface stimulation [38]. (e) Comparison of threshold currents of nine microelectrodes using cathodic-first (closed bars) and anodic-first (open bars) stimulation. Stimulation parameters: F = 200 Hz, PD = 200 us, TL = 250 ms [38]. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [73], copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd and [40], copyright 2003 Wiley and [74], copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd and [38], copyright 1996 Oxford University Press.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optic nerve stimulation. (a) Schematic image of penetrating optic nerve electrical stimulation system. (b) Photographs of OpticSELINE cuff-shaped stimulating electrode device. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [35]. (c) Retinotopic organization of the volunteer's optic nerve. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [76], copyright Elsevier. The probable position of the 4 contacts (labeled 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°) around the optic nerve is indicated on the right; on the left, the quadrant–contact relationship refers to the position in the visual field of phosphenes elicited when stimulating through a given contact. (d) The relationship between the size of the perceived phosphenes and the electrical stimulation. The sizes of the perceived phosphenes were significantly larger with higher electrical currents (Spearman rank order correlation: electrode 1 r = 0.865, P < 0.05; electrode 2 r = 0.706, P < 0.05; electrode 3 r = 0.893, P < 0.05). Reproduced with permission from Ref. [42], copyright Springer Nature.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Epiretinal prosthesis. (a) Diagrams showing the schematics of the Argus I implant and (b) the electrode array on the retina. (c) Graph showing the changes in the electrode–retina distance with the postoperative time. Electrodes L1, L2, L5, and L6 are electrodes on quadrant 4, and they represented by squares, circles, up triangles, and down triangles, respectively. Mean distance of all 4 electrodes are presented by filled diamonds. Red line = linear regression of the mean; SD = standard deviation. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [84], copyright Elsevier. d-f) Clinical trials of Argus II. d) Photograph of a subject with the Argus II system showing the video glasses (a), the Video processing unit (b) and the inductive coil (c). (e) Subject showing the format for the letter identification tasks with a letter displayed on a monitor in white on black, Century Gothic font. The monitor on the side shows the real time map of the electrodes being stimulated in the array (A) and the camera view (V); note that the actual test is carried out in the dark. (f) Fundus photograph of the retinal stimulating array in situ. The optic nerve is indicated and the retinal tack that secures the electrode array is clearly visible. (g) Box and whisker graphs illustrating the median percentage correct and quartiles for Test I letter Groups A, B and C comparing the device on and off. Group A represents easy letter group, B is medium, and C is complicated letter group. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [32], copyright BMJ Publishing group.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Subretinal prosthesis. (a) The cable from the implanted chip in the eye leads under the temporal muscle to the exit behind the ear and connects with a wirelessly operated power control unit. (b) Position of the implant under the transparent retina [54]. (c) Retina Implant Alpha IMS: clinical setting. Illustration of the placement of the receiver coil and the power supply cable in an X-ray image. (d) Image of the Retina Implant Alpha IMS on the eye fundus [55]. (e) Photograph of a large external photodiode and the connected bipolar strip electrode. Bar, 5 mm [89]. (f) Photographs of the decisive surgical step for implantation ; Fixation of the silicone patch by sutures to the lateral orbital rim [34]. (g) Landolt ‘C’ ring used in clinical tests of visual acuity. (h) Letters (8.5 cm high, 1.7 cm line width). (i) Random dot pattern moving in four different directions to assess spatio-temporal resolution. The inserts under each panel show the best results of patient 2 with the chip turned on and chip turned off. Solid line, chance rate; dashed line, psychometrically accepted recognition threshold; probability p as estimated from the binomial function [54]. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [54], copyright 2010 The Royal Society and [55], copyright 2013 The Royal Society and [89], copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd and [34], copyright 2008 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Suprachoroidal device. (a) Potential anatomical locations for retinal prosthesis implantation [20]. (b) Implantable array and orbital lead wire assembly on the left with percutaneous pedestal on the right. Each abbreviation is as follows: (EA) electrode array, (LW) lead wire, (PC) percutaneous connector, (RE) return electrode and (G) grommet [94]. (c) Photographs of the surgical procedures during the insertion of the electrode array (A) connected with a multiplexer integrated circuit (B) [97]. (d) Results of the localization test in patient during follow-up period. Red square represent the average deviation of the touched point from the center of square with the system turned on, and blue triangle represent that with the system turned off [97]. (e) The relationship between the brightness of the phosphenes and the number of pulse. With the increase of pulse number, the brightness increased up to 20 pulse and saturated. Bar represents standard error. P < 0.05 [98] Reproduced with permission from Ref. [20], copyright 2007 Springer and [94], copyright 2013 Wiley Publishing Group and [97], copyright 2015 Springer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Visual prosthesis devices and applications