Abstract

The linear and nonlinear optical behavior of novel sulfur based polymer materials are evaluated at the optical communication wavelength, 1550 nm. These polymers are attractive for near-IR (NIR) and mid-IR applications. The two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient (β) and second order refractive index (n2) of chalcogenide hybrid inorganic/organic polymers (CHIPs) from poly(sulfur-random-(1,3-diisopropenylbenzen) (poly(S-r-DIB)) are measured via the Z-scan technique. In this study, we investigated the linear and nonlinear optical behavior of two types of CHIPs where the weight percentage of sulfur is varied (poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%)). The TPA coefficients for poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%) obtained were 0.11 cm/GW and 0.063 cm/GW, respectively. The n2 for poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%) was measured and determined to be 2.45 × 10−15 cm2/W and 3.06 × 10−15 cm2/W, respectively, and are in good agreement with Miller’s rule prediction. These materials exhibit low cost, low temperature processing, high transparency in the near to mid-IR range (except a few interval ranges) and relatively high refractive index, providing a unique set of properties for optics and photonics device applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

L. E. Anderson, T. S. Kleine, Y. Zhang, D. D. Phan, S. Namnabat, E. A. LaVilla, K. M. Konopka, L. R. Diaz, M. S. Manchester, J. Schwiegerling, R. S. Glass, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and R. A. Norwood, “Chalcogenide hybrid inorganic/organic polymers: ultrahigh refractive index polymers for infrared imaging,” ACS Macro Lett. 6(5), 500–504 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. S. Kleine, N. Nguyen, L. E. Anderson, S. Namnabhat, E. A. LaVilla, S. A. Showghi, P. T. Dirlam, C. B. Arrington, M. A. Manchester, J. Schwiegerling, R. S. Glass, K. Char, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, and J. Pyun, “High refractive index sulfur copolymers with improved thermomechanical properties: inverse vulcanization of sulfur with (1,3,5)-triisopropenylbenzene,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(10), 1152–1156 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. J. Griebel, N. A. Nguyen, S. Namnabat, L. E. Anderson, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “Preparation of dynamic covalent covalent polymers via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur for healable infrared optical materials,” ACS Macro Lett. 4, 862–866 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. S. Mayer, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset detection using supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15440–15451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

J. J. Griebel, S. Namnabat, E. T. Kim, R. Himmelhuber, D. H. Moronta, W. J. Chung, A. G. Simmonds, K. J. Kim, J. van der Laan, N. A. Nguyen, E. L. Dereniak, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, and J. Pyun, “New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3014–3018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Namnabat, J. J. Gabriel, J. Pyun, and R. A. Norwood, “Optical properties of sulfur copolymers for infrared applications,” Proc. SPIE 8983, 89830D (2014).

T. Wang, X. Gai, W. Wei, R. Wang, Z. Yang, X. Shen, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Systematic z-scan measurements of the third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1011–1022 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

J. G. Liu and M. Ueda, “High refractive index polymers: fundamental research and practical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(47), 8907–8919 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

A. A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. Smith, I. T. Sorokina, and E. Sorokin, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(9), 1844–1852 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 119–121 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. B. Seddon, “Chalcogenide glasses: a review of their preparation, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44–50 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

E. W. V. Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

1970 (1)

C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B 2(6), 2045–2048 (1970).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitchison, J. S.

A. A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. Smith, I. T. Sorokina, and E. Sorokin, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

Anderson, L. E.

L. E. Anderson, T. S. Kleine, Y. Zhang, D. D. Phan, S. Namnabat, E. A. LaVilla, K. M. Konopka, L. R. Diaz, M. S. Manchester, J. Schwiegerling, R. S. Glass, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and R. A. Norwood, “Chalcogenide hybrid inorganic/organic polymers: ultrahigh refractive index polymers for infrared imaging,” ACS Macro Lett. 6(5), 500–504 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. S. Kleine, N. Nguyen, L. E. Anderson, S. Namnabhat, E. A. LaVilla, S. A. Showghi, P. T. Dirlam, C. B. Arrington, M. A. Manchester, J. Schwiegerling, R. S. Glass, K. Char, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, and J. Pyun, “High refractive index sulfur copolymers with improved thermomechanical properties: inverse vulcanization of sulfur with (1,3,5)-triisopropenylbenzene,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(10), 1152–1156 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Griebel, N. A. Nguyen, S. Namnabat, L. E. Anderson, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “Preparation of dynamic covalent covalent polymers via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur for healable infrared optical materials,” ACS Macro Lett. 4, 862–866 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arrington, C. B.

T. S. Kleine, N. Nguyen, L. E. Anderson, S. Namnabhat, E. A. LaVilla, S. A. Showghi, P. T. Dirlam, C. B. Arrington, M. A. Manchester, J. Schwiegerling, R. S. Glass, K. Char, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, and J. Pyun, “High refractive index sulfur copolymers with improved thermomechanical properties: inverse vulcanization of sulfur with (1,3,5)-triisopropenylbenzene,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(10), 1152–1156 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boggess, T. F.

E. W. V. Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Boskovic, A.

Bulla, D. A.

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Char, K.

L. E. Anderson, T. S. Kleine, Y. Zhang, D. D. Phan, S. Namnabat, E. A. LaVilla, K. M. Konopka, L. R. Diaz, M. S. Manchester, J. Schwiegerling, R. S. Glass, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and R. A. Norwood, “Chalcogenide hybrid inorganic/organic polymers: ultrahigh refractive index polymers for infrared imaging,” ACS Macro Lett. 6(5), 500–504 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. S. Kleine, N. Nguyen, L. E. Anderson, S. Namnabhat, E. A. LaVilla, S. A. Showghi, P. T. Dirlam, C. B. Arrington, M. A. Manchester, J. Schwiegerling, R. S. Glass, K. Char, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, and J. Pyun, “High refractive index sulfur copolymers with improved thermomechanical properties: inverse vulcanization of sulfur with (1,3,5)-triisopropenylbenzene,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(10), 1152–1156 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Griebel, N. A. Nguyen, S. Namnabat, L. E. Anderson, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “Preparation of dynamic covalent covalent polymers via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur for healable infrared optical materials,” ACS Macro Lett. 4, 862–866 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Griebel, S. Namnabat, E. T. Kim, R. Himmelhuber, D. H. Moronta, W. J. Chung, A. G. Simmonds, K. J. Kim, J. van der Laan, N. A. Nguyen, E. L. Dereniak, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, and J. Pyun, “New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3014–3018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheong, S.-W.

Chernikov, S. V.

Choi, D.-Y.

Chung, W. J.

J. J. Griebel, S. Namnabat, E. T. Kim, R. Himmelhuber, D. H. Moronta, W. J. Chung, A. G. Simmonds, K. J. Kim, J. van der Laan, N. A. Nguyen, E. L. Dereniak, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, and J. Pyun, “New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3014–3018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. J. Griebel, N. A. Nguyen, S. Namnabat, L. E. Anderson, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “Preparation of dynamic covalent covalent polymers via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur for healable infrared optical materials,” ACS Macro Lett. 4, 862–866 (2015).
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Norwood, R. A.

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J. J. Griebel, N. A. Nguyen, S. Namnabat, L. E. Anderson, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “Preparation of dynamic covalent covalent polymers via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur for healable infrared optical materials,” ACS Macro Lett. 4, 862–866 (2015).
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J. J. Griebel, S. Namnabat, E. T. Kim, R. Himmelhuber, D. H. Moronta, W. J. Chung, A. G. Simmonds, K. J. Kim, J. van der Laan, N. A. Nguyen, E. L. Dereniak, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, and J. Pyun, “New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3014–3018 (2014).
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[Crossref]

J. J. Griebel, N. A. Nguyen, S. Namnabat, L. E. Anderson, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “Preparation of dynamic covalent covalent polymers via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur for healable infrared optical materials,” ACS Macro Lett. 4, 862–866 (2015).
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S. Namnabat, J. J. Gabriel, J. Pyun, and R. A. Norwood, “Optical properties of sulfur copolymers for infrared applications,” Proc. SPIE 8983, 89830D (2014).

J. J. Griebel, S. Namnabat, E. T. Kim, R. Himmelhuber, D. H. Moronta, W. J. Chung, A. G. Simmonds, K. J. Kim, J. van der Laan, N. A. Nguyen, E. L. Dereniak, M. E. Mackay, K. Char, R. S. Glass, R. A. Norwood, and J. Pyun, “New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3014–3018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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A. A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. Smith, I. T. Sorokina, and E. Sorokin, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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W. J. Chung, J. J. Griebel, E. T. Kim, H. Yoon, A. G. Simmonds, H. J. Ji, P. T. Dirlam, R. S. Glass, J. J. Wie, N. A. Nguyen, B. W. Guralnick, J. Park, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. E. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, A. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, J. Pyun, Á. Somogyi, P. Theato, M. E. Mackay, Y. Sung, K. Char, and J. Pyun, “The use of elemental sulfur as an alternative feedstock for polymeric materials,” Nat. Chem. 5(6), 518–524 (2013).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Poly(S-r-DIB) compounds: (a) Bulk sample of poly(S50%-r-DIB50%). (b) and (c) images through two thin samples of poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%) with 291 µm and 415 µm thickness, respectively. Both materials have low transmission in the visible spectrum.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Copolymer optical properties: (a) Transmission spectrum for poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%). These transmittance values have been normalized to correct for Fresnel reflections between the incident medium, the poly(S-r-DIB), and the glass substrate. (b) Attenuation spectrum of the materials in terms of dB per centimeter (dB/cm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Refractive index as function of wavelength for both materials.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental set-up of the Z-scan measurement. The output wavelength was tuned to 1550nm by the OPA. A spatial filter was installed to clean up the output beam from the OPA. Beam splitter 1 (BS1) and beam splitter 2 (BS2) were used to monitor the reference input beam and open aperture transmission, respectively. An aperture was used in order to collect the closed aperture transmission by PD3. The focal length of the focusing lens was + 30 cm and the input collimated beam radius was 1.6 mm, as determined using the knife-edge technique.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Z-scan open aperture measurements. (a), (b) Measured normalized transmissions versus sample position for poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%), respectively, with TPA nonlinear fits. The TPA coefficients were calculated to be β = 0.11 cm/GW and β = 0.063 cm/GW for poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%) respectively. The transmissions were measured by taking the ratio of the optical powers from P PD2 / P PD1 . The peak irradiance at the focal point was roughly ~80 GW/cm2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Z-scan closed aperture measurements. (a), (b) Measured normalized transmissions versus sample position for poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%) respectively with nonlinear refractive index fits. The n2 coefficients were calculated to be n2 = + 2.45 × 10−15 cm2/W and n2 = + 3.06 × 10−15 cm2/W for poly(S50%-r-DIB50%) and poly(S70%-r-DIB30%), respectively. The transmissions were measured by dividing the optical powers from P PD3 / P PD2 . The peak irradiance at the focal point was roughly ~80 GW/cm2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of refractive index of CHIPs with conventional optical polymers and Chalcogenide glasses as the function of wavelength.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Comparison of n2 between experimental and the predicted values, using Miller’s rule

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Table 2 Summary of optical properties for common infrared materials and sulfur copolymers.

Equations (4)

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  dI dz' = α 0 β I 2
 T= m=0 + [ q 0 ( z )] m (m+1) 3/2
 T=1+ 4(z/ z R )Δ φ 0 ( ( z/ z R ) 2 +9)( ( z/ z R ) 2 +1)
  n 2 = δ×0.0395 n 0 2 ( n 0 2 1 4π ) 4  ( cm 2 /W)

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