Abstract

The use of Tb3+ co-doping for the enhancement of Er3+: 4I11/24I13/2 mid-infrared emissions can conquer the self-termination bottleneck and provide possible applications in medical surgery, dentistry, remote atmospheric sensing, light detection, and the optical parametric oscillator. The effect of Tb3+ co-doping on the fluorescence emission properties and mutual energy transfer mechanisms were investigated. It was found that Tb3+ greatly increased Er3+ 2.7μm emission by depopulating the Er3+: 4I13/2 level while having little influence on the Er3+: 4I11/2 level, leading to a greater population inversion. The energy transfer efficiency from Er3+: 4I13/2 to Tb3+: 7F0 is as high as 90.27%, and the Er3+: 4I11/24I13/2 fluorescence lifetime ratio (τ(4I11/2)/ τ(4I13/2)) of the Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystal was calculated to be 422.79%, indicating that Tb3+ ion is an excellent deactivator with which the self-termination bottleneck effect was effectively suppressed. All of these factors imply that Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystal may be a promising material for 2.7μm laser applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2018 (2)

T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, Y. Hua, and R. Ye, “2.75 μm spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanism in Er/Ho codoped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 744, 502–506 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

Q. Tang, H. Xia, Q. Sheng, S. He, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Luminescence properties of Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped Na5Lu9F32 single crystals for 2.7 μm mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Mater. 72, 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, W. Jin, Y. Fang, Y. He, Y. Li, Y. Liu, M. Liao, and J. Zou, “Comparative study of 2.7 μm emission of Ho3+ desensitized Er3+ in tellurite and bismuth glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1147–1156 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. You, H. Xia, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Co-effects of Yb3+ sensitization and Pr3+ deactivation to enhance 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er3+ in CaLaGa3O7 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2411–2423 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Tang, H. Xia, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced luminescence at 2.7 μm of Na5Lu9F32 single crystals co-doped Er3+/Pr3+ grown by Bridgman method,” Appl. Opt. 56(21), 5786–5793 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Li, C. Wang, F. Huang, J. Zhang, Q. Liu, S. Xu, X. Gao, and Y. Tian, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

G. Sun, R. Chen, Y. J. Ding, and J. B. Khurgin, “Upconversion due to optical-phonon-assisted anti-stokes photoluminescence in bulk GaN,” ACS Photonics 2(5), 628–632 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Hong, L. Zhang, J. He, and Y. Hang, “Enhanced emission of 2.86 μm from diode-pumped Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped PbF2 crystal,” Opt. Express 23(4), 3920–3927 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

J. Chen, D. Sun, J. Luo, J. Xiao, H. Kang, H. Zhang, M. Cheng, Q. Zhang, and S. Yin, “Spectroscopic, diode-pumped laser properties and gamma irradiation effect on Yb, Er, Ho:GYSGG crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1218–1220 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lv, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Spectroscopic investigations of Ho3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 and Eu3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 crystals for 2.7 μm emission,” J. Lumin. 144, 117–121 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. J. Ding and J. B. Khurgin, “From anti‐Stokes photoluminescence to resonant Raman scattering in GaN single crystals and GaN‐based heterostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 660–677 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Guan, Y. Tian, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer processes in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass for 2.7-μm laser materials,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(7), 071603 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Hang, L. Zhang, J. Yin, P. Hu, and E. Ma, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Ho3+-doped LuLiF4 single crystal for 2 μm and 2.9 μm lasers,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1610–1615 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. M. Van Der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near‐infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Liu, J. Liu, and Y. Tang, “Performance of a diode end-pumped Cr, Er: YSGG laser at 2.79 μm,” Laser Phys. 18(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Yang, Z. Dai, and Z. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+: YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Palatnikov, N. Sidorov, and V. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1-3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar and F. Castano, “Characterization of spectroscopic and laser properties of Pr3+ in Sr5(PO4)3F crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 911–915 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Dickinson, P. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. King, and S. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1996 (1)

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Cross sections and quantum yields of the 3 μm emission for Er3+ and Ho3+ dopants in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4274–4279 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377(6549), 500–503 (1995).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. De Waal, “Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 283–290 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1983 (1)

C. K. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

W. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 450–457 (1974).
[Crossref]

1968 (2)

M. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(10), 4774–4780 (1968).
[Crossref]

M. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145(1), 325–337 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

W. F. Krupke and J. B. Gruber, “Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: the absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate,” Phys. Rev. 139(6A), A2008–A2016 (1965).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare‐earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aarts, L.

B. M. Van Der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near‐infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alekel, T.

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
[Crossref]

Altermatt, H. J.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aull, B.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd: YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Baesso, M.

D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
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Beach, R.

Beggiora, M.

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
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D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

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R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377(6549), 500–503 (1995).
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T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
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Q. Tang, H. Xia, Q. Sheng, S. He, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Luminescence properties of Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped Na5Lu9F32 single crystals for 2.7 μm mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Mater. 72, 63–70 (2017).
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Q. Tang, H. Xia, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced luminescence at 2.7 μm of Na5Lu9F32 single crystals co-doped Er3+/Pr3+ grown by Bridgman method,” Appl. Opt. 56(21), 5786–5793 (2017).
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Chen, J.

Chen, R.

G. Sun, R. Chen, Y. J. Ding, and J. B. Khurgin, “Upconversion due to optical-phonon-assisted anti-stokes photoluminescence in bulk GaN,” ACS Photonics 2(5), 628–632 (2015).
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Clark, B. L.

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
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D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. De Waal, “Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 283–290 (1995).
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B. Dickinson, P. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. King, and S. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001).
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Ding, Y. J.

G. Sun, R. Chen, Y. J. Ding, and J. B. Khurgin, “Upconversion due to optical-phonon-assisted anti-stokes photoluminescence in bulk GaN,” ACS Photonics 2(5), 628–632 (2015).
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Y. J. Ding and J. B. Khurgin, “From anti‐Stokes photoluminescence to resonant Raman scattering in GaN single crystals and GaN‐based heterostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 660–677 (2012).
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G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Palatnikov, N. Sidorov, and V. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1-3), 139–144 (2004).
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R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377(6549), 500–503 (1995).
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J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
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R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377(6549), 500–503 (1995).
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Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. De Waal, “Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 283–290 (1995).
[Crossref]

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W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Felix, D.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
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C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
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V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

French, J. A.

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
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H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
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V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
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Gao, X.

Golding, P.

B. Dickinson, P. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. King, and S. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

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R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377(6549), 500–503 (1995).
[Crossref]

Grew, G. W.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grossenbacher, R.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
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Gruber, J. B.

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
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W. F. Krupke and J. B. Gruber, “Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: the absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate,” Phys. Rev. 139(6A), A2008–A2016 (1965).
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Gu, X.

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
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Guo, Y.

Hang, Y.

He, J.

He, S.

Q. Tang, H. Xia, Q. Sheng, S. He, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Luminescence properties of Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped Na5Lu9F32 single crystals for 2.7 μm mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Mater. 72, 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
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Hong, J.

Hu, H.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

Hu, P.

C. Zhao, Y. Hang, L. Zhang, J. Yin, P. Hu, and E. Ma, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Ho3+-doped LuLiF4 single crystal for 2 μm and 2.9 μm lasers,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1610–1615 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hua, Y.

H. Ma, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, Y. Hua, and R. Ye, “2.75 μm spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanism in Er/Ho codoped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 744, 502–506 (2018).
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T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
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B. Li, C. Wang, F. Huang, J. Zhang, Q. Liu, S. Xu, X. Gao, and Y. Tian, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512 (2017).
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Hui, L.

J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
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H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
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B. Dickinson, P. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. King, and S. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001).
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W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
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C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
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X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
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Keszler, D. A.

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
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G. Sun, R. Chen, Y. J. Ding, and J. B. Khurgin, “Upconversion due to optical-phonon-assisted anti-stokes photoluminescence in bulk GaN,” ACS Photonics 2(5), 628–632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ding and J. B. Khurgin, “From anti‐Stokes photoluminescence to resonant Raman scattering in GaN single crystals and GaN‐based heterostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 660–677 (2012).
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King, T.

B. Dickinson, P. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. King, and S. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001).
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S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Cross sections and quantum yields of the 3 μm emission for Er3+ and Ho3+ dopants in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4274–4279 (1995).
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W. F. Krupke and J. B. Gruber, “Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: the absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate,” Phys. Rev. 139(6A), A2008–A2016 (1965).
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T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
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Li, J.

Y. Liu, Z. You, H. Xia, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Co-effects of Yb3+ sensitization and Pr3+ deactivation to enhance 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er3+ in CaLaGa3O7 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2411–2423 (2017).
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Liao, M.

Liu, J.

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
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J. Liu, J. Liu, and Y. Tang, “Performance of a diode end-pumped Cr, Er: YSGG laser at 2.79 μm,” Laser Phys. 18(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
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Liu, Q.

H. Ma, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, Y. Hua, and R. Ye, “2.75 μm spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanism in Er/Ho codoped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 744, 502–506 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, C. Wang, F. Huang, J. Zhang, Q. Liu, S. Xu, X. Gao, and Y. Tian, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512 (2017).
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Liu, Y.

Luo, J.

Lv, S.

S. Lv, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Spectroscopic investigations of Ho3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 and Eu3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 crystals for 2.7 μm emission,” J. Lumin. 144, 117–121 (2013).
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Ma, E.

C. Zhao, Y. Hang, L. Zhang, J. Yin, P. Hu, and E. Ma, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Ho3+-doped LuLiF4 single crystal for 2 μm and 2.9 μm lasers,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1610–1615 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, Y. Hua, and R. Ye, “2.75 μm spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanism in Er/Ho codoped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 744, 502–506 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
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Ma-Li, G.

J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
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J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miranda, L.

D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

Montagna, M.

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

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R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377(6549), 500–503 (1995).
[Crossref]

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D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
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[Crossref]

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S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Cross sections and quantum yields of the 3 μm emission for Er3+ and Ho3+ dopants in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4274–4279 (1995).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

B. Dickinson, P. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. King, and S. Jackson, “Investigation of a 791-nm pulsed-pumped 2.7-μm Er-doped ZBLAN fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 315–321 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pratisto, H.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiang, L.

J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reaney, I.

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reisfeld, R.

C. K. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ren, G.

T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, T. A.

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rolli, R.

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

Romano, V.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruderman, W.

Ryan, J. R.

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Palatnikov, N. Sidorov, and V. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1-3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sampaio, J.

D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sandrock, T.

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar and F. Castano, “Characterization of spectroscopic and laser properties of Pr3+ in Sr5(PO4)3F crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 911–915 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A.

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Q.

Q. Tang, H. Xia, Q. Sheng, S. He, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Luminescence properties of Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped Na5Lu9F32 single crystals for 2.7 μm mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Mater. 72, 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sidorov, N.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. Palatnikov, N. Sidorov, and V. Kalinnikov, “Dysprosium-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Optical properties and effect of temperature on fluorescence dynamics,” J. Mol. Struct. 704(1-3), 139–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Cross sections and quantum yields of the 3 μm emission for Er3+ and Ho3+ dopants in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4274–4279 (1995).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, D.

Sun, G.

G. Sun, R. Chen, Y. J. Ding, and J. B. Khurgin, “Upconversion due to optical-phonon-assisted anti-stokes photoluminescence in bulk GaN,” ACS Photonics 2(5), 628–632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

H. Yang, Z. Dai, and Z. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+: YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, H. Xia, Q. Sheng, S. He, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Luminescence properties of Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped Na5Lu9F32 single crystals for 2.7 μm mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Mater. 72, 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Tang, H. Xia, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced luminescence at 2.7 μm of Na5Lu9F32 single crystals co-doped Er3+/Pr3+ grown by Bridgman method,” Appl. Opt. 56(21), 5786–5793 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
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Tang, Y.

J. Liu, J. Liu, and Y. Tang, “Performance of a diode end-pumped Cr, Er: YSGG laser at 2.79 μm,” Laser Phys. 18(10), 1124–1127 (2008).
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Tian, Y.

Tikhomirov, V.

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tu, C.

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. You, H. Xia, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Co-effects of Yb3+ sensitization and Pr3+ deactivation to enhance 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er3+ in CaLaGa3O7 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2411–2423 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lv, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Spectroscopic investigations of Ho3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 and Eu3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 crystals for 2.7 μm emission,” J. Lumin. 144, 117–121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Der Ende, B. M.

B. M. Van Der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near‐infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
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Vodopyanov, K. L.

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
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B. Li, C. Wang, F. Huang, J. Zhang, Q. Liu, S. Xu, X. Gao, and Y. Tian, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. You, H. Xia, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Co-effects of Yb3+ sensitization and Pr3+ deactivation to enhance 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er3+ in CaLaGa3O7 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2411–2423 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lv, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Spectroscopic investigations of Ho3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 and Eu3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 crystals for 2.7 μm emission,” J. Lumin. 144, 117–121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weber, H. P.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, and H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(1), 100–108 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, M.

M. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(10), 4774–4780 (1968).
[Crossref]

M. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
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Xia, H.

Q. Tang, H. Xia, Q. Sheng, S. He, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Luminescence properties of Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped Na5Lu9F32 single crystals for 2.7 μm mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Mater. 72, 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. You, H. Xia, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Co-effects of Yb3+ sensitization and Pr3+ deactivation to enhance 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er3+ in CaLaGa3O7 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2411–2423 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Tang, H. Xia, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced luminescence at 2.7 μm of Na5Lu9F32 single crystals co-doped Er3+/Pr3+ grown by Bridgman method,” Appl. Opt. 56(21), 5786–5793 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

Xu, J.

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

Xu, S.

T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Li, C. Wang, F. Huang, J. Zhang, Q. Liu, S. Xu, X. Gao, and Y. Tian, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
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Y. Yan, A. J. Faber, and H. De Waal, “Luminescence quenching by OH groups in highly Er-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181(3), 283–290 (1995).
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H. Yang, Z. Dai, and Z. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+: YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ye, R.

H. Ma, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, Y. Hua, and R. Ye, “2.75 μm spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanism in Er/Ho codoped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 744, 502–506 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.

P. Zhang, J. Yin, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Hong, J. He, and Y. Hang, “Intense 2.8 μm emission of Ho3+ doped PbF2 single crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3942–3945 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Hang, L. Zhang, J. Yin, P. Hu, and E. Ma, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Ho3+-doped LuLiF4 single crystal for 2 μm and 2.9 μm lasers,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1610–1615 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yin, S.

You, Z.

Y. Liu, Z. You, H. Xia, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Co-effects of Yb3+ sensitization and Pr3+ deactivation to enhance 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er3+ in CaLaGa3O7 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2411–2423 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lv, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Spectroscopic investigations of Ho3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 and Eu3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 crystals for 2.7 μm emission,” J. Lumin. 144, 117–121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu-Xi, H.

J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

T. Wang, F. Huang, G. Ren, W. Cao, Y. Tian, R. Lei, J. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Broadband 2.9 μm emission and high energy transfer efficiency in Er3+/Dy3+ co-doped fluoroaluminate glass,” Opt. Mater. 75, 875–879 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Tang, H. Xia, Q. Sheng, S. He, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Luminescence properties of Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped Na5Lu9F32 single crystals for 2.7 μm mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Mater. 72, 63–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Li, C. Wang, F. Huang, J. Zhang, Q. Liu, S. Xu, X. Gao, and Y. Tian, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Tang, H. Xia, J. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced luminescence at 2.7 μm of Na5Lu9F32 single crystals co-doped Er3+/Pr3+ grown by Bridgman method,” Appl. Opt. 56(21), 5786–5793 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Guan, Y. Tian, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer processes in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass for 2.7-μm laser materials,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(7), 071603 (2012).
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Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, Y.

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

C. Wang, H. Xia, Z. Feng, Z. Zhang, D. Jiang, J. Zhang, S. He, Q. Tang, X. Gu, and Y. Zhang, “Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+ doping concentrations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 82, 157–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, Y. Hang, L. Zhang, J. Yin, P. Hu, and E. Ma, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Ho3+-doped LuLiF4 single crystal for 2 μm and 2.9 μm lasers,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1610–1615 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G.

Zheng, L.

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou-Guo, G.

J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. You, H. Xia, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Co-effects of Yb3+ sensitization and Pr3+ deactivation to enhance 2.7 μm mid-infrared emission of Er3+ in CaLaGa3O7 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2411–2423 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lv, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, and C. Tu, “Spectroscopic investigations of Ho3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 and Eu3+/Er3+: CaYAlO4 crystals for 2.7 μm emission,” J. Lumin. 144, 117–121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, X.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 178(5), 326–329 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zonetti, L.

D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zou, J.

Zwieback, I.

ACS Photonics (1)

G. Sun, R. Chen, Y. J. Ding, and J. B. Khurgin, “Upconversion due to optical-phonon-assisted anti-stokes photoluminescence in bulk GaN,” ACS Photonics 2(5), 628–632 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. M. Van Der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near‐infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. de Sousa, L. Zonetti, M. Bell, J. Sampaio, L. Nunes, M. Baesso, A. Bento, and L. Miranda, “On the observation of 2.8 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+-and Yb3+-doped low silica calcium aluminate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(7), 908–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. Tikhomirov, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, I. Reaney, M. Beggiora, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and R. Rolli, “Fabrication and characterization of nanoscale, Er3+-doped, ultratransparent oxy-fluoride glass ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1937–1939 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Chin. Phys. B (1)

J. En-Cai, L. Qiang, N. Ming-Ming, L. Hui, H. Yu-Xi, G. Zhou-Guo, and G. Ma-Li, “Spectroscopic properties of heavily Ho3+-doped barium yttrium fluoride crystals,” Chin. Phys. B 24(9), 094216 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

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[Crossref]

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J. Alloys Compd. (3)

Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. You, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and C. Tu, “Growth, structure and spectroscopic properties of melilite Er: CaLaGa3O7 crystal for use in mid-infrared laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 706, 387–394 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ma, Y. Tian, Q. Liu, Y. Hua, and R. Ye, “2.75 μm spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanism in Er/Ho codoped fluorotellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 744, 502–506 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, L. Su, X. Xu, J. Wang, D. Jiang, L. Zheng, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, and J. Xu, “Improved 2.79 μm continuous-wave laser performance from a diode-end pumped Er, Pr: CaF2 crystal,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3370–3375 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Cross sections and quantum yields of the 3 μm emission for Er3+ and Ho3+ dopants in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(9), 4274–4279 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, F. Castano, J. A. French, J. B. Gruber, T. A. Reynolds, T. Alekel, D. A. Keszler, and B. L. Clark, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in LaSc3(BO3)4 host,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 4997–5001 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar and F. Castano, “Characterization of spectroscopic and laser properties of Pr3+ in Sr5(PO4)3F crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 911–915 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(10), 4774–4780 (1968).
[Crossref]

G. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare‐earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Less Common Met. (1)

C. K. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (2)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simplified energy level diagram of Er3+ and Tb3+ co-doped system. ESA: excited state absorption, ETU: energy transfer up-conversion, ET: energy transfer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XRD patterns of the Er3+: PbF2 and Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 single crystals.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectra of Er3+: PbF2 and Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 single crystals in the range of 300-2600nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The near-infrared emission spectra of the Er3+: PbF2 and Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystals.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The up-conversion emission spectra of the Er3+: PbF2 and Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystals. The inset shows the dependence of the up-conversion fluorescence intensity for the Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystal.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The mid-infrared emission spectra of the Er3+: PbF2 and Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystals.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)(b) Fluorescence decay curves of the Er3+: 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 energy levels of Er3+: PbF2 crystal. (c)(d) Fluorescence decay curves of the Er3+: 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 energy levels of Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystal.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Phonon energy of different laser host materials.

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Table 2 Barycenter wavelengths, measured and calculated line strengths of Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystal.

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Table 3 Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω2,4,6, calculated branching ratio, and lifetime of Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2, Er3+: PbF2, Er3+: NaYF4, and Er3+: CaLaGa3O7 crystals. (τm is measured radiative lifetime)

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Table 4 Calculated radiative transition rates, branching ratios and calculated radiative lifetimes for different transition levels of Er3+/Tb3+: PbF2 crystal.

Equations (1)

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σ e (λ)= β λ 5 I(λ) 8πc n 2 τ r λI(λ)dλ