Abstract

In this work, we theoretically investigate metal-substrate-enhanced magnetic dipole resonance in metamaterials for high-performance refractive index sensing. The metamaterials are composed of periodic arrays of vertical U-shaped split-ring resonators, dielectric spacer, and metal substrate. Because the metal substrate blocks the transmission channel of light, the radiative damping of magnetic dipole resonance is nearly completely suppressed and thus its quality factor is increased noticeably. Owing to the narrow bandwidth, nearly-zero reflectance, and huge enhancement of electromagnetic fields at the magnetic dipole resonance, our designed metamaterial sensor has very high sensitivity (S = 1308 nm/RIU, S* = 26/RIU) and figure of merit (FOM = 52, FOM* = 1187). The good sensing capability allows for a much more sensitive detection of small refractive index changes and suggests potential applications in biosensing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Engineering the magnetic plasmon resonances of metamaterials for high-quality sensing

Jing Chen, Wenfang Fan, Tao Zhang, Chaojun Tang, Xingyu Chen, Jingjing Wu, Danyang Li, and Ying Yu
Opt. Express 25(4) 3675-3681 (2017)

Magnetic plasmons in a simple metallic nanogroove array for refractive index sensing

Yuhang Zhu, Hong Zhang, Daimin Li, Zhiyi Zhang, Song Zhang, Juemin Yi, and Wei Wang
Opt. Express 26(7) 9148-9154 (2018)

Double Fano resonances due to interplay of electric and magnetic plasmon modes in planar plasmonic structure with high sensing sensitivity

Junqiao Wang, Chunzhen Fan, Jinna He, Pei Ding, Erjun Liang, and Qianzhong Xue
Opt. Express 21(2) 2236-2244 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  8. N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. Talebi, S. Guo, and P. A. van Aken, “Theory and applications of toroidal moments in electrodynamics: their emergence, characteristics, and technological relevance,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 93–110 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. Z. F. Li, M. Mutlu, and E. Ozbay, “Chiral metamaterials: from optical activity and negative refractive index to asymmetric transmission,” J. Opt. 15(2), 023001 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. B. Khanikaev, C. H. Wu, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant metamaterials and their applications,” Nanophotonics 2(4), 247–264 (2014).
  14. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. N. M. Litchinitser and J. Sun, “Optical meta-atoms: going nonlinear,” Science 350(6264), 1033–1034 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. M. Hein and H. Giessen, “Tailoring magnetic dipole emission with plasmonic split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 026803 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. Cao, J. Zhang, S. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Intelligent and ultrasensitive analysis of mercury trace contaminants via plasmonic metamaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Small 10(16), 3252–3256 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Y. T. Chang, Y. C. Lai, C. T. Li, C. K. Chen, and T. J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. Chen, W. Fan, T. Zhang, C. Tang, X. Chen, J. Wu, D. Li, and Y. Yu, “Engineering the magnetic plasmon resonances of metamaterials for high-quality sensing,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3675–3681 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. Y. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. A. Salim and S. Lim, “Review of recent metamaterial microfluidic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 18(1), 232 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  40. P. C. Wu, C. Y. Liao, J. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Isotropic absorption and sensor of vertical split-ring resonator,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600581 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  41. W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5(6), 571–577 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  42. P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  43. P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. J. Yuan, Y. Y. Xie, Z. X. Geng, C. X. Wang, H. M. Chen, Q. Kan, and H. D. Chen, “Enhanced sensitivity of gold elliptic nanohole array biosensor with the surface plasmon polaritons coupling,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 818–826 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  47. J. Chen, J. Yuan, Q. Zhang, H. M. Ge, C. J. Tang, Y. Liu, and B. N. Guo, “Dielectric waveguide-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(2), 342–345 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  48. Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24063 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. Website, www.eastfdtd.com .
  50. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  51. Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  52. Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  53. P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  55. C. Tang, Q. Wang, F. Liu, Z. Chen, and Z. Wang, “Optical forces in twisted split-ring-resonator dimer stereometamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11783–11793 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  56. R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  57. A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  58. X. Lu, L. Zhang, and T. Zhang, “Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20715–20720 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  59. Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Yi, and W. Wang, “Magnetic plasmons in a simple metallic nanogroove array for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9148–9154 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  60. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

N. Talebi, S. Guo, and P. A. van Aken, “Theory and applications of toroidal moments in electrodynamics: their emergence, characteristics, and technological relevance,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 93–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Salim and S. Lim, “Review of recent metamaterial microfluidic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 18(1), 232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. Yuan, Q. Zhang, H. M. Ge, C. J. Tang, Y. Liu, and B. N. Guo, “Dielectric waveguide-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(2), 342–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Yi, and W. Wang, “Magnetic plasmons in a simple metallic nanogroove array for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9148–9154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, W. Fan, T. Zhang, C. Tang, X. Chen, J. Wu, D. Li, and Y. Yu, “Engineering the magnetic plasmon resonances of metamaterials for high-quality sensing,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3675–3681 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, C. Y. Liao, J. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Isotropic absorption and sensor of vertical split-ring resonator,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600581 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, F. Yan, S. Tan, H. Zhou, and Y. Hou, “Ultrasensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor based on vertical split ring resonators,” Photon. Res. 5(6), 571–577 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

J. Yuan, Y. Y. Xie, Z. X. Geng, C. X. Wang, H. M. Chen, Q. Kan, and H. D. Chen, “Enhanced sensitivity of gold elliptic nanohole array biosensor with the surface plasmon polaritons coupling,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 818–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lu, L. Zhang, and T. Zhang, “Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20715–20720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser and J. Sun, “Optical meta-atoms: going nonlinear,” Science 350(6264), 1033–1034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, S. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Intelligent and ultrasensitive analysis of mercury trace contaminants via plasmonic metamaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Small 10(16), 3252–3256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Khanikaev, C. H. Wu, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant metamaterials and their applications,” Nanophotonics 2(4), 247–264 (2014).

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

C. Tang, Q. Wang, F. Liu, Z. Chen, and Z. Wang, “Optical forces in twisted split-ring-resonator dimer stereometamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11783–11793 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, M. Mutlu, and E. Ozbay, “Chiral metamaterials: from optical activity and negative refractive index to asymmetric transmission,” J. Opt. 15(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Hein and H. Giessen, “Tailoring magnetic dipole emission with plasmonic split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 026803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Y. T. Chang, Y. C. Lai, C. T. Li, C. K. Chen, and T. J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akosman, A. E.

Alici, K. B.

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ameling, R.

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Banzer, P.

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baranov, D. G.

D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, A.

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Braun, P. V.

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

Caglayan, H.

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, C.

C. Cao, J. Zhang, S. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Intelligent and ultrasensitive analysis of mercury trace contaminants via plasmonic metamaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Small 10(16), 3252–3256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cetin, A. E.

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. T.

Chen, C. K.

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chang, Y. C. Lai, C. T. Li, C. K. Chen, and T. J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. D.

Chen, H. M.

Chen, J.

Chen, J. W.

P. C. Wu, C. Y. Liao, J. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Isotropic absorption and sensor of vertical split-ring resonator,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600581 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. Q.

W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. Y.

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y. H.

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, B. H.

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, H. P.

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S.

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Colak, E.

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cong, L. Q.

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. X.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dao, N. T.

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, F.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dodson, S. L.

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, T.

Ge, H. M.

Geng, Z. X.

Giessen, H.

S. M. Hein and H. Giessen, “Tailoring magnetic dipole emission with plasmonic split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 026803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gong, C.

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, B. N.

Guo, S.

N. Talebi, S. Guo, and P. A. van Aken, “Theory and applications of toroidal moments in electrodynamics: their emergence, characteristics, and technological relevance,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 93–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gupta, P.

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

He, S.

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S. L.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Y. R.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hein, S. M.

S. M. Hein and H. Giessen, “Tailoring magnetic dipole emission with plasmonic split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 026803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hou, Y.

Hsiao, C. T.

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W. L.

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. L.

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. W.

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kan, Q.

Kang, M.

Khanikaev, A. B.

A. B. Khanikaev, C. H. Wu, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant metamaterials and their applications,” Nanophotonics 2(4), 247–264 (2014).

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

Y. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. W.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasnok, A. E.

D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuo, S. W.

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lahiri, B.

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y. C.

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chang, Y. C. Lai, C. T. Li, C. K. Chen, and T. J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langguth, L.

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Y. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. C.

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, O. K.

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, C. T.

Li, D.

Li, G.

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

C. Cao, J. Zhang, S. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Intelligent and ultrasensitive analysis of mercury trace contaminants via plasmonic metamaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Small 10(16), 3252–3256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S. V.

D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. F.

Z. F. Li, M. Mutlu, and E. Ozbay, “Chiral metamaterials: from optical activity and negative refractive index to asymmetric transmission,” J. Opt. 15(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. Y.

P. C. Wu, C. Y. Liao, J. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Isotropic absorption and sensor of vertical split-ring resonator,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600581 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S.

A. Salim and S. Lim, “Review of recent metamaterial microfluidic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 18(1), 232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. Y.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litchinitser, N. M.

N. M. Litchinitser and J. Sun, “Optical meta-atoms: going nonlinear,” Science 350(6264), 1033–1034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A. Q.

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tang, Q. Wang, F. Liu, Z. Chen, and Z. Wang, “Optical forces in twisted split-ring-resonator dimer stereometamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11783–11793 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

X. Lu, L. Zhang, and T. Zhang, “Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20715–20720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mesch, M.

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mutlu, M.

Nordlander, P.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

Ozbay, E.

Z. F. Li, M. Mutlu, and E. Ozbay, “Chiral metamaterials: from optical activity and negative refractive index to asymmetric transmission,” J. Opt. 15(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, X.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

Y. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, B.

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phan, A. T.

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, B.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ra’di, Y.

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Raybould, T. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salim, A.

A. Salim and S. Lim, “Review of recent metamaterial microfluidic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 18(1), 232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarau, G.

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Savelev, R. S.

D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Savinov, V.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serebryannikov, A. E.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, S.

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

A. B. Khanikaev, C. H. Wu, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant metamaterials and their applications,” Nanophotonics 2(4), 247–264 (2014).

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simovski, C. R.

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

Singh, R. J.

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, E.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sui, C.

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, G.

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

N. M. Litchinitser and J. Sun, “Optical meta-atoms: going nonlinear,” Science 350(6264), 1033–1034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tai, N. H.

Talebi, N.

N. Talebi, S. Guo, and P. A. van Aken, “Theory and applications of toroidal moments in electrodynamics: their emergence, characteristics, and technological relevance,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 93–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tan, S.

Tang, C.

Tang, C. J.

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

Tretyakov, S. A.

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

P. C. Wu, C. Y. Liao, J. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Isotropic absorption and sensor of vertical split-ring resonator,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600581 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Un, I. W.

van Aken, P. A.

N. Talebi, S. Guo, and P. A. van Aken, “Theory and applications of toroidal moments in electrodynamics: their emergence, characteristics, and technological relevance,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 93–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, F.

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. X.

Wang, H. T.

Wang, L.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, S.

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Wang, X. B.

W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. H.

W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wegener, M.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withayachumnankul, W.

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, L. M.

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C. H.

A. B. Khanikaev, C. H. Wu, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant metamaterials and their applications,” Nanophotonics 2(4), 247–264 (2014).

Wu, H. T.

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Wu, P. C.

P. C. Wu, C. Y. Liao, J. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Isotropic absorption and sensor of vertical split-ring resonator,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600581 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Y. Y.

Xiong, Q.

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, S. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Intelligent and ultrasensitive analysis of mercury trace contaminants via plasmonic metamaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Small 10(16), 3252–3256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, B.

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, F.

Yang, K. Y.

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yanik, A. A.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Y. Q.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yen, T. J.

Yi, J.

Ying, Y.

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yong, Z.

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Yuan, J.

Yue, W. S.

W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, S. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Intelligent and ultrasensitive analysis of mercury trace contaminants via plasmonic metamaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Small 10(16), 3252–3256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

X. Lu, L. Zhang, and T. Zhang, “Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20715–20720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

J. Chen, J. Yuan, Q. Zhang, H. M. Ge, C. J. Tang, Y. Liu, and B. N. Guo, “Dielectric waveguide-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(2), 342–345 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Yi, and W. Wang, “Magnetic plasmons in a simple metallic nanogroove array for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9148–9154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. L.

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, R. K.

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, S. M.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

ACS Nano (2)

C. Cao, J. Zhang, X. Wen, S. L. Dodson, N. T. Dao, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, S. Li, A. T. Phan, and Q. Xiong, “Metamaterials-based label-free nanosensor for conformation and affinity biosensing,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7583–7591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. C. Lai, H. C. Lee, S. W. Kuo, C. K. Chen, H. T. Wu, O. K. Lee, and T. J. Yen, “Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-imaging by multimode plasmonic resonances in split-ring resonators,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP148–OP152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98–OP120 (2012).
[PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

G. Sarau, B. Lahiri, P. Banzer, P. Gupta, A. Bhattacharya, F. Vollmer, and S. Christiansen, “Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using arrays of split ring resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 151–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, C. Y. Liao, J. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Isotropic absorption and sensor of vertical split-ring resonator,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600581 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

P. C. Wu, G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033105 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ameling, L. Langguth, M. Hentschel, M. Mesch, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Cavity-enhanced localized plasmon resonance sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253116 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. J. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Q. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. L. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. F. Li, R. K. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

Z. F. Li, M. Mutlu, and E. Ozbay, “Chiral metamaterials: from optical activity and negative refractive index to asymmetric transmission,” J. Opt. 15(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

W. S. Yue, Y. Yang, Z. H. Wang, L. Q. Chen, and X. B. Wang, “Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface- enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(42), 21908–21915 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

D. G. Baranov, R. S. Savelev, S. V. Li, A. E. Krasnok, and A. Alù, “Modifying magnetic dipole spontaneous emission with nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (3)

A. B. Khanikaev, C. H. Wu, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant metamaterials and their applications,” Nanophotonics 2(4), 247–264 (2014).

N. Talebi, S. Guo, and P. A. van Aken, “Theory and applications of toroidal moments in electrodynamics: their emergence, characteristics, and technological relevance,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 93–110 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophotonics 1(2), 131–138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (2)

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, G. Li, J. Zhang, Q. Zhang, B. Peng, L. M. Wong, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 6(1), 132–139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

P. Wang, N. Chen, C. Tang, J. Chen, F. Liu, S. Sheng, B. Yan, and C. Sui, “Engineering the complex-valued constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (4)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, V. Savinov, T. A. Raybould, and N. I. Zheludev, “Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space,” Nat. Mater. 15(3), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

X. Lu, L. Zhang, and T. Zhang, “Nanoslit-microcavity-based narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20715–20720 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. Yi, and W. Wang, “Magnetic plasmons in a simple metallic nanogroove array for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9148–9154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tang, Q. Wang, F. Liu, Z. Chen, and Z. Wang, “Optical forces in twisted split-ring-resonator dimer stereometamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11783–11793 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, W. Fan, T. Zhang, C. Tang, X. Chen, J. Wu, D. Li, and Y. Yu, “Engineering the magnetic plasmon resonances of metamaterials for high-quality sensing,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3675–3681 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, I. W. Un, N. H. Tai, and T. J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15372–15380 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chang, Y. C. Lai, C. T. Li, C. K. Chen, and T. J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. M. Hein and H. Giessen, “Tailoring magnetic dipole emission with plasmonic split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 026803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (4)

Z. Yong, S. Zhang, C. Gong, and S. He, “Narrow band perfect absorber for maximum localized magnetic and electric field enhancement and sensing applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24063 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W. L. Hsu, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9726 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Hsu, P. C. Wu, J. W. Chen, T. Y. Chen, B. H. Cheng, W. T. Chen, Y. W. Huang, C. Y. Liao, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11226 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Z. Liu, J. Li, W. Li, J. Li, C. Gu, and Z. Y. Li, “3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27817 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (5)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser and J. Sun, “Optical meta-atoms: going nonlinear,” Science 350(6264), 1033–1034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (3)

Y. Lee, S. J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Salim and S. Lim, “Review of recent metamaterial microfluidic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 18(1), 232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

C. Cao, J. Zhang, S. Li, and Q. Xiong, “Intelligent and ultrasensitive analysis of mercury trace contaminants via plasmonic metamaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Small 10(16), 3252–3256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Website, www.eastfdtd.com .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of metamaterials for high-performance refractive index sensing, which are composed of a periodic array of vertical U-shaped split-ring resonators, a SiO2 spacer, and an Ag substrate. Geometrical parameters: px and py are the array periods along the x and y directions, respectively; t is the thickness of the SiO2 spacer; l1, w and h1 are the length, width, and height of the vertical U-shaped split-ring resonators, respectively; l2 and h2 are the length and height of the gap, respectively. Light is normally incident in the negative direction of the z axis, with its electric field Ein and magnetic field Hin along the x and y axes, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normal-incidence absorption and reflection spectra in the wavelength range from 1200 to 2000 nm, with (a) and without (b) the Ag substrate. Geometrical parameters: px = 1000 nm, py = 400 nm, t = 30 nm, l1 = h1 = 200 nm, w = 50 nm, l2 = 100 nm, and h2 = 150 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized electric field intensity (E/Ein)2 and magnetic field intensity (H/Hin)2 on the surface of the vertical U-shaped split-ring resonators, at the resonance wavelengths of λ1 and λ2 labeled in Fig. 2. The red arrows and the colors stand for the directions and the strengths of the electromagnetic fields, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normal-incidence absorption (a) and reflection (b) spectra of the metamaterial sensor immersed in different environment media, whose refractive index n is supposed to be varied from 1.0 to 1.1 in steps of 0.025. The geometrical parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The dependence of the resonance wavelength on the refractive index n of the environment medium, which is obtained by the calculated data in Fig. 4.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normal-incidence reflection spectra in the wavelength range from 1440 to 1580 nm. (a) The thickness t of the SiO2 spacer is varied from 20 to 50 nm in steps of 10 nm. (b) The array period px along the x direction is varied from 800 to 1100 nm in steps of 100 nm. (c) The array period py along the y direction is varied from 300 to 600 nm in steps of 100 nm. The geometrical parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2.

Metrics