Abstract

Polymer materials doped with rare-earth ions are promising candidates for the formation of low-cost integrated optical amplifiers. However, there are significant technical challenges associated with the integration of these dissimilar materials and the formation of high-quality Er-doped polymer films. In this paper, therefore, we present for the first time the fabrication of polymer thin layers modified with erbium-doped sodium zinc tellurite (Er-TZN) glass nanoparticles (NPs) using femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and the characterisation of their basic properties. The surface morphology and the compositional and structural characteristics of the samples produced with this method are evaluated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), while photoluminescence (PL) measurements are carried out at room temperature under a 980 nm laser diode excitation. The studies indicate that the Er-doped TZN NPs are successfully integrated in the polymer layers. The obtained average NP size is measured to be in the range of 12 to 21 nm depending on the fabrication parameters, while broad PL emission at 1534 nm that corresponds to the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+ is observed from the samples. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the PL spectra is found to be ~39 nm while the fluorescence lifetime is measured to be in the range of 3.52 to 4.18 ms. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the potential to efficiently dope polymer layers with glass NPs using fs-PLD and is a first step towards the successful formation of hybrid polymer-glass waveguide amplifiers.

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  43. D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

J. W. Jeon, S. Yoon, H. W. Choi, J. Kim, D. Farson, and S. -H. Cho, “The effect of laser pulse widths on laser-Ag nanoparticle interaction: femto- to-nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Sci. 8, 112–120 (2018).

2017 (2)

R. G. Nikov, A. O. Dikovska, N. N. Nedyalkov, G. V. Avdeev, and P. A. Atanasov, “Au nanostructure fabrication by pulsed laser deposition in open air: Influence of the deposition geometry,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 8, 2438–2445 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghatrehsamani and G. E. Town, “Optical gain in polymer composite materials with P2O2: Er3+/Yb3+- codoped nanoparticles,” J. Quantum Electronics 53(2), 7000705 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Prajzler, P. R. Mastera, and P. Nekvindova, “Properties of siloxane based optical waveguides deposited on transparent paper and foil,” Wuxiandian Gongcheng 25(2), 230 (2016).

M. Boutinguiza, M. Meixus, J. Del Val, A. Riverio, R. Comesana, F. Lusquinos, and J. Pou, “Synthesis and characterization of Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation in water using nanosecond laser,” Phys. Procedia 83, 36–45 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Huang, S. Xu, M. Fang, Y. G. Liu, X. Wu, and S. Zhang, “Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

R. S. E. John, C. M. Amb, B. W. Swatowski, W. K. Weidner, M. Halter, T. Lamprecht, and F. Betschon, “Thermally stable, low loss optical silicones: a key enabler for electro-optical printed circuit boards,” J. Lightw. Tech. 33(4), 814–819 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

J. Chandrappan, M. Murray, P. Petrik, E. Agocs, Z. Zolnai, A. Tempez, S. Legendre, D. P. Steenson, A. Jha, and G. Jose, “Doping silica beyond limits with laser plasma for active photonic materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2849–2861 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Schmitt, “Analysis of silanes and of siloxanes formation by Raman spectroscopy,” RSC Advances 4(4), 1907–1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jinqiu, C. Lei, H. Huaqiang, Y. Shihong, H. Yunsheng, and W. Hao, “Raman spectra of RE2O3 (RE = Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Sc and Y): laser-excited luminescence and trace impurity analysis,” J. Rare Earths 32(1), 1–4 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “A 40 Gb/s optical bus for optical backplane interconnections,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32(8), 1526–1537 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Mirza, G. O’Connell, J. J. Wang, and J. G. Lunney, “Comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of silver nanoparticles films,” Nanotechnology 25, 265301 (2014)

T. Kakkar, N. Bamiedakis, T. T. Fernandez, Z. Zhao, M. Irannejad, P. Steenson, A. Jha, R. Penty, I. White, and G. Jose, “Glass–polymer superlattice for integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071818 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

S. Kar, S. Logad, O. P. Choudhary, C. Debnath, S. Verma, and K. S. Bartwal, “Preparation of lithium niobate nanoparticles by high energy ball milling and their characterization,” J. Mater. Sci. 1(2), 18–24 (2013).

X. Zhai, J. Li, S. Liu, X. Liu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, D. Zhang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Enhancement of 1.53 μm emission band in NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals for polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(2), 270 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. C. Dingeldein, K. A. Walczak, B. W. Swatowski, C. R. Friedrich, C. T. Middlebrook, and M. C. Roggemann, “Process characterization for direct dispense fabrication of polymer optical multi-mode waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(7), 075015 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. M. Sidel, F. A. Santos, V. O. Gordo, E. Idalgo, A. A. Monteiro, J. C. S. Moraes, and K. Yukimitu, “Avrami exponent of crystallization in tellurite glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 106(2), 613–618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, G. Jose, P. Steenson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. Jha, “Tellurite glass thin films on silica and polymer using UV (193 nm) pulsed laser ablation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(9), 095501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. Vu and S. Madden, “Tellurium dioxide Erbium doped planar rib waveguide amplifiers with net gain and 2.8 dB/cm internal gain,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19192–19200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Carteret and A. Labrosse, “Vibrational properties of polysiloxanes from dimer to oligomers and polymers, Structural and vibrational properties of hexamethyldisloxane (CH3)3SiOSi (CH3)3,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(9), 996–1004 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. E. Brunchi, A. Filimon, M. Cazacu, and S. Ioan, “Properties of some poly(siloxane)s for optical applications,” High Perform. Polym. 21(1), 31–47 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

E. Rebollar, S. Gaspard, M. Oujja, M. M. Villavieja, T. Corrales, P. Bosch, S. Georgiou, and M. Castillejo, “Pulsed laser deposition of polymers doped with fluorescent molecular sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 171–180 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. G. Rivera, E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “Planar waveguides by ion exchange in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 363–367 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, R. Riman, S. Chen, D. Smith, and J. Ballato, “Optical properties of a transparent CaF2:Er3+ fluoropolymer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241105 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124313 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Theberge, E. Forster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Muller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 499–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and device,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. R. Kasaai, S. Lagace, D. Boudreau, E. Forster, B. Muller, and S. L. Chin, “Creation of micro-holes on glass surface by femtosecond laser through the ejection of molten material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292(1-3), 202–209 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Q. Xiang, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, “Deposition and characterization of Er3+ doped, A1 co-doped sol-gel silica films on SOS,” Ferroelectrics 230(1), 55–60 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, M. P. Oude Wolbers, F. C. J. M. V. Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, “Optical properties of erbium-doped organic polydentate cage complexes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 497–503 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. Yada, T. Maejima, MasaruAoki, and M. Umesaki, “Thin-film formation by spin coating: characteristics of a positive photoresist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3(1), 6279–6284 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzuca, J. Portier, B. Tanguy, F. Romain, A. Fadli, and S. Turrell, “Raman scattering in tellurium-metal oxyde glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 349, 413–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

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R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
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S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
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K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124313 (2005).
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Beals, J.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
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S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
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E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

Bosch, P.

E. Rebollar, S. Gaspard, M. Oujja, M. M. Villavieja, T. Corrales, P. Bosch, S. Georgiou, and M. Castillejo, “Pulsed laser deposition of polymers doped with fluorescent molecular sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 171–180 (2006).
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M. Boutinguiza, M. Meixus, J. Del Val, A. Riverio, R. Comesana, F. Lusquinos, and J. Pou, “Synthesis and characterization of Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation in water using nanosecond laser,” Phys. Procedia 83, 36–45 (2016).
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E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

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C. E. Brunchi, A. Filimon, M. Cazacu, and S. Ioan, “Properties of some poly(siloxane)s for optical applications,” High Perform. Polym. 21(1), 31–47 (2009).
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C. E. Brunchi, A. Filimon, M. Cazacu, and S. Ioan, “Properties of some poly(siloxane)s for optical applications,” High Perform. Polym. 21(1), 31–47 (2009).
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V. A. G. Rivera, E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “Planar waveguides by ion exchange in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 363–367 (2006).
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Chan, Y. C.

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Chen, C. W.

G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, R. Riman, S. Chen, D. Smith, and J. Ballato, “Optical properties of a transparent CaF2:Er3+ fluoropolymer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241105 (2005).
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D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
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G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, R. Riman, S. Chen, D. Smith, and J. Ballato, “Optical properties of a transparent CaF2:Er3+ fluoropolymer nanocomposite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241105 (2005).
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Chillcce, E. F.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “Planar waveguides by ion exchange in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 363–367 (2006).
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Chin, S. L.

V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Theberge, E. Forster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Muller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 499–505 (2004).
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M. R. Kasaai, S. Lagace, D. Boudreau, E. Forster, B. Muller, and S. L. Chin, “Creation of micro-holes on glass surface by femtosecond laser through the ejection of molten material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292(1-3), 202–209 (2001).
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J. W. Jeon, S. Yoon, H. W. Choi, J. Kim, D. Farson, and S. -H. Cho, “The effect of laser pulse widths on laser-Ag nanoparticle interaction: femto- to-nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Sci. 8, 112–120 (2018).

Choi, H. W.

J. W. Jeon, S. Yoon, H. W. Choi, J. Kim, D. Farson, and S. -H. Cho, “The effect of laser pulse widths on laser-Ag nanoparticle interaction: femto- to-nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Sci. 8, 112–120 (2018).

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S. Kar, S. Logad, O. P. Choudhary, C. Debnath, S. Verma, and K. S. Bartwal, “Preparation of lithium niobate nanoparticles by high energy ball milling and their characterization,” J. Mater. Sci. 1(2), 18–24 (2013).

Clapp, T.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
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M. Boutinguiza, M. Meixus, J. Del Val, A. Riverio, R. Comesana, F. Lusquinos, and J. Pou, “Synthesis and characterization of Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation in water using nanosecond laser,” Phys. Procedia 83, 36–45 (2016).
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Corrales, T.

E. Rebollar, S. Gaspard, M. Oujja, M. M. Villavieja, T. Corrales, P. Bosch, S. Georgiou, and M. Castillejo, “Pulsed laser deposition of polymers doped with fluorescent molecular sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 171–180 (2006).
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R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
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Debnath, C.

S. Kar, S. Logad, O. P. Choudhary, C. Debnath, S. Verma, and K. S. Bartwal, “Preparation of lithium niobate nanoparticles by high energy ball milling and their characterization,” J. Mater. Sci. 1(2), 18–24 (2013).

DeGroot, J.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
[Crossref]

Del Val, J.

M. Boutinguiza, M. Meixus, J. Del Val, A. Riverio, R. Comesana, F. Lusquinos, and J. Pou, “Synthesis and characterization of Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation in water using nanosecond laser,” Phys. Procedia 83, 36–45 (2016).
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DeShazer, D. J.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
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Dikovska, A. O.

R. G. Nikov, A. O. Dikovska, N. N. Nedyalkov, G. V. Avdeev, and P. A. Atanasov, “Au nanostructure fabrication by pulsed laser deposition in open air: Influence of the deposition geometry,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 8, 2438–2445 (2017).
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J. C. Dingeldein, K. A. Walczak, B. W. Swatowski, C. R. Friedrich, C. T. Middlebrook, and M. C. Roggemann, “Process characterization for direct dispense fabrication of polymer optical multi-mode waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(7), 075015 (2013).
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M. Mazzuca, J. Portier, B. Tanguy, F. Romain, A. Fadli, and S. Turrell, “Raman scattering in tellurium-metal oxyde glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 349, 413–416 (1995).
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Farson, D.

J. W. Jeon, S. Yoon, H. W. Choi, J. Kim, D. Farson, and S. -H. Cho, “The effect of laser pulse widths on laser-Ag nanoparticle interaction: femto- to-nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Sci. 8, 112–120 (2018).

Fernandez, T. T.

T. Kakkar, N. Bamiedakis, T. T. Fernandez, Z. Zhao, M. Irannejad, P. Steenson, A. Jha, R. Penty, I. White, and G. Jose, “Glass–polymer superlattice for integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071818 (2014).
[Crossref]

Filimon, A.

C. E. Brunchi, A. Filimon, M. Cazacu, and S. Ioan, “Properties of some poly(siloxane)s for optical applications,” High Perform. Polym. 21(1), 31–47 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fisher, D.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fonoberov, V. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124313 (2005).
[Crossref]

Forster, E.

V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Theberge, E. Forster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Muller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 499–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. R. Kasaai, S. Lagace, D. Boudreau, E. Forster, B. Muller, and S. L. Chin, “Creation of micro-holes on glass surface by femtosecond laser through the ejection of molten material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292(1-3), 202–209 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fraenkel, M.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, C. R.

J. C. Dingeldein, K. A. Walczak, B. W. Swatowski, C. R. Friedrich, C. T. Middlebrook, and M. C. Roggemann, “Process characterization for direct dispense fabrication of polymer optical multi-mode waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(7), 075015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

Gangopadhyay, K.

S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gangopadhyay, S.

S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaspard, S.

E. Rebollar, S. Gaspard, M. Oujja, M. M. Villavieja, T. Corrales, P. Bosch, S. Georgiou, and M. Castillejo, “Pulsed laser deposition of polymers doped with fluorescent molecular sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 171–180 (2006).
[Crossref]

Georgiou, S.

E. Rebollar, S. Gaspard, M. Oujja, M. M. Villavieja, T. Corrales, P. Bosch, S. Georgiou, and M. Castillejo, “Pulsed laser deposition of polymers doped with fluorescent molecular sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 171–180 (2006).
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S. Ghatrehsamani and G. E. Town, “Optical gain in polymer composite materials with P2O2: Er3+/Yb3+- codoped nanoparticles,” J. Quantum Electronics 53(2), 7000705 (2017).
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Glatzel, U.

V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Theberge, E. Forster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Muller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 499–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

Glick, M.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
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Gouzman, I.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
[Crossref]

Graham-Jones, J.

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grossman, E.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
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Gupta, P. D.

Halter, M.

R. S. E. John, C. M. Amb, B. W. Swatowski, W. K. Weidner, M. Halter, T. Lamprecht, and F. Betschon, “Thermally stable, low loss optical silicones: a key enabler for electro-optical printed circuit boards,” J. Lightw. Tech. 33(4), 814–819 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hamm, S. C.

S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
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Hao, W.

Y. Jinqiu, C. Lei, H. Huaqiang, Y. Shihong, H. Yunsheng, and W. Hao, “Raman spectra of RE2O3 (RE = Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Sc and Y): laser-excited luminescence and trace impurity analysis,” J. Rare Earths 32(1), 1–4 (2014).
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L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, M. P. Oude Wolbers, F. C. J. M. V. Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, “Optical properties of erbium-doped organic polydentate cage complexes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 497–503 (1998).
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Horst, F.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
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H. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Huang, S. Xu, M. Fang, Y. G. Liu, X. Wu, and S. Zhang, “Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22459 (2016).
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H. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Huang, S. Xu, M. Fang, Y. G. Liu, X. Wu, and S. Zhang, “Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22459 (2016).
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Y. Jinqiu, C. Lei, H. Huaqiang, Y. Shihong, H. Yunsheng, and W. Hao, “Raman spectra of RE2O3 (RE = Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Sc and Y): laser-excited luminescence and trace impurity analysis,” J. Rare Earths 32(1), 1–4 (2014).
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J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
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S. M. Sidel, F. A. Santos, V. O. Gordo, E. Idalgo, A. A. Monteiro, J. C. S. Moraes, and K. Yukimitu, “Avrami exponent of crystallization in tellurite glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 106(2), 613–618 (2011).
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M. Immonen, R. Zhang, M. Press, H. Tang, W. Lei, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, and M. Serbay, “End-to-end optical 25Gb/s link demonstrator with embedded waveguides, 90° out-of-plane connector and on-board optical transceivers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016). 1–3.

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C. E. Brunchi, A. Filimon, M. Cazacu, and S. Ioan, “Properties of some poly(siloxane)s for optical applications,” High Perform. Polym. 21(1), 31–47 (2009).
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H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and device,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
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J. W. Jeon, S. Yoon, H. W. Choi, J. Kim, D. Farson, and S. -H. Cho, “The effect of laser pulse widths on laser-Ag nanoparticle interaction: femto- to-nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Sci. 8, 112–120 (2018).

Jha, A.

J. Chandrappan, M. Murray, P. Petrik, E. Agocs, Z. Zolnai, A. Tempez, S. Legendre, D. P. Steenson, A. Jha, and G. Jose, “Doping silica beyond limits with laser plasma for active photonic materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2849–2861 (2015).
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Y. Jinqiu, C. Lei, H. Huaqiang, Y. Shihong, H. Yunsheng, and W. Hao, “Raman spectra of RE2O3 (RE = Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Sc and Y): laser-excited luminescence and trace impurity analysis,” J. Rare Earths 32(1), 1–4 (2014).
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R. S. E. John, C. M. Amb, B. W. Swatowski, W. K. Weidner, M. Halter, T. Lamprecht, and F. Betschon, “Thermally stable, low loss optical silicones: a key enabler for electro-optical printed circuit boards,” J. Lightw. Tech. 33(4), 814–819 (2015).
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J. Chandrappan, M. Murray, P. Petrik, E. Agocs, Z. Zolnai, A. Tempez, S. Legendre, D. P. Steenson, A. Jha, and G. Jose, “Doping silica beyond limits with laser plasma for active photonic materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2849–2861 (2015).
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T. Kakkar, N. Bamiedakis, T. T. Fernandez, Z. Zhao, M. Irannejad, P. Steenson, A. Jha, R. Penty, I. White, and G. Jose, “Glass–polymer superlattice for integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071818 (2014).
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Z. Zhao, G. Jose, P. Steenson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. Jha, “Tellurite glass thin films on silica and polymer using UV (193 nm) pulsed laser ablation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(9), 095501 (2011).
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Jubin, D.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
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R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
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T. Kakkar, N. Bamiedakis, T. T. Fernandez, Z. Zhao, M. Irannejad, P. Steenson, A. Jha, R. Penty, I. White, and G. Jose, “Glass–polymer superlattice for integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071818 (2014).
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Q. Xiang, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, “Deposition and characterization of Er3+ doped, A1 co-doped sol-gel silica films on SOS,” Ferroelectrics 230(1), 55–60 (1999).
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Kasaai, M. R.

M. R. Kasaai, S. Lagace, D. Boudreau, E. Forster, B. Muller, and S. L. Chin, “Creation of micro-holes on glass surface by femtosecond laser through the ejection of molten material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292(1-3), 202–209 (2001).
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Kim, J.

J. W. Jeon, S. Yoon, H. W. Choi, J. Kim, D. Farson, and S. -H. Cho, “The effect of laser pulse widths on laser-Ag nanoparticle interaction: femto- to-nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Sci. 8, 112–120 (2018).

Komatsu, T.

T. Komatsu, H. Tawarayama, H. Mohri, and K. Matusita, “Properties and crystallization behaviors of TeO2LiNbO3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135(2–3), 105–113 (1991).
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C. Carteret and A. Labrosse, “Vibrational properties of polysiloxanes from dimer to oligomers and polymers, Structural and vibrational properties of hexamethyldisloxane (CH3)3SiOSi (CH3)3,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(9), 996–1004 (2010).
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M. R. Kasaai, S. Lagace, D. Boudreau, E. Forster, B. Muller, and S. L. Chin, “Creation of micro-holes on glass surface by femtosecond laser through the ejection of molten material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292(1-3), 202–209 (2001).
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Q. Xiang, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, “Deposition and characterization of Er3+ doped, A1 co-doped sol-gel silica films on SOS,” Ferroelectrics 230(1), 55–60 (1999).
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Lamprecht, T.

R. S. E. John, C. M. Amb, B. W. Swatowski, W. K. Weidner, M. Halter, T. Lamprecht, and F. Betschon, “Thermally stable, low loss optical silicones: a key enabler for electro-optical printed circuit boards,” J. Lightw. Tech. 33(4), 814–819 (2015).
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V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Theberge, E. Forster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Muller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 499–505 (2004).
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S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
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Legendre, S.

Lei, C.

Y. Jinqiu, C. Lei, H. Huaqiang, Y. Shihong, H. Yunsheng, and W. Hao, “Raman spectra of RE2O3 (RE = Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Sc and Y): laser-excited luminescence and trace impurity analysis,” J. Rare Earths 32(1), 1–4 (2014).
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Lei, W.

M. Immonen, R. Zhang, M. Press, H. Tang, W. Lei, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, and M. Serbay, “End-to-end optical 25Gb/s link demonstrator with embedded waveguides, 90° out-of-plane connector and on-board optical transceivers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016). 1–3.

Lereah, Y.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
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Liang, L.

D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
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H. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Huang, S. Xu, M. Fang, Y. G. Liu, X. Wu, and S. Zhang, “Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22459 (2016).
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Liu, X.

Liu, Y. G.

H. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Huang, S. Xu, M. Fang, Y. G. Liu, X. Wu, and S. Zhang, “Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22459 (2016).
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S. Kar, S. Logad, O. P. Choudhary, C. Debnath, S. Verma, and K. S. Bartwal, “Preparation of lithium niobate nanoparticles by high energy ball milling and their characterization,” J. Mater. Sci. 1(2), 18–24 (2013).

Lunney, J. G.

I. Mirza, G. O’Connell, J. J. Wang, and J. G. Lunney, “Comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of silver nanoparticles films,” Nanotechnology 25, 265301 (2014)

Lusquinos, F.

M. Boutinguiza, M. Meixus, J. Del Val, A. Riverio, R. Comesana, F. Lusquinos, and J. Pou, “Synthesis and characterization of Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation in water using nanosecond laser,” Phys. Procedia 83, 36–45 (2016).
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H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing, and device,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
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S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
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T. Yada, T. Maejima, MasaruAoki, and M. Umesaki, “Thin-film formation by spin coating: characteristics of a positive photoresist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3(1), 6279–6284 (1995).
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V. Prajzler, P. R. Mastera, and P. Nekvindova, “Properties of siloxane based optical waveguides deposited on transparent paper and foil,” Wuxiandian Gongcheng 25(2), 230 (2016).

Matusita, K.

T. Komatsu, H. Tawarayama, H. Mohri, and K. Matusita, “Properties and crystallization behaviors of TeO2LiNbO3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135(2–3), 105–113 (1991).
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R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
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M. Boutinguiza, M. Meixus, J. Del Val, A. Riverio, R. Comesana, F. Lusquinos, and J. Pou, “Synthesis and characterization of Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation in water using nanosecond laser,” Phys. Procedia 83, 36–45 (2016).
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J. C. Dingeldein, K. A. Walczak, B. W. Swatowski, C. R. Friedrich, C. T. Middlebrook, and M. C. Roggemann, “Process characterization for direct dispense fabrication of polymer optical multi-mode waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(7), 075015 (2013).
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R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
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I. Mirza, G. O’Connell, J. J. Wang, and J. G. Lunney, “Comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of silver nanoparticles films,” Nanotechnology 25, 265301 (2014)

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S. Sakida, T. Nanba, and Y. Miura, “Optical properties of Er3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass waveguides by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 586–593 (2007).
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T. Komatsu, H. Tawarayama, H. Mohri, and K. Matusita, “Properties and crystallization behaviors of TeO2LiNbO3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135(2–3), 105–113 (1991).
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S. M. Sidel, F. A. Santos, V. O. Gordo, E. Idalgo, A. A. Monteiro, J. C. S. Moraes, and K. Yukimitu, “Avrami exponent of crystallization in tellurite glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 106(2), 613–618 (2011).
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Moraes, J. C. S.

S. M. Sidel, F. A. Santos, V. O. Gordo, E. Idalgo, A. A. Monteiro, J. C. S. Moraes, and K. Yukimitu, “Avrami exponent of crystallization in tellurite glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 106(2), 613–618 (2011).
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Muller, B.

V. Koubassov, J. F. Laprise, F. Theberge, E. Forster, R. Sauerbrey, B. Muller, U. Glatzel, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast laser-induced melting of glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 499–505 (2004).
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M. R. Kasaai, S. Lagace, D. Boudreau, E. Forster, B. Muller, and S. L. Chin, “Creation of micro-holes on glass surface by femtosecond laser through the ejection of molten material,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292(1-3), 202–209 (2001).
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Murray, M.

Naik, P. A.

Nanba, T.

S. Sakida, T. Nanba, and Y. Miura, “Optical properties of Er3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass waveguides by Ag+-Na+ ion-exchange,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 586–593 (2007).
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Nedyalkov, N. N.

R. G. Nikov, A. O. Dikovska, N. N. Nedyalkov, G. V. Avdeev, and P. A. Atanasov, “Au nanostructure fabrication by pulsed laser deposition in open air: Influence of the deposition geometry,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 8, 2438–2445 (2017).
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V. Prajzler, P. R. Mastera, and P. Nekvindova, “Properties of siloxane based optical waveguides deposited on transparent paper and foil,” Wuxiandian Gongcheng 25(2), 230 (2016).

Nikov, R. G.

R. G. Nikov, A. O. Dikovska, N. N. Nedyalkov, G. V. Avdeev, and P. A. Atanasov, “Au nanostructure fabrication by pulsed laser deposition in open air: Influence of the deposition geometry,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 8, 2438–2445 (2017).
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I. Mirza, G. O’Connell, J. J. Wang, and J. G. Lunney, “Comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of silver nanoparticles films,” Nanotechnology 25, 265301 (2014)

Offrein, B. J.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oude Wolbers, M. P.

L. H. Slooff, A. Polman, M. P. Oude Wolbers, F. C. J. M. V. Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, “Optical properties of erbium-doped organic polydentate cage complexes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 497–503 (1998).
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E. Rebollar, S. Gaspard, M. Oujja, M. M. Villavieja, T. Corrales, P. Bosch, S. Georgiou, and M. Castillejo, “Pulsed laser deposition of polymers doped with fluorescent molecular sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 171–180 (2006).
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R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
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Pecker, S.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 69(14), 144119 (2004).
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Pei, Y. L.

D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Penty, R.

T. Kakkar, N. Bamiedakis, T. T. Fernandez, Z. Zhao, M. Irannejad, P. Steenson, A. Jha, R. Penty, I. White, and G. Jose, “Glass–polymer superlattice for integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071818 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
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Qin, G.

Qin, W.

Qu, C.

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
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S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
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M. Mazzuca, J. Portier, B. Tanguy, F. Romain, A. Fadli, and S. Turrell, “Raman scattering in tellurium-metal oxyde glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 349, 413–416 (1995).
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Selviah, D. R.

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(21), 3316–3329 (2012).
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S. C. Hamm, R. Shankaran, V. Korampally, S. Bok, S. Praharaj, G. A. Baker, J. D. Robertson, B. D. Lee, S. Sengupta, K. Gangopadhyay, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Sputter-deposition of silver nanoparticles into ionic liquid as a sacrificial reservoir in antimicrobial organosilicate nanocomposite coatings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(1), 178–184 (2012).
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E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

Serbay, M.

M. Immonen, R. Zhang, M. Press, H. Tang, W. Lei, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, and M. Serbay, “End-to-end optical 25Gb/s link demonstrator with embedded waveguides, 90° out-of-plane connector and on-board optical transceivers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016). 1–3.

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E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

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Steenson, D. P.

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E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

R. S. E. John, C. M. Amb, B. W. Swatowski, W. K. Weidner, M. Halter, T. Lamprecht, and F. Betschon, “Thermally stable, low loss optical silicones: a key enabler for electro-optical printed circuit boards,” J. Lightw. Tech. 33(4), 814–819 (2015).
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J. C. Dingeldein, K. A. Walczak, B. W. Swatowski, C. R. Friedrich, C. T. Middlebrook, and M. C. Roggemann, “Process characterization for direct dispense fabrication of polymer optical multi-mode waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(7), 075015 (2013).
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E. Rebollar, S. Gaspard, M. Oujja, M. M. Villavieja, T. Corrales, P. Bosch, S. Georgiou, and M. Castillejo, “Pulsed laser deposition of polymers doped with fluorescent molecular sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 171–180 (2006).
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Walczak, K. A.

J. C. Dingeldein, K. A. Walczak, B. W. Swatowski, C. R. Friedrich, C. T. Middlebrook, and M. C. Roggemann, “Process characterization for direct dispense fabrication of polymer optical multi-mode waveguides,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(7), 075015 (2013).
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M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
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M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
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Weidner, W. K.

R. S. E. John, C. M. Amb, B. W. Swatowski, W. K. Weidner, M. Halter, T. Lamprecht, and F. Betschon, “Thermally stable, low loss optical silicones: a key enabler for electro-optical printed circuit boards,” J. Lightw. Tech. 33(4), 814–819 (2015).
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R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
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R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnectsm,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(24), 3915–3926 (2013).
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T. Kakkar, N. Bamiedakis, T. T. Fernandez, Z. Zhao, M. Irannejad, P. Steenson, A. Jha, R. Penty, I. White, and G. Jose, “Glass–polymer superlattice for integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071818 (2014).
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J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 983–988 (2009).
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D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
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T. Yada, T. Maejima, MasaruAoki, and M. Umesaki, “Thin-film formation by spin coating: characteristics of a positive photoresist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3(1), 6279–6284 (1995).
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M. Immonen, R. Zhang, M. Press, H. Tang, W. Lei, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, and M. Serbay, “End-to-end optical 25Gb/s link demonstrator with embedded waveguides, 90° out-of-plane connector and on-board optical transceivers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016). 1–3.

Yang, F.

D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
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Yi, Y.

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
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E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

Yukimitu, K.

S. M. Sidel, F. A. Santos, V. O. Gordo, E. Idalgo, A. A. Monteiro, J. C. S. Moraes, and K. Yukimitu, “Avrami exponent of crystallization in tellurite glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 106(2), 613–618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yunsheng, H.

Y. Jinqiu, C. Lei, H. Huaqiang, Y. Shihong, H. Yunsheng, and W. Hao, “Raman spectra of RE2O3 (RE = Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Sc and Y): laser-excited luminescence and trace impurity analysis,” J. Rare Earths 32(1), 1–4 (2014).
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E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G.-L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Tech. 32, 814 (2015).

Zhai, X.

Zhang, D.

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
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[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

M. Immonen, R. Zhang, M. Press, H. Tang, W. Lei, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, and M. Serbay, “End-to-end optical 25Gb/s link demonstrator with embedded waveguides, 90° out-of-plane connector and on-board optical transceivers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016). 1–3.

Zhang, S.

H. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Huang, S. Xu, M. Fang, Y. G. Liu, X. Wu, and S. Zhang, “Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. P.

D. Yan, P. Wu, S. P. Zhang, L. Liang, F. Yang, Y. L. Pei, and S. Chen, “Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhai, J. Li, S. Liu, X. Liu, D. Zhao, F. Wang, D. Zhang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Enhancement of 1.53 μm emission band in NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals for polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(2), 270 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

T. Kakkar, N. Bamiedakis, T. T. Fernandez, Z. Zhao, M. Irannejad, P. Steenson, A. Jha, R. Penty, I. White, and G. Jose, “Glass–polymer superlattice for integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071818 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, G. Jose, P. Steenson, N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. Jha, “Tellurite glass thin films on silica and polymer using UV (193 nm) pulsed laser ablation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(9), 095501 (2011).
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M. Immonen, R. Zhang, M. Press, H. Tang, W. Lei, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, and M. Serbay, “End-to-end optical 25Gb/s link demonstrator with embedded waveguides, 90° out-of-plane connector and on-board optical transceivers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016). 1–3.

Zolnai, Z.

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Q. Xiang, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, “Deposition and characterization of Er3+ doped, A1 co-doped sol-gel silica films on SOS,” Ferroelectrics 230(1), 55–60 (1999).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Wang, D. Zhao, C. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Yi, E. Cassan, and D. Zhang, “High-gain polymer optical waveguide amplifiers based on core-shell NaYF4/NaLuF4: Yb3+, Er3+ NPs-PMMA covalent-linking nanocomposites,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36729 (2016).
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M. Immonen, R. Zhang, M. Press, H. Tang, W. Lei, J. Wu, H. J. Yan, L. X. Zhu, and M. Serbay, “End-to-end optical 25Gb/s link demonstrator with embedded waveguides, 90° out-of-plane connector and on-board optical transceivers,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016). 1–3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM images of the Er-TZN glass NPs deposited on siloxane polymer-coated silica substrate at (a) 45 µJ (sample I) and (b) 60 µJ (sample II).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 HRTEM image of the interface between silica matrix and the siloxane polymer-coated silica substrate modified Er-TZN glass NPs (upper left); and SAED patterns on the bottom and right hand side at 60 µJ (sample II).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 EDX-SEM chemical mapping acquired during cross-sectional STEM analysis from the rectangular regions in Fig. 1(a) and (b) indicating the elemental distribution of erbium (Er), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), tellurium (Te), oxygen (O), and silicon (Si) which comprises of polymer layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 XRD pattern obtained from the bulk Er-TZN target glass and Er-doped polymer at sample (I) and sample (II).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Raman spectra using 514.5 nm laser as excitation source of bulk sample, polymer coated silica, and modified with Er-TZN NPs at sample (I) and sample (II).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized photoluminescence spectra of bulk Er-TZN target glass, and polymer modified with Er-TZN NPs (sample (I) and sample (II)) at room temperature via 980 nm continue wave (cw) excitation source.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmittance of plain polymer-coated silica samples and samples modified with Er-TZN NPs glass processed for sample (I) and sample (II).

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