Abstract

Metal-dielectric metasurfaces with an engineered phase response provide a versatile technology for the next generation of optical systems. However, metal oxidation is detrimental to the performance and lifespan of these devices. Here we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a 1200 lp/mm coated reflective metal-dielectric metasurface grating for use with 650 nm illumination. An 80 nm PMMA coating protects the sample from metal oxidation and sample degradation. The fabricated samples exhibit ~45% efficiency in the first diffractive order over 0-50° angle of incidence consistent with the electromagnetic simulations. The coated samples preserve the performance over 25 weeks in standard room temperature and humidity while the unprotected samples show over an 80% drop in efficiency.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

H. F. Alvarez, M. E. de Cos Gomez, and F. Las-Heras, “Angular Stability of Metasurfaces: Challenges Regarding Reflectivity Measurements [Measurements Corner],” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 58(5), 74–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, X. Yang, D. Rosenmann, L. Stan, D. Czaplewski, and J. Gao, “Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25329–25339 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kitt, J. P. Rolland, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Visible metasurfaces and ruled diffraction gratings: a comparison,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2895–2901 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (5)

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Larouche and D. R. Smith, “Reconciliation of generalized refraction with diffraction theory,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2391–2393 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Nielsen, D. K. Gramotnev, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Continuous layer gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19310–19322 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

Alvarez, H. F.

H. F. Alvarez, M. E. de Cos Gomez, and F. Las-Heras, “Angular Stability of Metasurfaces: Challenges Regarding Reflectivity Measurements [Measurements Corner],” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 58(5), 74–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V. S.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barroso, G. S.

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, G. Motz, A. Bolzán, and R. A. F. Machado, “Preparation of PMMA/hBN composite coatings for metal surface protection,” Mater. Res. 16(6), 1366–1372 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolzán, A.

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, G. Motz, A. Bolzán, and R. A. F. Machado, “Preparation of PMMA/hBN composite coatings for metal surface protection,” Mater. Res. 16(6), 1366–1372 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butun, S.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, F.

Coan, T.

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, G. Motz, A. Bolzán, and R. A. F. Machado, “Preparation of PMMA/hBN composite coatings for metal surface protection,” Mater. Res. 16(6), 1366–1372 (2013).
[Crossref]

Czaplewski, D.

de Cos Gomez, M. E.

H. F. Alvarez, M. E. de Cos Gomez, and F. Las-Heras, “Angular Stability of Metasurfaces: Challenges Regarding Reflectivity Measurements [Measurements Corner],” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 58(5), 74–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

de Souza, F. S.

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Díaz-Rubio, A.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hooper, I. R.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, G.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juan, T.-K.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitt, A. L.

Kung, W.-T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larouche, S.

Las-Heras, F.

H. F. Alvarez, M. E. de Cos Gomez, and F. Las-Heras, “Angular Stability of Metasurfaces: Challenges Regarding Reflectivity Measurements [Measurements Corner],” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 58(5), 74–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, D.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Machado, R. A. F.

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, G. Motz, A. Bolzán, and R. A. F. Machado, “Preparation of PMMA/hBN composite coatings for metal surface protection,” Mater. Res. 16(6), 1366–1372 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meinzer, N.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Motz, G.

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, G. Motz, A. Bolzán, and R. A. F. Machado, “Preparation of PMMA/hBN composite coatings for metal surface protection,” Mater. Res. 16(6), 1366–1372 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mühlenbernd, H.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. G.

Palacios, E.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pors, A.

Qiu, C.-W.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

Rosenmann, D.

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

Spinelli, A.

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stan, L.

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vamivakas, A. N.

Wang, C.-M.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

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V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

V. S. Asadchy, A. Wickberg, A. Díaz-Rubio, and M. Wegener, “Eliminating Scattering Loss in Anomalously Reflecting Optical Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1264–1270 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

H. F. Alvarez, M. E. de Cos Gomez, and F. Las-Heras, “Angular Stability of Metasurfaces: Challenges Regarding Reflectivity Measurements [Measurements Corner],” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 58(5), 74–81 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. (1)

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, G. Motz, A. Bolzán, and R. A. F. Machado, “Preparation of PMMA/hBN composite coatings for metal surface protection,” Mater. Res. 16(6), 1366–1372 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-Frequency Metasurfaces for Broadband Anomalous Reflection and High-Efficiency Spectrum Splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Prog. Org. Coat. (1)

T. Coan, G. S. Barroso, R. A. F. Machado, F. S. de Souza, A. Spinelli, and G. Motz, “A novel organic-inorganic PMMA/polysilazane hybrid polymer for corrosion protection,” Prog. Org. Coat. 89, 220–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
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Science (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Unprotected samples degrade with time due to oxidation of the metal nano-tokens causing a drop in diffractive efficiency. This loss in efficiency can be prevented via the use of a dielectric coating that protects the structures.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The unit cell for the final designed coated metasurface – top x-y and side x-z view (diagram) including dimensions in nm (table); (b) the modeled phase response (red dashed curve) across the x-axis over four periods compared to the phase response of a perfect 1200 lp/mm blazed grating (blue solid line); the red squares identify the position of the tokens; (c) SEM image of the fabricated sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The experimental setup used to measure the diffraction efficiency; θlim is the angular region where the input and output arm collide and θi is the angle of incidence measured from the normal of the surface; (b) comparison between simulated ηs (circle/square) and measured ηm (star/rhombus) efficiency of the first diffractive order for the samples (with/without coating) at 650 nm; the bottom inset shows the absolute difference between the simulation and measurement for the samples with/without coating (upward/downward pointing triangle); (c) the measured efficiency at week 1 (circle/square) and week 25 (upward/downward pointing triangle) for the sample with/without coating; for all results the measurements error bars were smaller than the shown markers; the blue color symbols in (b) and (c) corresponds to the sample with coating where the red data is for the sample without coating. An x-axis break was used in (b) and (c) to emphasize the regions of interest where measurements were performed (the region left out corresponds to the regime where the input and output arm collide in the experimental setup).

Equations (1)

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k sp = k 0   ϵ metal ϵ dielectric ϵ metal + ϵ dielectric , 

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