Abstract

Phase change materials exhibit tunable electrical and optical response, providing rich potential to build active devices with tunable properties. Here, we propose and demonstrate a tunable infrared absorber based on vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. Compared with conventional absorbers relying on either nanostructures or Fabry-Perot cavities, our proposed device shows near perfect absorption while having a subwavelength thick absorbing film. Moreover, the absorption intensity can be controlled dynamically around the phase transition temperature of VO2. We model the optical response of the VO2 intermediate states with an effective medium theory to help fitting and understanding the phase change behavior during the phase transition. The calculated electric field distribution as well as the absorption maps are presented to show how the light is absorbed in the thin film platform. The proposed device has the potential for many applications including thin photodetectors, modulators and tunable emitters.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  4. Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Ultranarrow band absorbers based on surface lattice resonances in nanostructured metal surfaces,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8242–8248 (2014).
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  5. Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
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  8. Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, H. Kocer, and K. Aydin, “Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15137 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  33. F. Beteille and J. Livage, “Optical switching in VO2 thin films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13(1/3), 915–921 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2017 (5)

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wehmeyer, T. Yabuki, C. Monachon, J. Wu, and C. Dames, “Thermal diodes, regulators, and switches: physical mechanisms and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide VO2,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Currie, M. A. Mastro, and V. D. Wheeler, “Characterizing the tunable refractive index of vanadium dioxide,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(5), 1697–1707 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. Liang, L. Hou, and J. Li, “Frequency tunable perfect absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(6), 1075–1080 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Menges, M. Dittberner, L. Novotny, D. Passarello, S. Parkin, M. Spieser, H. Riel, and B. Gotsmann, “Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171904 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

G. Kaplan, K. Aydin, and J. Scheuer, “Dynamically controlled plasmonic nano-antenna phased array utilizing vanadium dioxide [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 5(11), 2513–2524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, H. Kocer, and K. Aydin, “Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

E. Nefzaoui, J. Drevillon, Y. Ezzahri, and K. Joulain, “Simple far-field radiative thermal rectifier using Fabry-Perot cavities based infrared selective emitters,” Appl. Opt. 53(16), 3479–3485 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Ultranarrow band absorbers based on surface lattice resonances in nanostructured metal surfaces,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8242–8248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

F. Beteille and J. Livage, “Optical switching in VO2 thin films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13(1/3), 915–921 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. S. Choi, J. S. Ahn, J. H. Jung, T. W. Noh, and D. H. Kim, “Mid-infrared properties of a VO2 film near the metal-insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(7), 4621–4628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. S. Ünlü and S. Strite, “Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 607–639 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J.-I. Chyi, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, “Resonant cavity-enhanced (RCE) photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 2025–2034 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

A. Chin and T. Chang, “Multilayer reflectors by molecular-beam epitaxy for resonance enhanced absorption in thin high-speed detectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 339–342 (1990).

K. K. Law, R. Yan, L. Coldren, and J. Merz, “Self-electro-optic device based on a superlattice asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator with an on/off ratio≳ 100: 1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1345–1347 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. Yan, R. Simes, and L. Coldren, “Electroabsorptive fabry-perot reflection modulators with asymmetric mirrors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1(9), 273–275 (1989).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

I. Webman, J. Jortner, and M. H. Cohen, “Theory of optical and microwave properties of microscopically inhomogeneous materials,” Phys. Rev. B 15(12), 5712–5723 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. S.

H. S. Choi, J. S. Ahn, J. H. Jung, T. W. Noh, and D. H. Kim, “Mid-infrared properties of a VO2 film near the metal-insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(7), 4621–4628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arsenault, L.

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J.-I. Chyi, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, “Resonant cavity-enhanced (RCE) photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 2025–2034 (1991).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

G. Kaplan, K. Aydin, and J. Scheuer, “Dynamically controlled plasmonic nano-antenna phased array utilizing vanadium dioxide [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 5(11), 2513–2524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, H. Kocer, and K. Aydin, “Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Ultranarrow band absorbers based on surface lattice resonances in nanostructured metal surfaces,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8242–8248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balatsky, A. V.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banar, B.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beteille, F.

F. Beteille and J. Livage, “Optical switching in VO2 thin films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13(1/3), 915–921 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyd, E. M.

Brehm, M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butun, S.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, H. Kocer, and K. Aydin, “Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Ultranarrow band absorbers based on surface lattice resonances in nanostructured metal surfaces,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8242–8248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Qazilbash, M. M.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
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F. Menges, M. Dittberner, L. Novotny, D. Passarello, S. Parkin, M. Spieser, H. Riel, and B. Gotsmann, “Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171904 (2016).
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J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
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Sajuyigbe, S.

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Schöppe, P.

J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, C.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, D.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shu, S.

Simes, R.

R. Yan, R. Simes, and L. Coldren, “Electroabsorptive fabry-perot reflection modulators with asymmetric mirrors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1(9), 273–275 (1989).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spieser, M.

F. Menges, M. Dittberner, L. Novotny, D. Passarello, S. Parkin, M. Spieser, H. Riel, and B. Gotsmann, “Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171904 (2016).
[Crossref]

Streyer, W.

Strite, S.

M. S. Ünlü and S. Strite, “Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 607–639 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

Tongay, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Unlu, M. S.

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J.-I. Chyi, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, “Resonant cavity-enhanced (RCE) photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 2025–2034 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ünlü, M. S.

M. S. Ünlü and S. Strite, “Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 607–639 (1995).
[Crossref]

Walavalkar, S.

Wan, C.

J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide VO2,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wasserman, D.

Webman, I.

I. Webman, J. Jortner, and M. H. Cohen, “Theory of optical and microwave properties of microscopically inhomogeneous materials,” Phys. Rev. B 15(12), 5712–5723 (1977).
[Crossref]

Wehmeyer, G.

G. Wehmeyer, T. Yabuki, C. Monachon, J. Wu, and C. Dames, “Thermal diodes, regulators, and switches: physical mechanisms and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

Werner, D. H.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide VO2,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeler, V. D.

Wu, J.

G. Wehmeyer, T. Yabuki, C. Monachon, J. Wu, and C. Dames, “Thermal diodes, regulators, and switches: physical mechanisms and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yabuki, T.

G. Wehmeyer, T. Yabuki, C. Monachon, J. Wu, and C. Dames, “Thermal diodes, regulators, and switches: physical mechanisms and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, R.

K. K. Law, R. Yan, L. Coldren, and J. Merz, “Self-electro-optic device based on a superlattice asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator with an on/off ratio≳ 100: 1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1345–1347 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. Yan, R. Simes, and L. Coldren, “Electroabsorptive fabry-perot reflection modulators with asymmetric mirrors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1(9), 273–275 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. J.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, S.

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Ultranarrow band absorbers based on surface lattice resonances in nanostructured metal surfaces,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8242–8248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

Z. Li, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Large-area, lithography-free super absorbers and color filters at visible frequencies using ultrathin metallic films,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 183–188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Menges, M. Dittberner, L. Novotny, D. Passarello, S. Parkin, M. Spieser, H. Riel, and B. Gotsmann, “Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171904 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold- VO2 nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. K. Law, R. Yan, L. Coldren, and J. Merz, “Self-electro-optic device based on a superlattice asymmetric Fabry–Perot modulator with an on/off ratio≳ 100: 1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1345–1347 (1990).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

G. Wehmeyer, T. Yabuki, C. Monachon, J. Wu, and C. Dames, “Thermal diodes, regulators, and switches: physical mechanisms and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J.-I. Chyi, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, “Resonant cavity-enhanced (RCE) photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 2025–2034 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Yan, R. Simes, and L. Coldren, “Electroabsorptive fabry-perot reflection modulators with asymmetric mirrors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 1(9), 273–275 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. S. Ünlü and S. Strite, “Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 607–639 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Beteille and J. Livage, “Optical switching in VO2 thin films,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13(1/3), 915–921 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

A. Chin and T. Chang, “Multilayer reflectors by molecular-beam epitaxy for resonance enhanced absorption in thin high-speed detectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 339–342 (1990).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 517 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

J. Rensberg, Y. Zhou, S. Richter, C. Wan, S. Zhang, P. Schöppe, R. Schmidt-Grund, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso, M. A. Kats, and C. Ronning, “Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. Webman, J. Jortner, and M. H. Cohen, “Theory of optical and microwave properties of microscopically inhomogeneous materials,” Phys. Rev. B 15(12), 5712–5723 (1977).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

H. S. Choi, J. S. Ahn, J. H. Jung, T. W. Noh, and D. H. Kim, “Mid-infrared properties of a VO2 film near the metal-insulator transition,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(7), 4621–4628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (4)

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, H. Kocer, and K. Aydin, “Omnidirectional, broadband light absorption using large-area, ultrathin lossy metallic film coatings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Tongay, D. Fu, K. Wang, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Intensity tunable infrared broadband absorbers based on VO2 phase transition using planar layered thin films,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide VO2,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic press, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of VO 2 film grown on double polished sapphire with deposited gold. The near-IR light source was incident from the top side and the ceramic heater was placed below the gold.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption spectra with various material states. To compare the trend, the scale of the absorption is offset by additional translation. The amplitude of the absorption for each material state is still in the range of 0 and 1 but with additional translation of 1,2,3,4 and 5 from states 2 to 6. (a, c) Measured absorption at selected temperatures for 100 nm thickness VO 2 and 200 nm thickness VO 2 respectively. (b, d) Calculated absorption with fitted metallic percentage factors for 100 nm thickness VO 2 and 200 nm thickness VO 2 respectively. The fitted dash lines track the shifts of resonance positions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured absorption intensity as a function of increasing temperature and decreasing temperature at 1.5 µm wavelength for (a) 100 nm thickness VO 2 and at 3 µm wavelength for (b) 200 nm thickness VO 2 .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated electrical field intensity distribution and absorption maps for (a, c) 100 nm thickness VO 2 and (b, d) 200 nm thickness VO 2 . The left two plots show the absorbed power density maps. The positions of the VO2 films are indicated by the dashed line.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured absorption with more temperature data points for 100 nm thickness case (a and c) and 200 nm thickness case (b and d).

Equations (2)

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P i =α P m + ( 1α ) P d
ϵ i 1 ϵ i +2 =α ϵ m 1 ϵ m +2 + ( 1α ) ϵ d 1 ϵ d +2

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