Abstract

In this paper we review our recent results on group IV mid-infrared photonic devices. In particular, passive structures suitable for long wavelength operation, such as suspended Si, Ge-on-Si and suspended Ge, are analyzed. In addition, Ge-on-insulator waveguides have been characterized at 3.8 μm. Several active devices have been also realized: optical modulators in silicon and germanium, and silicon and graphene detectors operating at shorter mid-IR wavelengths.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Silicon photonic platforms for mid-infrared applications [Invited]

Ting Hu, Bowei Dong, Xianshu Luo, Tsung-Yang Liow, Junfeng Song, Chengkuo Lee, and Guo-Qiang Lo
Photon. Res. 5(5) 417-430 (2017)

Mid-infrared silicon photonic waveguides and devices [Invited]

Yi Zou, Swapnajit Chakravarty, Chi-Jui Chung, Xiaochuan Xu, and Ray T. Chen
Photon. Res. 6(4) 254-276 (2018)

Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich
Opt. Mater. Express 3(9) 1205-1214 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
  2. G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E.-J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
  3. M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
  4. G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).
  5. T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
  6. F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
  7. R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
  8. S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
  9. Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
  10. G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).
  11. M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
  12. M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J. M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
  13. J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
  14. W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
  15. A. Spott, J. Peters, M. L. Davenport, E. J. Stanton, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. S. Kim, J. R. Meyer, J. Kirch, L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, and J. E. Bowers, “Quantum cascade laser on silicon,” Optica 3(5), 545 (2016).
  16. M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).
  17. Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
  18. P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).
  19. Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).
  20. J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Low loss mid-infrared SOI slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1197–1199 (2015).
  21. M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).
  22. A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).
  23. M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
  24. S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).
  25. Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
  26. J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
  27. J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).
  28. J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).
  29. J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).
  30. A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, E. Baudet, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, I. Hardy, F. Faijan, B. Bureau, V. Nazabal, and J. Charrier, “Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23109–23117 (2016).
  31. A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
  32. B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).
  33. C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).
  34. L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
  35. L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
  36. S. Radosavljevic, N. Teigell Beneitez, A. Katumba, M. Muneeb, M. Vanslembrouck, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Mid-infrared Vernier racetrack resonator tunable filter implemented on a germanium on SOI waveguide platform,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 824–835 (2018).
  37. G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).
  38. M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).
  39. J. Kang, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Novel Ge waveguide platform on Ge-on-insulator wafer for mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11855–11864 (2016).
  40. S. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-P. Shim, H.-J. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Verification of Ge-on-insulator structure for a mid-infrared photonics platform,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(2), 440–451 (2018).
  41. M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
  42. J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).
  43. R. Soref, “Enabling 2 μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 358–359 (2015).
  44. M. A. Van Camp, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, P. M. Rice, T. Topuria, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28009–28016 (2012).
  45. D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).
  46. M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-um infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
  47. M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–14 (2015).
  48. R. Wang, M. Muneeb, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, A. Malik, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon 2-µm-wavelength-range wavelength demultiplexers with heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II photodetectors,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8480–8490 (2016).
  49. A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
  50. J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).
  51. A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation-engineered-enhanced infrared response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783–786 (2006).
  52. J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).
  53. X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

2018 (4)

2017 (3)

2016 (11)

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

R. Wang, M. Muneeb, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, A. Malik, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon 2-µm-wavelength-range wavelength demultiplexers with heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II photodetectors,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8480–8490 (2016).

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

A. Spott, J. Peters, M. L. Davenport, E. J. Stanton, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C. S. Kim, J. R. Meyer, J. Kirch, L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, and J. E. Bowers, “Quantum cascade laser on silicon,” Optica 3(5), 545 (2016).

J. Kang, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Novel Ge waveguide platform on Ge-on-insulator wafer for mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11855–11864 (2016).

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).

A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, E. Baudet, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, I. Hardy, F. Faijan, B. Bureau, V. Nazabal, and J. Charrier, “Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23109–23117 (2016).

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

2015 (9)

R. Soref, “Enabling 2 μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 358–359 (2015).

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Low loss mid-infrared SOI slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1197–1199 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–14 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).

2014 (7)

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J. M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

2013 (7)

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).

S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2006 (1)

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation-engineered-enhanced infrared response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783–786 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).

Ackert, J. J.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

Agarwal, A.

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Amann, M.-C.

Anantha, P.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Asher, W.

Assefa, S.

Atanackovic, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Ballabio, A.

Bao, S.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Barwicz, T.

Baudet, E.

Benedikovic, D.

Bewley, W. W.

Bodiou, L.

Boehm, G.

Boodhoo, L. A.

Botez, D.

Boulila, F.

Bouville, D.

Bowers, J. E.

Bradley, J. D. B.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation-engineered-enhanced infrared response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783–786 (2006).

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).

Brun, M.

Bucio, T. D.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

Bulu, I.

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).

Bureau, B.

Cao, W.

Cardenas, J.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Carpenter, L. G.

Carras, M.

Cerutti, L.

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Charrier, J.

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.

Chen, X.

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).

Chen, Y. M.

Cheng, Z.

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).

Chiles, J.

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).

S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).

Choi, W. J.

Chong, H. M. H.

Dave, U.

Davenport, M. L.

de Rooij, N. F.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Delâge, A.

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).

Di Francesco, J.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Dominguez Bucio, T.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Duvall, S. G.

Dwivedi, S.

Eggleton, B. J.

Faijan, F.

Fain, R.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Fathpour, S.

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).

S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).

Frigerio, J.

Fung, C. K.

Gaeta, A. L.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Gardes, F. Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

Gassenq, A.

Gawith, C. B. E.

Gencarelli, F.

Gill, D. M.

Gou, S. H.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation-engineered-enhanced infrared response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783–786 (2006).

Grand, G.

Green, W. J.

Green, W. M. J.

Greg Lin, H.-Y.

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Griffith, A. G.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Grillet, C.

Guo, X.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Gutierrez-Arroyo, A.

Halir, R.

Han, J.-H.

Han, Z.

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Hardy, I.

Hartmann, J. M.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Hattasan, N.

Healy, N.

Hens, Z.

Herzig, H. P.

Hochberg, M.

Homsy, A.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Hu, C.

Hu, T.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Hu, Y.

Huante-Ceron, E.

Hudson, D.

Hvozdara, L.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).

Ilic, R.

Isella, G.

Jackson, S. D.

Jessop, P. E.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation-engineered-enhanced infrared response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783–786 (2006).

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).

Ji, X.

Jin, T.

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Kang, J.

Katumba, A.

Ke, L.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Khan, S.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).

Khokhar, A. Z.

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Low loss mid-infrared SOI slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1197–1199 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

Ki Tsang, H.

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

Kim, C. S.

Kim, H.-J.

Kim, S.

Kimerling, L. C.

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Kirch, J.

Knights, A. P.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation-engineered-enhanced infrared response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783–786 (2006).

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).

Kuyken, B.

Labeye, P.

Lau, R. K. W.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Le Roux, X.

Lee, K. H.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Lee, Y. H. D.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Lemaitre, J.

Leo, F.

Lepage, G.

Li, F.

Li, S.

Li, T.

Li, W.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Lipson, M.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Littlejohns, C.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

Littlejohns, C. G.

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

Liu, Q.

Liu, X.

Loncar, M.

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).

Loo, R.

Ma, J.

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Malik, A.

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

R. Wang, M. Muneeb, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, A. Malik, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon 2-µm-wavelength-range wavelength demultiplexers with heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II photodetectors,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8480–8490 (2016).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).

J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Low loss mid-infrared SOI slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1197–1199 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–14 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-um infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E.-J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).

Mawst, L. J.

Merritt, C. D.

Meyer, J. R.

Millender, R.

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Miller, S. A.

Miloševic, M. M.

Mitchell, C.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

Mitchell, C. J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

Mittal, V.

Moghe, Y.

Mohanty, A.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Molina-Fernández, I.

Moss, D. J.

Muneeb, M.

S. Radosavljevic, N. Teigell Beneitez, A. Katumba, M. Muneeb, M. Vanslembrouck, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Mid-infrared Vernier racetrack resonator tunable filter implemented on a germanium on SOI waveguide platform,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 824–835 (2018).

R. Wang, M. Muneeb, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, A. Malik, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon 2-µm-wavelength-range wavelength demultiplexers with heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II photodetectors,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8480–8490 (2016).

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Murugan, G. S.

Narcy, G.

Nazabal, V.

Nedeljkovic, M.

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).

J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Low loss mid-infrared SOI slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1197–1199 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–14 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-um infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E.-J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).

Nicoletti, S.

O’Brien, C.

Okawachi, Y.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Osgood, R.

Osman, A.

Owens, N.

Paeder, V.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).

Passaro, V. M. N.

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Pathak, S.

Peacock, A. C.

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Penades, J. S.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

Penadés, J. S.

Penkov, B.

Pérez-Galacho, D.

Peter Herzig, H.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Peters, J.

Phare, C. T.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Poitras, C. B.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Qu, Z.

Radosavljevic, S.

Ramirez, J. M.

Read, A.

Reed, G. T.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

Reynolds, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

Reynolds, S. A.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Rice, P. M.

Rodriguez, J. B.

Rodriguez, J.-B.

Roelkens, G.

S. Radosavljevic, N. Teigell Beneitez, A. Katumba, M. Muneeb, M. Vanslembrouck, B. Kuyken, and G. Roelkens, “Mid-infrared Vernier racetrack resonator tunable filter implemented on a germanium on SOI waveguide platform,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 824–835 (2018).

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

R. Wang, M. Muneeb, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, A. Malik, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon 2-µm-wavelength-range wavelength demultiplexers with heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II photodetectors,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8480–8490 (2016).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, S. Li, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. J. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).

Ruocco, A.

Ryckeboer, E.

Sánchez-Postigo, A.

Senthil Murugan, G.

Shank, S. M.

Shankar, R.

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).

Shen, L.

Shim, J.-P.

Shimura, Y.

Smit, M. K.

Soler Penades, J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Soler Penades, W. Cao, Z. Qu, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, F. Y. Gardes, V. Mittal, G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Germanium mid-infrared photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 624–630 (2017).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Low loss mid-infrared SOI slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1197–1199 (2015).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

Soler Penadés, J.

Soref, R.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

R. Soref, “Enabling 2 μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 358–359 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–14 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-um infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).

Spott, A.

Sprengel, S.

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

Stanton, E. J.

Tai Lin, P.

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Takagi, S.

Takenaka, M.

Tan, C. S.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Teigell Beneitez, N.

Teo, E.-J.

Thomson, D. J.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).

Topley, R.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Topuria, T.

Tourni, E.

Tournié, E.

Troia, B.

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Tsang, H. K.

Vakarin, V.

Van Camp, M. A.

Van Campenhout, J.

van der Wal, P.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Van Landschoot, L.

Van Opstal, T.

Vanherle, W.

Vanslembrouck, M.

Vasiliev, A.

Velasco, A. V.

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).

Verheyen, P.

Vincent, B.

Vivien, L.

Vurgaftman, I.

Wägli, P.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Wang, H.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Wang, R.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wilson, P. R.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Wong, C. Y.

Xiong, B.

Xu, J.-B.

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

Xu, K.

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).

Xu, Y.

Youfang, H.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Yu, M.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Yun, W.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

Zhang, L.

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Tai Lin, H.-Y. Greg Lin, Z. Han, T. Jin, R. Millender, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Label-free glucose sensing using chip-scale mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Adv. Mater. 4, 1755–1775 (2016).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).

S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).

J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, H. Youfang, L. Ke, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, W. Yun, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 1–12 (2015).

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14-um infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–14 (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).

J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Low loss mid-infrared SOI slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1197–1199 (2015).

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation-engineered-enhanced infrared response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783–786 (2006).

Lab Chip (1)

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6299 (2015).

Nat. Photonics (4)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection above the telecommunication windows with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9, 393–396 (2015).

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).

R. Soref, “Enabling 2 μm communications,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 358–359 (2015).

Opt. Express (16)

M. A. Van Camp, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, P. M. Rice, T. Topuria, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28009–28016 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).

R. Wang, M. Muneeb, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, A. Malik, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon 2-µm-wavelength-range wavelength demultiplexers with heterogeneously integrated InP-based type-II photodetectors,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8480–8490 (2016).

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E.-J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).

F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).

M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tourni, and G. Roelkens, “III-V-on-silicon integrated micro - spectrometer for the 3 μm wavelength range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9465–9472 (2016).

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J. M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).

J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).

J. Kang, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Novel Ge waveguide platform on Ge-on-insulator wafer for mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11855–11864 (2016).

A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, E. Baudet, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, I. Hardy, F. Faijan, B. Bureau, V. Nazabal, and J. Charrier, “Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23109–23117 (2016).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).

Opt. Lett. (9)

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon Vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 610–613 (2016).

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).

J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing in mid-infrared wavelength range using interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1406–1409 (2014).

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

Optica (3)

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM image of a) the 90° bend b) the s-bend c) waveguides converging towards the MMI input section and d) input section half of the MMI (top views). e) A cleaved facet of a 90° bend with the BOX locally removed, with a few destroyed silicon strips due to the cleaving. f) Under-etched multimode region of the MMI after FIB cut, with no appreciable deformation of the suspended structure [28]
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabrication process flow for suspended Ge waveguides (green, yellow and red represent Ge, Si and BOX layers, respectively).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM image of the fabricated suspended Ge waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fabrication process to obtain GOI waveguides. Adapted from [39].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental eye diagram showing transmission of SOI PN junction carrier depletion modulator at 1.95 µm, driven with a 20 Gb/s PRBS signal. (b) Schematic diagram of SOI PIN junction carrier injection modulator, designed for 3.8 µm wavelength. (c) Measured modulation depths of a 2 mm long SOI and a 1 mm long GOS carrier injection modulator with varying DC forward bias, both at 3.8 µm. (d) Schematic diagram of GOS PIN junction carrier injection modulator, designed for 3.8 µm wavelength.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic cross-section of the graphene mid-IR detector.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photocurrent versus optical input power coupled into the detector under −1 V bias voltage.

Metrics