Abstract

The ability to control the polarization of thermal emissions is important for fundamental science and many applications such as multichannel infrared emitters and chemical sensing. Most previous works on controlling the polarization of thermal emission are based on changing geometric sizes of the structures. The active control remains elusive so far. Here, we propose a design to actively switch the polarization of thermal emission. A metal-insulator-metal plasmonic thermal emitter with phase changing material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) as the insulator is experimentally demonstrated. The thermal emitter with top GST and gold ellipses can excite third-order magnetic resonances with perpendicular polarization along both short radius and long radius. The polarization of the thermal emission can be rotated by 90° at 9.55 μm peak wavelength when GST phase changes from the amorphous phase to the 40% crystalline phase.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

2017 (13)

B. Gerislioglu, A. Ahmadivand, and N. Pala, “Single-and multimode beam propagation through an optothermally controllable Fano clusters-mediated waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(22), 4961–4966 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Gerislioglu, A. Ahmadivand, M. Karabiyik, R. Sinha, and N. Pala, “VO2‐Based Reconfigurable Antenna Platform with Addressable Microheater Matrix,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(9), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, Y. Zhao, C. Li, C. Hu, L. Ma, S. Fan, Y. Zhao, N. Min, S. Tao, and Y. Wang, “Improved multi-level data storage properties of germanium-antimony-tellurium films by nitrogen doping,” Scr. Mater. 141, 120–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Fan, F. R. Liu, W. Q. Li, J. C. Guo, Y. H. Wang, N. X. Sun, and F. Liu, “The crystallization behavior of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a multi-pulsed nanosecond laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 095003 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ahmadivand, B. Gerislioglu, R. Sinha, M. Karabiyik, and N. Pala, “Optical switching using transition from dipolar to charge transfer plasmon modes in Ge2Sb2Te5 bridged metallodielectric dimers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42807 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41858 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, W. Gong, B. Yu, P. Li, and S. Shen, “Perfect thermal emission by nanoscale transmission line resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 666–672 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, S. Ishii, T. Yokoyama, T. D. Dao, M. Sun, P. S. Pankin, I. V. Timofeev, T. Nagao, and K. Chen, “Narrowband wavelength selective thermal emitters by confined tamm plasmon polaritons,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2212–2219 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Coppens and J. G. Valentine, “Spatial and temporal modulation of thermal emission,” Adv. Mater. 29(39), 1701275 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kazemi Moridani, R. Zando, W. Xie, I. Howell, J. J. Watkins, and J. Lee, “Plasmonic thermal emitters for dynamically tunable infrared radiation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1600993 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Du, Q. Li, Y. Lyu, J. Ding, Y. Lu, Z. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(1), e16194 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Qu, Q. Li, K. Du, L. Cai, J. Lu, and M. Qiu, “Dynamic Thermal Emission Control Based on Ultrathin Plasmonic Metamaterials Including Phase-Changing Material GST,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700091 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

W. Huang, H. Hsiao, M. Tang, and S. Lee, “Triple-wavelength infrared plasmonic thermal emitter using hybrid dielectric materials in periodic arrangement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(6), 063107 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. H. Park, S. E. Han, P. Nagpal, and D. J. Norris, “Observation of thermal beaming from tungsten and molybdenum bull’s eyes,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 494–500 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. C. Hsu, A. Y. Song, P. B. Catrysse, C. Liu, Y. Peng, J. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile,” Science 353(6303), 1019–1023 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. N. Dyachenko, S. Molesky, A. Y. Petrov, M. Störmer, T. Krekeler, S. Lang, M. Ritter, Z. Jacob, and M. Eich, “Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, X. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Efficient thermal-light interconversions based on optical topological transition in the metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 3017–3023 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu and W. J. Padilla, “Thermochromic infrared metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 871–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

Y. Hu, H. Zou, J. Zhang, J. Xue, Y. Sui, W. Wu, L. Yuan, X. Zhu, S. Song, and Z. Song, “Ge2Sb2Te5/Sb superlattice-like thin film for high speed phase change memory application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 263105 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3955 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Makhsiyan, P. Bouchon, J. Jaeck, J. Pelouard, and R. Haïdar, “Shaping the spatial and spectral emissivity at the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251103 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. S. Roberts, M. Chirumamilla, K. Thilsing-Hansen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-infrared tailored thermal emission from wafer-scale continuous-film resonators,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1111–A1119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Costantini, A. Lefebvre, A. L. Coutrot, I. Moldovandoyen, J. P. Hugonin, S. Boutami, F. Marquier, H. Benisty, and J.-J. Greffet, “Plasmonic metasurface for directional and frequency-selective thermal emission,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(1), 014023 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, U. Guler, A. Lagutchev, A. Kildishev, O. Malis, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Quasi-coherent thermal emitter based on refractory plasmonic materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2721 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. S. Roberts, M. Chirumamilla, K. Thilsing-Hansen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-infrared tailored thermal emission from wafer-scale continuous-film resonators,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1111–A1119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xiao, H. Ma, J. Liu, W. Zhao, Y. Jia, Q. Zhao, K. Liu, Y. Wu, Y. Wei, S. Fan, and K. Jiang, “Fast adaptive thermal camouflage based on flexible VO2/graphene/CNT thin films,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8365–8370 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, M. S. Jang, S. Kim, L. Kim, M. Choi, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Realization of dynamic thermal emission control,” Nat. Mater. 13(10), 928–931 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, X. Huang, V. Malyarchuk, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Gao, Y. Su, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, R. T. Hanlon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12998–13003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Raman, M. A. Anoma, L. Zhu, E. Rephaeli, and S. Fan, “Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight,” Nature 515(7528), 540–544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μ m in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(14), 5309–5314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. A. Mason, S. Smith, and D. Wasserman, “Strong absorption and selective thermal emission from a midinfrared metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241105 (2011).
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X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. Y. Cheng, S. Raoux, and Y. C. Chen, “The impact of film thickness and melt-quenched phase on the phase transition characteristics of Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 074308 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

P. Nagpal, S. E. Han, A. Stein, and D. J. Norris, “Efficient low-temperature thermophotovoltaic emitters from metallic photonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3238–3243 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. C. W. Lee, W. Leung, M. Li, K. Constant, C. T. Chan, and K. Ho, “Polarization engineering of thermal radiation using metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20(17), 3244–3247 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, W. Leung, T. G. Kim, K. Constant, and K. M. Ho, “Polarized thermal radiation by layer-by-layer metallic emitters with sub-wavelength grating,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8742–8747 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
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1860 (1)

G. Kirchhoff, “On the relation between the radiating and absorbing powers of different bodies for light and heat,” Philos. Mag. 20(130), 1–21 (1860).
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B. Gerislioglu, A. Ahmadivand, M. Karabiyik, R. Sinha, and N. Pala, “VO2‐Based Reconfigurable Antenna Platform with Addressable Microheater Matrix,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(9), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ahmadivand, B. Gerislioglu, R. Sinha, M. Karabiyik, and N. Pala, “Optical switching using transition from dipolar to charge transfer plasmon modes in Ge2Sb2Te5 bridged metallodielectric dimers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42807 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gerislioglu, A. Ahmadivand, and N. Pala, “Single-and multimode beam propagation through an optothermally controllable Fano clusters-mediated waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(22), 4961–4966 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anoma, M. A.

A. P. Raman, M. A. Anoma, L. Zhu, E. Rephaeli, and S. Fan, “Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight,” Nature 515(7528), 540–544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Realization of dynamic thermal emission control,” Nat. Mater. 13(10), 928–931 (2014).
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Atwater, H. A.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, M. S. Jang, S. Kim, L. Kim, M. Choi, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7032 (2015).
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Bai, X.

Y. Li, X. Bai, T. Yang, H. Luo, and C. W. Qiu, “Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 273 (2018).
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Bakan, G.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
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Benisty, H.

D. Costantini, A. Lefebvre, A. L. Coutrot, I. Moldovandoyen, J. P. Hugonin, S. Boutami, F. Marquier, H. Benisty, and J.-J. Greffet, “Plasmonic metasurface for directional and frequency-selective thermal emission,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(1), 014023 (2015).
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Bermel, P.

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(14), 5309–5314 (2013).
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P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
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A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
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Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
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Boltasseva, A.

Bouchon, P.

M. Makhsiyan, P. Bouchon, J. Jaeck, J. Pelouard, and R. Haïdar, “Shaping the spatial and spectral emissivity at the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251103 (2015).
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Boutami, S.

D. Costantini, A. Lefebvre, A. L. Coutrot, I. Moldovandoyen, J. P. Hugonin, S. Boutami, F. Marquier, H. Benisty, and J.-J. Greffet, “Plasmonic metasurface for directional and frequency-selective thermal emission,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(1), 014023 (2015).
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Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brar, V. W.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, M. S. Jang, S. Kim, L. Kim, M. Choi, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7032 (2015).
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J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
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Cai, L.

Y. Qu, Q. Li, L. Cai, M. Pan, P. Ghosh, K. Du, and M. Qiu, “Thermal camouflage based on the phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 26 (2018).
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Y. Qu, L. Cai, H. Luo, J. Lu, M. Qiu, and Q. Li, “Tunable dual-band thermal emitter consisting of single-sized phase-changing GST nanodisks,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4279–4287 (2018).
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L. Cai, K. Du, Y. Qu, H. Luo, M. Pan, M. Qiu, and Q. Li, “Nonvolatile tunable silicon-carbide-based midinfrared thermal emitter enabled by phase-changing materials,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1295–1298 (2018).
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Y. Qu, Q. Li, K. Du, L. Cai, J. Lu, and M. Qiu, “Dynamic Thermal Emission Control Based on Ultrathin Plasmonic Metamaterials Including Phase-Changing Material GST,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700091 (2017).
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Cao, T.

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3955 (2015).
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Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
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Carminati, R.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
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Catrysse, P. B.

P. C. Hsu, A. Y. Song, P. B. Catrysse, C. Liu, Y. Peng, J. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile,” Science 353(6303), 1019–1023 (2016).
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Celanovic, I.

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(14), 5309–5314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

J. Lee, J. C. W. Lee, W. Leung, M. Li, K. Constant, C. T. Chan, and K. Ho, “Polarization engineering of thermal radiation using metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20(17), 3244–3247 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. R.

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Chan, P. Bermel, R. C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski, C. H. Marton, K. F. Jensen, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, and I. Celanovic, “Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(14), 5309–5314 (2013).
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Chen, K.

Z. Yang, S. Ishii, T. Yokoyama, T. D. Dao, M. Sun, P. S. Pankin, I. V. Timofeev, T. Nagao, and K. Chen, “Narrowband wavelength selective thermal emitters by confined tamm plasmon polaritons,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2212–2219 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

J. Zhou, X. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Efficient thermal-light interconversions based on optical topological transition in the metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 3017–3023 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
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J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

H. Y. Cheng, S. Raoux, and Y. C. Chen, “The impact of film thickness and melt-quenched phase on the phase transition characteristics of Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 074308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. Y.

H. Y. Cheng, S. Raoux, and Y. C. Chen, “The impact of film thickness and melt-quenched phase on the phase transition characteristics of Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 074308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

K. Du, Q. Li, Y. Lyu, J. Ding, Y. Lu, Z. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(1), e16194 (2017).
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Chigrin, D. N.

A. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
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Chirumamilla, M.

Choi, M.

V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, M. S. Jang, S. Kim, L. Kim, M. Choi, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Constant, K.

J. Lee, J. C. W. Lee, W. Leung, M. Li, K. Constant, C. T. Chan, and K. Ho, “Polarization engineering of thermal radiation using metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20(17), 3244–3247 (2008).
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J. H. Lee, W. Leung, T. G. Kim, K. Constant, and K. M. Ho, “Polarized thermal radiation by layer-by-layer metallic emitters with sub-wavelength grating,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8742–8747 (2008).
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Coppens, Z. J.

Z. J. Coppens and J. G. Valentine, “Spatial and temporal modulation of thermal emission,” Adv. Mater. 29(39), 1701275 (2017).
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Costantini, D.

D. Costantini, A. Lefebvre, A. L. Coutrot, I. Moldovandoyen, J. P. Hugonin, S. Boutami, F. Marquier, H. Benisty, and J.-J. Greffet, “Plasmonic metasurface for directional and frequency-selective thermal emission,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(1), 014023 (2015).
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Coutrot, A. L.

D. Costantini, A. Lefebvre, A. L. Coutrot, I. Moldovandoyen, J. P. Hugonin, S. Boutami, F. Marquier, H. Benisty, and J.-J. Greffet, “Plasmonic metasurface for directional and frequency-selective thermal emission,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(1), 014023 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M. J.

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3955 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

P. C. Hsu, A. Y. Song, P. B. Catrysse, C. Liu, Y. Peng, J. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile,” Science 353(6303), 1019–1023 (2016).
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Dana, A.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dao, T. D.

Z. Yang, S. Ishii, T. Yokoyama, T. D. Dao, M. Sun, P. S. Pankin, I. V. Timofeev, T. Nagao, and K. Chen, “Narrowband wavelength selective thermal emitters by confined tamm plasmon polaritons,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2212–2219 (2017).
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Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
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De Zoysa, M.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Realization of dynamic thermal emission control,” Nat. Mater. 13(10), 928–931 (2014).
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Ding, J.

K. Du, Q. Li, Y. Lyu, J. Ding, Y. Lu, Z. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(1), e16194 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dirisaglik, F.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, K.

Y. Qu, Q. Li, L. Cai, M. Pan, P. Ghosh, K. Du, and M. Qiu, “Thermal camouflage based on the phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 26 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Cai, K. Du, Y. Qu, H. Luo, M. Pan, M. Qiu, and Q. Li, “Nonvolatile tunable silicon-carbide-based midinfrared thermal emitter enabled by phase-changing materials,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1295–1298 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qu, Q. Li, K. Du, L. Cai, J. Lu, and M. Qiu, “Dynamic Thermal Emission Control Based on Ultrathin Plasmonic Metamaterials Including Phase-Changing Material GST,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700091 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Du, Q. Li, Y. Lyu, J. Ding, Y. Lu, Z. Cheng, and M. Qiu, “Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(1), e16194 (2017).
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P. N. Dyachenko, S. Molesky, A. Y. Petrov, M. Störmer, T. Krekeler, S. Lang, M. Ritter, Z. Jacob, and M. Eich, “Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11809 (2016).
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Eich, M.

P. N. Dyachenko, S. Molesky, A. Y. Petrov, M. Störmer, T. Krekeler, S. Lang, M. Ritter, Z. Jacob, and M. Eich, “Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11809 (2016).
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Fan, S.

X. Yu, Y. Zhao, C. Li, C. Hu, L. Ma, S. Fan, Y. Zhao, N. Min, S. Tao, and Y. Wang, “Improved multi-level data storage properties of germanium-antimony-tellurium films by nitrogen doping,” Scr. Mater. 141, 120–124 (2017).
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P. C. Hsu, A. Y. Song, P. B. Catrysse, C. Liu, Y. Peng, J. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile,” Science 353(6303), 1019–1023 (2016).
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L. Xiao, H. Ma, J. Liu, W. Zhao, Y. Jia, Q. Zhao, K. Liu, Y. Wu, Y. Wei, S. Fan, and K. Jiang, “Fast adaptive thermal camouflage based on flexible VO2/graphene/CNT thin films,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8365–8370 (2015).
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A. P. Raman, M. A. Anoma, L. Zhu, E. Rephaeli, and S. Fan, “Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight,” Nature 515(7528), 540–544 (2014).
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E. Rephaeli and S. Fan, “Absorber and emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems to achieve efficiency exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15145–15159 (2009).
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Fan, T.

T. Fan, F. R. Liu, W. Q. Li, J. C. Guo, Y. H. Wang, N. X. Sun, and F. Liu, “The crystallization behavior of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a multi-pulsed nanosecond laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 095003 (2017).
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Gao, L.

C. Yu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, X. Huang, V. Malyarchuk, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Gao, Y. Su, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, R. T. Hanlon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12998–13003 (2014).
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Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerislioglu, B.

B. Gerislioglu, A. Ahmadivand, M. Karabiyik, R. Sinha, and N. Pala, “VO2‐Based Reconfigurable Antenna Platform with Addressable Microheater Matrix,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(9), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ahmadivand, B. Gerislioglu, R. Sinha, M. Karabiyik, and N. Pala, “Optical switching using transition from dipolar to charge transfer plasmon modes in Ge2Sb2Te5 bridged metallodielectric dimers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42807 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gerislioglu, A. Ahmadivand, and N. Pala, “Single-and multimode beam propagation through an optothermally controllable Fano clusters-mediated waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(22), 4961–4966 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
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B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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Ghosh, P.

Y. Qu, Q. Li, L. Cai, M. Pan, P. Ghosh, K. Du, and M. Qiu, “Thermal camouflage based on the phase-changing material GST,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 26 (2018).
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Gokirmak, A.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
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B. Liu, W. Gong, B. Yu, P. Li, and S. Shen, “Perfect thermal emission by nanoscale transmission line resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 666–672 (2017).
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Greffet, J. J.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greffet, J.-J.

D. Costantini, A. Lefebvre, A. L. Coutrot, I. Moldovandoyen, J. P. Hugonin, S. Boutami, F. Marquier, H. Benisty, and J.-J. Greffet, “Plasmonic metasurface for directional and frequency-selective thermal emission,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4(1), 014023 (2015).
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Guler, U.

Guo, J. C.

T. Fan, F. R. Liu, W. Q. Li, J. C. Guo, Y. H. Wang, N. X. Sun, and F. Liu, “The crystallization behavior of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a multi-pulsed nanosecond laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 095003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

J. Zhou, X. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Efficient thermal-light interconversions based on optical topological transition in the metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 3017–3023 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haïdar, R.

M. Makhsiyan, P. Bouchon, J. Jaeck, J. Pelouard, and R. Haïdar, “Shaping the spatial and spectral emissivity at the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(25), 251103 (2015).
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Han, S. E.

J. H. Park, S. E. Han, P. Nagpal, and D. J. Norris, “Observation of thermal beaming from tungsten and molybdenum bull’s eyes,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 494–500 (2016).
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P. Nagpal, S. E. Han, A. Stein, and D. J. Norris, “Efficient low-temperature thermophotovoltaic emitters from metallic photonic crystals,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3238–3243 (2008).
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Xie, J.

P. C. Hsu, A. Y. Song, P. B. Catrysse, C. Liu, Y. Peng, J. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile,” Science 353(6303), 1019–1023 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, W.

A. Kazemi Moridani, R. Zando, W. Xie, I. Howell, J. J. Watkins, and J. Lee, “Plasmonic thermal emitters for dynamically tunable infrared radiation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1600993 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

C. Yu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, X. Huang, V. Malyarchuk, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Gao, Y. Su, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, R. T. Hanlon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12998–13003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, J.

Y. Hu, H. Zou, J. Zhang, J. Xue, Y. Sui, W. Wu, L. Yuan, X. Zhu, S. Song, and Z. Song, “Ge2Sb2Te5/Sb superlattice-like thin film for high speed phase change memory application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 263105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

Y. Li, X. Bai, T. Yang, H. Luo, and C. W. Qiu, “Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, S. Ishii, T. Yokoyama, T. D. Dao, M. Sun, P. S. Pankin, I. V. Timofeev, T. Nagao, and K. Chen, “Narrowband wavelength selective thermal emitters by confined tamm plasmon polaritons,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2212–2219 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, T.

Z. Yang, S. Ishii, T. Yokoyama, T. D. Dao, M. Sun, P. S. Pankin, I. V. Timofeev, T. Nagao, and K. Chen, “Narrowband wavelength selective thermal emitters by confined tamm plasmon polaritons,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2212–2219 (2017).
[Crossref]

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B. Liu, W. Gong, B. Yu, P. Li, and S. Shen, “Perfect thermal emission by nanoscale transmission line resonators,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 666–672 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Yu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, X. Huang, V. Malyarchuk, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Gao, Y. Su, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, R. T. Hanlon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12998–13003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, Y. Zhao, C. Li, C. Hu, L. Ma, S. Fan, Y. Zhao, N. Min, S. Tao, and Y. Wang, “Improved multi-level data storage properties of germanium-antimony-tellurium films by nitrogen doping,” Scr. Mater. 141, 120–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L.

Y. Hu, H. Zou, J. Zhang, J. Xue, Y. Sui, W. Wu, L. Yuan, X. Zhu, S. Song, and Z. Song, “Ge2Sb2Te5/Sb superlattice-like thin film for high speed phase change memory application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 263105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zalden, P.

A. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
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Y. Hu, H. Zou, J. Zhang, J. Xue, Y. Sui, W. Wu, L. Yuan, X. Zhu, S. Song, and Z. Song, “Ge2Sb2Te5/Sb superlattice-like thin film for high speed phase change memory application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 263105 (2015).
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T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3955 (2015).
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Zhang, S.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041004 (2013).
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C. Yu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, X. Huang, V. Malyarchuk, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Gao, Y. Su, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, R. T. Hanlon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12998–13003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

C. Yu, Y. Li, X. Zhang, X. Huang, V. Malyarchuk, S. Wang, Y. Shi, L. Gao, Y. Su, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, R. T. Hanlon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12998–13003 (2014).
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X. Zhang, H. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41858 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

Y. Zhai, Y. Ma, S. N. David, D. Zhao, R. Lou, G. Tan, R. Yang, and X. Yin, “Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling,” Science 355(6329), 1062–1066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Xiao, H. Ma, J. Liu, W. Zhao, Y. Jia, Q. Zhao, K. Liu, Y. Wu, Y. Wei, S. Fan, and K. Jiang, “Fast adaptive thermal camouflage based on flexible VO2/graphene/CNT thin films,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8365–8370 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

L. Xiao, H. Ma, J. Liu, W. Zhao, Y. Jia, Q. Zhao, K. Liu, Y. Wu, Y. Wei, S. Fan, and K. Jiang, “Fast adaptive thermal camouflage based on flexible VO2/graphene/CNT thin films,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8365–8370 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

X. Yu, Y. Zhao, C. Li, C. Hu, L. Ma, S. Fan, Y. Zhao, N. Min, S. Tao, and Y. Wang, “Improved multi-level data storage properties of germanium-antimony-tellurium films by nitrogen doping,” Scr. Mater. 141, 120–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, Y. Zhao, C. Li, C. Hu, L. Ma, S. Fan, Y. Zhao, N. Min, S. Tao, and Y. Wang, “Improved multi-level data storage properties of germanium-antimony-tellurium films by nitrogen doping,” Scr. Mater. 141, 120–124 (2017).
[Crossref]

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B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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X. Zhang, H. Liu, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41858 (2017).
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Y. Hu, H. Zou, J. Zhang, J. Xue, Y. Sui, W. Wu, L. Yuan, X. Zhu, S. Song, and Z. Song, “Ge2Sb2Te5/Sb superlattice-like thin film for high speed phase change memory application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 263105 (2015).
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Z. Yang, S. Ishii, T. Yokoyama, T. D. Dao, M. Sun, P. S. Pankin, I. V. Timofeev, T. Nagao, and K. Chen, “Narrowband wavelength selective thermal emitters by confined tamm plasmon polaritons,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2212–2219 (2017).
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A. Kazemi Moridani, R. Zando, W. Xie, I. Howell, J. J. Watkins, and J. Lee, “Plasmonic thermal emitters for dynamically tunable infrared radiation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1600993 (2017).
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P. C. Hsu, A. Y. Song, P. B. Catrysse, C. Liu, Y. Peng, J. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile,” Science 353(6303), 1019–1023 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic depiction of polarization-dependent thermal emission in the normal direction of the MIM thermal emitter incorporating (a) amorphous and (b) 40% crystalline phase-changing material GST. El and Es represent electric fields along long radius and short radius, respectively. For aGST-based and cGST-based thermal emitter, the dominant polarized thermal emission is along long radius w1 (in y direction) and short radius w2 (in x direction), respectively. Inset: an SEM image of the fabricated MIM thermal emitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) are experimental and simulated thermal emissivities of the MIM thermal emitter, respectively. The black and red lines are for the aGST phase at polarization Es (electric field along short radius) and El (electric field along long radius), respectively. The blue and green lines are for the cGST phase with a 40% crystallization fraction at polarization Es and El, respectively. When GST is at the amorphous phase, the thermal emission at El polarization is dominated at 9.55 μm wavelength. When GST has a 40% crystallization fraction, the thermal emission at Es polarization is dominated at 9.55 μm wavelength since the emission peak wavelength shifts to longer wavelength due to the increased refractive index. (c) A-D represent the field at the peak wavelength of aGST and cGST thermal emitters at two polarizations. The colormaps represent the amplitude of magnetic field | H |.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured polar plots for (a) aGST phase and (b) cGST phase with a 40% crystallization fraction at peak wavelength 9.55 μm. Simulated polar plots for (c) aGST phase and (d) cGST phase with a 40% crystallization fraction at peak wavelength 9.55 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a, b) Measured and (c, d) simulated emissivities as functions of polarization angle and emission wavelength for (a, c) aGST phase and (b, d) cGST phase with a 40% crystallization fraction. The colormaps represent the emissivities E.

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