Abstract

Phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices (Ph-WOLEDs) fabricated utilizing carbazole/thioxanthene-S,S-dioxide (EBCz-ThX) host material were investigated to enhance their efficiency by understanding the energy transfer process from the host to the dopant materials. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room and low temperatures demonstrated that the energy transfer occurs between the EBCz-ThX host and the bis(2-benzo[b]thiophen-2-ylpyridine)(acetylacetonate)-iridium(III) (Ir(bt)2acac) orange dopant or the (bis(2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl-N,C2′)iridium(III) picolinate (FIrpic) blue dopant. The energy transfer process was inferred from the PL decay curves of Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX with doping concentrations of 5, 10, and 20%. The quantum efficiency in the Ph-WOLEDs with 5% Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX is the highest since its energy transfer process from EBCz-ThX to Ir(bt)2acac involves the charge transfer states and is most efficient. The quantum efficiency of the Ph-WOLEDs with 5% Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX emission layers at 1,000 cd/m2 showed the highest value of 10.2%, and the commission internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates were (0.45, 0.46), indicative of the warm white emission.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

Z. Wang, X.-L. Li, Z. Ma, X. Cai, C. Cai, and S.-J. Su, “Exciton-adjustable interlayers for high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off, and lifetime improved warm white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on a delayed fluorescence assistant host,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(11), 1706922 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, S. Hu, C. Lu, Y. Huang, K. Xu, and X. Wang, “Assistant dopant system in red phosphorescent OLEDs and its mechanism reveal,” J. Lumin. 197, 187–192 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

R. Guo, Y. Wu, P. Yan, S. Yue, Q. Wu, C. Liu, S. Hu, and Y. Zhao, “Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on a novel phosphine oxide host with low driving voltage and excellent color stability,” Synth. Met. 217, 210–215 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, H. Nie, X. Zhou, S. Hu, D. Luo, D. Gao, J. Zou, M. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Zhao, A. Qin, J. Peng, H. Ning, Y. Cao, and B. Z. Tang, “Manipulation of charge and exciton distribution based on blue aggregation-induced emission fluorophors: a novel concept to achieve high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(5), 776–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, J. Luo, N. Sun, L. Zhu, H. Sun, L. Yu, D. Yang, X. Qiao, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with superior efficiency/color rendering index/color stability and low efficiency roll-off based on a blue thermally activated delated fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 3306–3313 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, L. Yu, X. Zhou, Q. Guo, J. Luo, X. Qiao, D. Yang, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons: a universal approach to high‐efficiency all fluorescent WOLEDs with reduced efficiency roll‐off using a conventional fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1067–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Cho, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Cool and warm hybrid white organic light-emitting diode with blue delayed fluorescent emitter both as blue emitter and triplet host,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7859 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, I. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Host engineering for high quantum efficiency blue and white fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4358–4363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Gaj, A. Wei, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. Zhang, R. Reit, W. Voit, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Organic light-emitting diodes on shape memory polymer substrates for wearable electronics,” Org. Electron. 25, 151–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Higuchi, H. Nakanotani, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes based on a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter combined with green and red fluorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 27(12), 2019–2023 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

N. Sun, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Chen, D. Yang, F. Zhao, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting devices without interlayer between fluorescent and phosphorescent emissive regions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1617–1621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, F. Li, W. Wu, and T. Guo, “Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT: PSS transparent conducting film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 295, 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-Y. Zhou, H. Z. Siboni, Q. Wang, L.-S. Liao, and H. Aziz, “Host to guest energy transfer mechanism in phosphorescent and fluorescent organic light-emitting devices utilizing exciplex-forming hosts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(41), 24006–24012 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 253–258 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, T. Komino, S. Huang, S. Matsunami, K. Goushi, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement in green organic light-emitting deiodes containg luminescent charge transger Cu(I) complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(11), 2327–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke and M. A. Baldo, “Recent progress in the understanding of exciton dinamics within phosphorescent OLEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(12), 2341–2353 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, G. Tan, C. S. Lam, B. Yao, C. L. Ho, L. Liu, Z. Xie, W. Y. Wong, J. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Jeon, Y. S. Ko, D. C. Choo, and T. W. Kim, “Flexible white organic light-emitting devices with a porous red polymer layer and a blue small molecular layer utilizing a phase separation of blended polymer,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3611–3614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A single phosphine oxide host for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low operating voltages and reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. So and D. Kondakov, “Degradation mechanisms in small-molecule and polymer organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(34), 3762–3777 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. H. Lee, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Efficient and color stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices based on ultra wide band-dap host,” Synth. Met. 159(11), 991–994 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, S. J. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a Si based wide bandgap host and an Ir dopant with electron withdrawing substituents,” Thin Solid Films 517(2), 722–726 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Difley, D. Beljonne, and T. Van Voorhis, “On the singlet-triplet splitting of geminate electron-hole pairs in organic semiconductors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3420–3427 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Karaiskaj, A. Mascarenhas, J. H. Choi, R. Graff, and M. S. Strano, “Temperature behavior of the photoluminescence decay of semiconducting carbon nanotubes: The effective lifetime,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 113409 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

I. Tanaka, Y. Tabata, and S. Tokito, “Förster and Dexter energy-transfer processes in fluorescent BAlq thin films doped with phosphorescent Ir(ppy)3 molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

X. Gong, J. C. Ostrowski, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrophosphorescence from a polymer guest–host system with an Iridium complex as guest: Förster energy transfer and charge trapping,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(6), 439–444 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Ogawa, D.-C. Cho, K. Kaneko, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, “Numerical analysis of the carrier behavior of organic light-emitting diode: comparing a hopping conduction model with a SCLC model,” Thin Solid Films 438–439, 171–176 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Chen, X. Lin, L. Cheng, C.-S. Lee, W. A. Gambling, and S.-T. Lee, “Improvement of efficiency and colour purity of red-dopant organic light-emitting diodes by energy levels matching with the host materials,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(1), 30–35 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. Bohne, E. B. Abuin, and J. C. Scaiano, “Characterization of the triplet-triplet annihilation process of pyrene and several derivatives under laser excitation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112(11), 4226–4231 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abuin, E. B.

C. Bohne, E. B. Abuin, and J. C. Scaiano, “Characterization of the triplet-triplet annihilation process of pyrene and several derivatives under laser excitation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112(11), 4226–4231 (1990).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

T. Higuchi, H. Nakanotani, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes based on a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter combined with green and red fluorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 27(12), 2019–2023 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 253–258 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, T. Komino, S. Huang, S. Matsunami, K. Goushi, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement in green organic light-emitting deiodes containg luminescent charge transger Cu(I) complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(11), 2327–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aziz, H.

D.-Y. Zhou, H. Z. Siboni, Q. Wang, L.-S. Liao, and H. Aziz, “Host to guest energy transfer mechanism in phosphorescent and fluorescent organic light-emitting devices utilizing exciplex-forming hosts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(41), 24006–24012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M. A.

S. Reineke and M. A. Baldo, “Recent progress in the understanding of exciton dinamics within phosphorescent OLEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(12), 2341–2353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bazan, G. C.

X. Gong, J. C. Ostrowski, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrophosphorescence from a polymer guest–host system with an Iridium complex as guest: Förster energy transfer and charge trapping,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(6), 439–444 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beljonne, D.

S. Difley, D. Beljonne, and T. Van Voorhis, “On the singlet-triplet splitting of geminate electron-hole pairs in organic semiconductors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3420–3427 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohne, C.

C. Bohne, E. B. Abuin, and J. C. Scaiano, “Characterization of the triplet-triplet annihilation process of pyrene and several derivatives under laser excitation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112(11), 4226–4231 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cai, C.

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B. Chen, X. Lin, L. Cheng, C.-S. Lee, W. A. Gambling, and S.-T. Lee, “Improvement of efficiency and colour purity of red-dopant organic light-emitting diodes by energy levels matching with the host materials,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(1), 30–35 (2001).
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T. Ogawa, D.-C. Cho, K. Kaneko, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, “Numerical analysis of the carrier behavior of organic light-emitting diode: comparing a hopping conduction model with a SCLC model,” Thin Solid Films 438–439, 171–176 (2003).
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Y. J. Cho, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Cool and warm hybrid white organic light-emitting diode with blue delayed fluorescent emitter both as blue emitter and triplet host,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7859 (2015).
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D. Karaiskaj, A. Mascarenhas, J. H. Choi, R. Graff, and M. S. Strano, “Temperature behavior of the photoluminescence decay of semiconducting carbon nanotubes: The effective lifetime,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 113409 (2007).
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Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
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Y. P. Jeon, Y. S. Ko, D. C. Choo, and T. W. Kim, “Flexible white organic light-emitting devices with a porous red polymer layer and a blue small molecular layer utilizing a phase separation of blended polymer,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3611–3614 (2012).
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J. H. Lee, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Efficient and color stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices based on ultra wide band-dap host,” Synth. Met. 159(11), 991–994 (2009).
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Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
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V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
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B. Chen, X. Lin, L. Cheng, C.-S. Lee, W. A. Gambling, and S.-T. Lee, “Improvement of efficiency and colour purity of red-dopant organic light-emitting diodes by energy levels matching with the host materials,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(1), 30–35 (2001).
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Q. Zhang, T. Komino, S. Huang, S. Matsunami, K. Goushi, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement in green organic light-emitting deiodes containg luminescent charge transger Cu(I) complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(11), 2327–2336 (2012).
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Z. Wu, L. Yu, X. Zhou, Q. Guo, J. Luo, X. Qiao, D. Yang, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons: a universal approach to high‐efficiency all fluorescent WOLEDs with reduced efficiency roll‐off using a conventional fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1067–1074 (2016).
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X. Wu, F. Li, W. Wu, and T. Guo, “Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT: PSS transparent conducting film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 295, 214–218 (2014).
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C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A single phosphine oxide host for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low operating voltages and reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
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S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
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T. Higuchi, H. Nakanotani, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes based on a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter combined with green and red fluorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 27(12), 2019–2023 (2015).
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J. Hu, S. Hu, C. Lu, Y. Huang, K. Xu, and X. Wang, “Assistant dopant system in red phosphorescent OLEDs and its mechanism reveal,” J. Lumin. 197, 187–192 (2018).
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J. Hu, S. Hu, C. Lu, Y. Huang, K. Xu, and X. Wang, “Assistant dopant system in red phosphorescent OLEDs and its mechanism reveal,” J. Lumin. 197, 187–192 (2018).
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R. Guo, Y. Wu, P. Yan, S. Yue, Q. Wu, C. Liu, S. Hu, and Y. Zhao, “Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on a novel phosphine oxide host with low driving voltage and excellent color stability,” Synth. Met. 217, 210–215 (2016).
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B. Liu, H. Nie, X. Zhou, S. Hu, D. Luo, D. Gao, J. Zou, M. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Zhao, A. Qin, J. Peng, H. Ning, Y. Cao, and B. Z. Tang, “Manipulation of charge and exciton distribution based on blue aggregation-induced emission fluorophors: a novel concept to achieve high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(5), 776–783 (2016).
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Q. Zhang, T. Komino, S. Huang, S. Matsunami, K. Goushi, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement in green organic light-emitting deiodes containg luminescent charge transger Cu(I) complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(11), 2327–2336 (2012).
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P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
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H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
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C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A single phosphine oxide host for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low operating voltages and reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
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J. Hu, S. Hu, C. Lu, Y. Huang, K. Xu, and X. Wang, “Assistant dopant system in red phosphorescent OLEDs and its mechanism reveal,” J. Lumin. 197, 187–192 (2018).
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Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
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S. H. Kim, J. Jang, S. J. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a Si based wide bandgap host and an Ir dopant with electron withdrawing substituents,” Thin Solid Films 517(2), 722–726 (2008).
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S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
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Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
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Y. P. Jeon, Y. S. Ko, D. C. Choo, and T. W. Kim, “Flexible white organic light-emitting devices with a porous red polymer layer and a blue small molecular layer utilizing a phase separation of blended polymer,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3611–3614 (2012).
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S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
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T. Ogawa, D.-C. Cho, K. Kaneko, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, “Numerical analysis of the carrier behavior of organic light-emitting diode: comparing a hopping conduction model with a SCLC model,” Thin Solid Films 438–439, 171–176 (2003).
[Crossref]

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D. Karaiskaj, A. Mascarenhas, J. H. Choi, R. Graff, and M. S. Strano, “Temperature behavior of the photoluminescence decay of semiconducting carbon nanotubes: The effective lifetime,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 113409 (2007).
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V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
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S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
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Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
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S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, S. J. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a Si based wide bandgap host and an Ir dopant with electron withdrawing substituents,” Thin Solid Films 517(2), 722–726 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. W.

Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Jeon, Y. S. Ko, D. C. Choo, and T. W. Kim, “Flexible white organic light-emitting devices with a porous red polymer layer and a blue small molecular layer utilizing a phase separation of blended polymer,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3611–3614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. P. Gaj, A. Wei, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. Zhang, R. Reit, W. Voit, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Organic light-emitting diodes on shape memory polymer substrates for wearable electronics,” Org. Electron. 25, 151–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ko, Y. S.

Y. P. Jeon, Y. S. Ko, D. C. Choo, and T. W. Kim, “Flexible white organic light-emitting devices with a porous red polymer layer and a blue small molecular layer utilizing a phase separation of blended polymer,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3611–3614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Q. Zhang, T. Komino, S. Huang, S. Matsunami, K. Goushi, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement in green organic light-emitting deiodes containg luminescent charge transger Cu(I) complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(11), 2327–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

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F. So and D. Kondakov, “Degradation mechanisms in small-molecule and polymer organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(34), 3762–3777 (2010).
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V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lai, W.

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, C. S.

B. Zhang, G. Tan, C. S. Lam, B. Yao, C. L. Ho, L. Liu, Z. Xie, W. Y. Wong, J. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-S.

Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Lin, L. Cheng, C.-S. Lee, W. A. Gambling, and S.-T. Lee, “Improvement of efficiency and colour purity of red-dopant organic light-emitting diodes by energy levels matching with the host materials,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(1), 30–35 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, I.

W. Song, I. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Host engineering for high quantum efficiency blue and white fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4358–4363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Efficient and color stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices based on ultra wide band-dap host,” Synth. Met. 159(11), 991–994 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Song, I. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Host engineering for high quantum efficiency blue and white fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4358–4363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Cho, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Cool and warm hybrid white organic light-emitting diode with blue delayed fluorescent emitter both as blue emitter and triplet host,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7859 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, S. J. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a Si based wide bandgap host and an Ir dopant with electron withdrawing substituents,” Thin Solid Films 517(2), 722–726 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-I.

J. H. Lee, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Efficient and color stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices based on ultra wide band-dap host,” Synth. Met. 159(11), 991–994 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. K.

Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, S. J. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a Si based wide bandgap host and an Ir dopant with electron withdrawing substituents,” Thin Solid Films 517(2), 722–726 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-T.

B. Chen, X. Lin, L. Cheng, C.-S. Lee, W. A. Gambling, and S.-T. Lee, “Improvement of efficiency and colour purity of red-dopant organic light-emitting diodes by energy levels matching with the host materials,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(1), 30–35 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

X. Wu, F. Li, W. Wu, and T. Guo, “Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT: PSS transparent conducting film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 295, 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, W.-L.

P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-L.

Z. Wang, X.-L. Li, Z. Ma, X. Cai, C. Cai, and S.-J. Su, “Exciton-adjustable interlayers for high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off, and lifetime improved warm white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on a delayed fluorescence assistant host,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(11), 1706922 (2018).
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H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A single phosphine oxide host for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low operating voltages and reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

J. Hu, S. Hu, C. Lu, Y. Huang, K. Xu, and X. Wang, “Assistant dopant system in red phosphorescent OLEDs and its mechanism reveal,” J. Lumin. 197, 187–192 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

B. Liu, H. Nie, X. Zhou, S. Hu, D. Luo, D. Gao, J. Zou, M. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Zhao, A. Qin, J. Peng, H. Ning, Y. Cao, and B. Z. Tang, “Manipulation of charge and exciton distribution based on blue aggregation-induced emission fluorophors: a novel concept to achieve high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(5), 776–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, P.

R. Guo, Y. Wu, P. Yan, S. Yue, Q. Wu, C. Liu, S. Hu, and Y. Zhao, “Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on a novel phosphine oxide host with low driving voltage and excellent color stability,” Synth. Met. 217, 210–215 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Z. Wu, L. Yu, X. Zhou, Q. Guo, J. Luo, X. Qiao, D. Yang, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons: a universal approach to high‐efficiency all fluorescent WOLEDs with reduced efficiency roll‐off using a conventional fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1067–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, J. Luo, N. Sun, L. Zhu, H. Sun, L. Yu, D. Yang, X. Qiao, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with superior efficiency/color rendering index/color stability and low efficiency roll-off based on a blue thermally activated delated fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 3306–3313 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

Z. Wu, J. Luo, N. Sun, L. Zhu, H. Sun, L. Yu, D. Yang, X. Qiao, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with superior efficiency/color rendering index/color stability and low efficiency roll-off based on a blue thermally activated delated fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 3306–3313 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, L. Yu, X. Zhou, Q. Guo, J. Luo, X. Qiao, D. Yang, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons: a universal approach to high‐efficiency all fluorescent WOLEDs with reduced efficiency roll‐off using a conventional fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1067–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Sun, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Chen, D. Yang, F. Zhao, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting devices without interlayer between fluorescent and phosphorescent emissive regions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1617–1621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

B. Zhang, G. Tan, C. S. Lam, B. Yao, C. L. Ho, L. Liu, Z. Xie, W. Y. Wong, J. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yook, K. S.

Y. J. Cho, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Cool and warm hybrid white organic light-emitting diode with blue delayed fluorescent emitter both as blue emitter and triplet host,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7859 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, K.

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 253–258 (2012).
[Crossref]

You, Y.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Z. Wu, L. Yu, X. Zhou, Q. Guo, J. Luo, X. Qiao, D. Yang, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons: a universal approach to high‐efficiency all fluorescent WOLEDs with reduced efficiency roll‐off using a conventional fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1067–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, J. Luo, N. Sun, L. Zhu, H. Sun, L. Yu, D. Yang, X. Qiao, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with superior efficiency/color rendering index/color stability and low efficiency roll-off based on a blue thermally activated delated fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 3306–3313 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q.

P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yue, S.

R. Guo, Y. Wu, P. Yan, S. Yue, Q. Wu, C. Liu, S. Hu, and Y. Zhao, “Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on a novel phosphine oxide host with low driving voltage and excellent color stability,” Synth. Met. 217, 210–215 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, G. Tan, C. S. Lam, B. Yao, C. L. Ho, L. Liu, Z. Xie, W. Y. Wong, J. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, T. Komino, S. Huang, S. Matsunami, K. Goushi, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement in green organic light-emitting deiodes containg luminescent charge transger Cu(I) complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(11), 2327–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

M. P. Gaj, A. Wei, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. Zhang, R. Reit, W. Voit, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Organic light-emitting diodes on shape memory polymer substrates for wearable electronics,” Org. Electron. 25, 151–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A single phosphine oxide host for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low operating voltages and reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, F.

N. Sun, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Chen, D. Yang, F. Zhao, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting devices without interlayer between fluorescent and phosphorescent emissive regions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1617–1621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

R. Guo, Y. Wu, P. Yan, S. Yue, Q. Wu, C. Liu, S. Hu, and Y. Zhao, “Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on a novel phosphine oxide host with low driving voltage and excellent color stability,” Synth. Met. 217, 210–215 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Sun, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Chen, D. Yang, F. Zhao, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting devices without interlayer between fluorescent and phosphorescent emissive regions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1617–1621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A single phosphine oxide host for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low operating voltages and reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

B. Liu, H. Nie, X. Zhou, S. Hu, D. Luo, D. Gao, J. Zou, M. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Zhao, A. Qin, J. Peng, H. Ning, Y. Cao, and B. Z. Tang, “Manipulation of charge and exciton distribution based on blue aggregation-induced emission fluorophors: a novel concept to achieve high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(5), 776–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.-J.

Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Zhou, H. Z. Siboni, Q. Wang, L.-S. Liao, and H. Aziz, “Host to guest energy transfer mechanism in phosphorescent and fluorescent organic light-emitting devices utilizing exciplex-forming hosts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(41), 24006–24012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

Z. Wu, L. Yu, X. Zhou, Q. Guo, J. Luo, X. Qiao, D. Yang, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons: a universal approach to high‐efficiency all fluorescent WOLEDs with reduced efficiency roll‐off using a conventional fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1067–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, H. Nie, X. Zhou, S. Hu, D. Luo, D. Gao, J. Zou, M. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Zhao, A. Qin, J. Peng, H. Ning, Y. Cao, and B. Z. Tang, “Manipulation of charge and exciton distribution based on blue aggregation-induced emission fluorophors: a novel concept to achieve high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(5), 776–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.-H.

P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

Z. Wu, J. Luo, N. Sun, L. Zhu, H. Sun, L. Yu, D. Yang, X. Qiao, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with superior efficiency/color rendering index/color stability and low efficiency roll-off based on a blue thermally activated delated fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 3306–3313 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zou, J.

B. Liu, H. Nie, X. Zhou, S. Hu, D. Luo, D. Gao, J. Zou, M. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Zhao, A. Qin, J. Peng, H. Ning, Y. Cao, and B. Z. Tang, “Manipulation of charge and exciton distribution based on blue aggregation-induced emission fluorophors: a novel concept to achieve high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(5), 776–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (6)

P. Tao, W.-L. Li, J. Zhang, S. Guo, Q. Zhao, H. Wang, B. Wei, S.-J. Liu, X.-H. Zhou, Q. Yu, B.-S. Xu, and W. Huang, “Facile synthesis of highly efficient lepidine-based phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes for yellow and white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(6), 881–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X.-L. Li, Z. Ma, X. Cai, C. Cai, and S.-J. Su, “Exciton-adjustable interlayers for high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off, and lifetime improved warm white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on a delayed fluorescence assistant host,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(11), 1706922 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, H. Nie, X. Zhou, S. Hu, D. Luo, D. Gao, J. Zou, M. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Zhao, A. Qin, J. Peng, H. Ning, Y. Cao, and B. Z. Tang, “Manipulation of charge and exciton distribution based on blue aggregation-induced emission fluorophors: a novel concept to achieve high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(5), 776–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, J. Luo, N. Sun, L. Zhu, H. Sun, L. Yu, D. Yang, X. Qiao, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with superior efficiency/color rendering index/color stability and low efficiency roll-off based on a blue thermally activated delated fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(19), 3306–3313 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, J. C. Ostrowski, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrophosphorescence from a polymer guest–host system with an Iridium complex as guest: Förster energy transfer and charge trapping,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(6), 439–444 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, T. Komino, S. Huang, S. Matsunami, K. Goushi, and C. Adachi, “Triplet exciton confinement in green organic light-emitting deiodes containg luminescent charge transger Cu(I) complexes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(11), 2327–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (6)

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A single phosphine oxide host for high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low operating voltages and reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. So and D. Kondakov, “Degradation mechanisms in small-molecule and polymer organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(34), 3762–3777 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, I. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Host engineering for high quantum efficiency blue and white fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(29), 4358–4363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, G. Tan, C. S. Lam, B. Yao, C. L. Ho, L. Liu, Z. Xie, W. Y. Wong, J. Ding, and L. Wang, “High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex,” Adv. Mater. 24(14), 1873–1877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sun, Q. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Chen, D. Yang, F. Zhao, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting devices without interlayer between fluorescent and phosphorescent emissive regions,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1617–1621 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Higuchi, H. Nakanotani, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes based on a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter combined with green and red fluorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 27(12), 2019–2023 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

Z. Wu, L. Yu, X. Zhou, Q. Guo, J. Luo, X. Qiao, D. Yang, J. Chen, C. Yang, and D. Ma, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons: a universal approach to high‐efficiency all fluorescent WOLEDs with reduced efficiency roll‐off using a conventional fluorescent emitter,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1067–1074 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K.-H. Han, H. Shin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and J.-J. Kim, “High-quality white OLEDs with comparable efficiencies to LEDs,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701349 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

X. Wu, F. Li, W. Wu, and T. Guo, “Flexible white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on multilayered graphene/PEDOT: PSS transparent conducting film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 295, 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

C. Bohne, E. B. Abuin, and J. C. Scaiano, “Characterization of the triplet-triplet annihilation process of pyrene and several derivatives under laser excitation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112(11), 4226–4231 (1990).
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S. Difley, D. Beljonne, and T. Van Voorhis, “On the singlet-triplet splitting of geminate electron-hole pairs in organic semiconductors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(11), 3420–3427 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4096–4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Tanaka, Y. Tabata, and S. Tokito, “Förster and Dexter energy-transfer processes in fluorescent BAlq thin films doped with phosphorescent Ir(ppy)3 molecules,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073501 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. Hu, S. Hu, C. Lu, Y. Huang, K. Xu, and X. Wang, “Assistant dopant system in red phosphorescent OLEDs and its mechanism reveal,” J. Lumin. 197, 187–192 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

Y. P. Jeon, K. S. Kim, K. K. Lee, I. K. Moon, D. C. Choo, J. Y. Lee, and T. W. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S, S-dioxide with a high glass transition temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(24), 6192–6199 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. P. Jeon, Y. S. Ko, D. C. Choo, and T. W. Kim, “Flexible white organic light-emitting devices with a porous red polymer layer and a blue small molecular layer utilizing a phase separation of blended polymer,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12(4), 3611–3614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

D.-Y. Zhou, H. Z. Siboni, Q. Wang, L.-S. Liao, and H. Aziz, “Host to guest energy transfer mechanism in phosphorescent and fluorescent organic light-emitting devices utilizing exciplex-forming hosts,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(41), 24006–24012 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Chen, X. Lin, L. Cheng, C.-S. Lee, W. A. Gambling, and S.-T. Lee, “Improvement of efficiency and colour purity of red-dopant organic light-emitting diodes by energy levels matching with the host materials,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(1), 30–35 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Goushi, K. Yoshida, K. Sato, and C. Adachi, “Organic light-emitting diodes employing efficient reverse intersystem crossing for triplet-to-singlet state conversion,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 253–258 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (1)

M. P. Gaj, A. Wei, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, Y. Zhang, R. Reit, W. Voit, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Organic light-emitting diodes on shape memory polymer substrates for wearable electronics,” Org. Electron. 25, 151–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. Karaiskaj, A. Mascarenhas, J. H. Choi, R. Graff, and M. S. Strano, “Temperature behavior of the photoluminescence decay of semiconducting carbon nanotubes: The effective lifetime,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 113409 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. Reineke and M. A. Baldo, “Recent progress in the understanding of exciton dinamics within phosphorescent OLEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(12), 2341–2353 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. J. Cho, K. S. Yook, and J. Y. Lee, “Cool and warm hybrid white organic light-emitting diode with blue delayed fluorescent emitter both as blue emitter and triplet host,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7859 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (3)

J. H. Lee, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Efficient and color stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices based on ultra wide band-dap host,” Synth. Met. 159(11), 991–994 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, X. Du, S. Tao, X. Yang, C.-J. Zheng, X. Zhang, and C.-S. Lee, “High efficiency non-doped deep-blue and fluorescent/phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes based on an anthracene derivative,” Synth. Met. 203, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Guo, Y. Wu, P. Yan, S. Yue, Q. Wu, C. Liu, S. Hu, and Y. Zhao, “Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on a novel phosphine oxide host with low driving voltage and excellent color stability,” Synth. Met. 217, 210–215 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, S. J. Lee, and J. Y. Lee, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a Si based wide bandgap host and an Ir dopant with electron withdrawing substituents,” Thin Solid Films 517(2), 722–726 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Ogawa, D.-C. Cho, K. Kaneko, T. Mori, and T. Mizutani, “Numerical analysis of the carrier behavior of organic light-emitting diode: comparing a hopping conduction model with a SCLC model,” Thin Solid Films 438–439, 171–176 (2003).
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Other (1)

H. Yersin, “Triplet emitters for OLED applications. Mechanisms of exciton trapping and control of emission properties. In: Transition metal and rare earth compounds,” in Topics in Current Chemistry, volume 241 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A schematic diagram, (b) the corresponding energy band diagrams for the white organic light-emitting devices based on carbazole/thioxanthene-S,S-dioxide (EBCz-ThX), and (c) the chemical structure of EBCz-ThX.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Normalized photoluminescence (PL) spectra and (b) normalized time resolved PL decay curves for the 10% (bis(2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl-N,C2′)iridium(III) picolinate (FIrpic) doped EBCz-ThX and for the 10% bis(2-benzo[b]thiophen-2-ylpyridine)(acetylacetonate)-iridium(III) (Ir(bt)2acac) doped EBCz-ThX solutions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Room temperature continuous-wave PL spectra and time resolved PL decay curves of (b) dominant and (c) second vibrational peaks of 5%, 10%, and 20% Ir(bt)2acac doped ECBz-ThX thin films.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Continuous-wave PL spectra, and time resolved PL decay curves of (b) the dominant and (c) the secondary peaks for the thin films of 5%, 10%, and 20% Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX at 80 K, and (d) a schematic diagram for energy transfer process in Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX including the charge transfer states in 5% Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX. (ISC; intersystem crossing, T-TET; triplet-triplet energy transfer, 3MLCT; triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer state, and 3CT; triplet charge transfer state)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Luminance-voltage, (b) current density-voltage, (c) quantum efficiency-luminance, and (d) electroluminescence spectra for white organic light emitting devices based on 5%, 10% and 20% (W-I, W-II, and W-III) Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Current efficiency (ηl), power efficiency (ηp), and external quantum efficiency (ηext) at 100 and 1000 cd/m2 for white organic light emitting devices based on 5%, 10% and 20% (W-I, W-II, and W-III) Ir(bt)2acac doped EBCz-ThX.

Equations (2)

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y(t)= A 0 exp( t τ ),
y(t)= A 1 exp( t τ 1 )+ A 2 exp( t τ 2 ),

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