Abstract

With high refractive indices, appropriate solubility of rare earth, low phonon energy and transparency from the visible to 10 µm, a Ga-Ge-Sb-S system allows emission from Nd3+ ions in the near- and mid-IR spectral ranges. The glass transition temperature, density, expansion coefficient, and near and mid-IR refractive indexes were measured on bulk samples. Their glass network structures were analyzed by Raman scattering spectrometry, NMR of 71Ga and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS, K-edge of Ga, Ge, Sb, S and Nd). The absorption and emission spectra of neodymium doped sulfide glasses were recorded from the visible to the mid-IR. Excited state lifetimes were measured for several transitions. The lifetimes decrease with the concentration of Nd3+, especially for the 4I13/2 and 4I11/2 levels. The spectroscopic parameters were determined by the Judd-Ofelt method, allowing the calculation of cross-section emissions and the evaluation of quantum yields. Optical attenuation and emission measurements of fiber were also performed with a broad 4.7-5.7 µm emission band in the mid-IR.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

2017 (1)

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).

2016 (3)

Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

2015 (3)

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

J. Malek, J. Chovanec, R. Svoboda, Y. Taniguchi, and H. Kawaji, “Heat capacity of vitreous GeS2,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 81, 101–108 (2015).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

2014 (5)

W. H. Wei, L. Fang, X. Shen, and R. P. Wang, “Transition threshold in GexSb10Se90-x glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(11), 113510 (2014).

S. D. Pangavhane, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, A. Moreac, P. Jóvári, and J. Havel, “Laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of erbium-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S glasses,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28(11), 1221–1232 (2014).

J. Chovanec, M. Chromcikova, M. Liska, J. Shanelova, and J. Malek, “Thermodynamic model and viscosity of Ge-S glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 116(2), 581–588 (2014).

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)(100-x)(Sb2Se3)(x) glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).

2013 (7)

A. Bytchkov, G. J. Cuello, S. Kohara, C. J. Benmore, D. L. Price, and E. Bychkov, “Unraveling the atomic structure of Ge-rich sulfide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(22), 8487–8494 (2013).

M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Near- and mid-infrared emissions from Dy3+ and Nd3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-Sb2S3 glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1914–1917 (2013).

T. S. Kavetskyy, “Radiation-induced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses as revealed from Raman spectroscopy measurements,” Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics & Optoelectronics 16(1), 27–36 (2013).

A. W. Mao, B. G. Aitken, R. E. Youngman, D. C. Kaseman, and S. Sen, “Structure of Glasses in the Pseudobinary System Ga2Se3-GeSe2: Violation of Chemical Order and 8-N Coordination Rule,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(51), 16594–16601 (2013).

M. Fabian, E. Svab, V. Pamukchieva, A. Szekeres, K. Todorova, S. Vogel, and U. Ruett, “Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data for new chalcogenide Ge-Sb-S(Se)-Te glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(10), 1355–1362 (2013).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

A. D. Sontakke and K. Annapurna, “Spectroscopic properties and concentration effects on luminescence behavior of Nd3+ doped Zinc-Boro-Bismuthate glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 137(3), 916–921 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

2010 (4)

A. D. Sontakke, K. Biswas, A. K. Mandal, and K. Annapurna, “Concentration quenched luminescence and energy transfer analysis of Nd3+ ion doped Ba-Al-metaphosphate laser glasses,” Appl. Phys,B-Lasers Opt. 101(1-2), 235–244 (2010).

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Mid-infrared emissions from Er3+ in Ga(2)S(3)-GeS2-Sb2S3 glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 25(11), 2111–2119 (2010).

G. Le Caer, B. Bureau, and D. Massiot, ““An extension of the Czjzek model for the distributions of electric field gradients in disordered solids and an application to NMR spectra of Ga-71 in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys.-,” Condes. Matter 22, 17 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).

2008 (4)

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “Dy3+ doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers for the mid-IR gain media,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1087–1091 (2008).

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 µm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. H. Song, Y. G. Choi, and J. Heo, “Ge and GaK-edge EXAFS analyses on the structure of Ge-Ga-S-CsBr glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 423–428 (2006).

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).

2005 (1)

Y. Nakane, H. Nasu, J. Heo, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled Ge-S glass system,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 113(1323), 728–732 (2005).

2004 (2)

B. Liu, Z. T. Song, T. Zhang, S. L. Feng, and B. M. Chen, “Raman spectra and XPS studies of phase changes in Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Chin. Phys. 13(11), 1947–1950 (2004).

R. E. Youngman and B. G. Aitken, “Structure and properties of GeGaP sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 50–55 (2004).

2003 (5)

H. Takebe, T. Hirakawa, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Thermal stability and structure of Ge-Sb-S glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1296), 572–575 (2003).

D. J. Lee, J. Heo, and S. H. Park, “Energy transfer and 1.48 mu m emission properties in chalcohalide glasses doped with Tm3+ and Tb3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 184–189 (2003).

H. Takebe, T. Ishibashi, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Nd solubility in RS-Ga2S3 (R = Sr, Ba) glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1298), 755–757 (2003).

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

J. Heo, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glasses for fiber-optic amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 410–415 (2003).

2002 (2)

B. G. Aitken, C. W. Ponader, and R. S. Quimby, “Clustering of rare earths in GeAs sulfide glass,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 865–872 (2002).

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).

2001 (3)

J. Kobelke, J. Kirchhof, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, “Effects of carbon, hydrocarbon and hydroxide impurities on praseodymium doped arsenic sulfide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1-3), 123–127 (2001).

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

K. V. Klementev, “Extraction of the fine structure from X-ray absorption spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(2), 209–217 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

1999 (5)

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 257, 6–16 (1999).

K. Kadono, M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, H. Higuchi, and Y. Kawamoto, “Radiative and non-radiative relaxation of rare-earth ions in Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259(1-3), 39–44 (1999).

S. Tanabe, “Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: how the local structure works in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259(1-3), 1–9 (1999).

J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, L. Griscom, S. Girard, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption at 1.3 µm in Nd3+-doped fluoride and sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 276–281 (1999).

H. Higuchi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, and K. Kadono, “Local structures of Er3+ containing Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 40, 122–125 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. L. Ankudinov, B. Ravel, J. J. Rehr, and S. D. Conradson, “Real-space multiple-scattering calculation and interpretation of X-ray-absorption near-edge structure,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7565–7576 (1998).

1997 (2)

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 419–421 (1997).

A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. M. Loireau-Lozach, F. Keller-Besrest, and S. Bénazeth, “Short and medium range order in Ga-Ge-S glasses: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study at room and low temperatures,” J. Solid State Chem. 123(1), 60–67 (1996).

1995 (1)

A. B. Seddon, “Chalcogenide Glasses - a Review of Their Preparation, Properties and Applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44–50 (1995).

1994 (1)

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireaulozach, and M. Guittard, “Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Ge-Ga-Ag Sulfide Glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State Materials for Advanced Technology 22(2-3), 191–200 (1994).

1989 (1)

M. R. Davolos, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, “Luminescence of Eu2+ in strontium and barium thiogallates,” J. Solid State Chem. 83(2), 316–323 (1989).

1987 (1)

S. Sugai, “Stochastic random network model in Ge and Si chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(3), 1345–1361 (1987).

1985 (1)

A. Garcia, F. Guillen, and C. Fouassier, “Charge-transfer excitation of the Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ emission CaGa2S4,” J. Lumin. 33(1), 15–27 (1985).

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

I. D. Brown, “The bond-valence method: an empirical approach to chemical structure and bonding,” Structure and Bonding in Crystals II, 1–30 (1981).

1974 (1)

G. Lucovsky, J. P. deNeufville, and F. L. Galeener, “Study of optic modes of Ge0.30S0.70 glass by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 9(4), 1591–1597 (1974).

1970 (1)

R. W. G. R. Shuker and R. W. Gammon, “Raman-scattering selection-rule breaking and the density of states in amophous materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(4), 222–225 (1970).

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I Pr3+ Nd3+ Pm3+ Sm3+ Dy3+ Ho3+ Er3+ and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).

Abdellaoui, N.

Adam, J. L.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, L. Griscom, S. Girard, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption at 1.3 µm in Nd3+-doped fluoride and sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 276–281 (1999).

Adamietz, F.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 257, 6–16 (1999).

Ahn, J. T.

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 µm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “Dy3+ doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers for the mid-IR gain media,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1087–1091 (2008).

Aitken, B. G.

A. W. Mao, B. G. Aitken, R. E. Youngman, D. C. Kaseman, and S. Sen, “Structure of Glasses in the Pseudobinary System Ga2Se3-GeSe2: Violation of Chemical Order and 8-N Coordination Rule,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(51), 16594–16601 (2013).

R. E. Youngman and B. G. Aitken, “Structure and properties of GeGaP sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 50–55 (2004).

B. G. Aitken, C. W. Ponader, and R. S. Quimby, “Clustering of rare earths in GeAs sulfide glass,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 865–872 (2002).

Ankudinov, A. L.

A. L. Ankudinov, B. Ravel, J. J. Rehr, and S. D. Conradson, “Real-space multiple-scattering calculation and interpretation of X-ray-absorption near-edge structure,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7565–7576 (1998).

Annapurna, K.

A. D. Sontakke and K. Annapurna, “Spectroscopic properties and concentration effects on luminescence behavior of Nd3+ doped Zinc-Boro-Bismuthate glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 137(3), 916–921 (2013).

A. D. Sontakke, K. Biswas, A. K. Mandal, and K. Annapurna, “Concentration quenched luminescence and energy transfer analysis of Nd3+ ion doped Ba-Al-metaphosphate laser glasses,” Appl. Phys,B-Lasers Opt. 101(1-2), 235–244 (2010).

Barnier, S.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireaulozach, and M. Guittard, “Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Ge-Ga-Ag Sulfide Glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State Materials for Advanced Technology 22(2-3), 191–200 (1994).

Baudet, E.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)(100-x)(Sb2Se3)(x) glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).

Belin, S.

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

Belykh, A.

A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

Bénazeth, S.

A. M. Loireau-Lozach, F. Keller-Besrest, and S. Bénazeth, “Short and medium range order in Ga-Ge-S glasses: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study at room and low temperatures,” J. Solid State Chem. 123(1), 60–67 (1996).

Benda, P.

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)(100-x)(Sb2Se3)(x) glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).

Benmore, C. J.

A. Bytchkov, G. J. Cuello, S. Kohara, C. J. Benmore, D. L. Price, and E. Bychkov, “Unraveling the atomic structure of Ge-rich sulfide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(22), 8487–8494 (2013).

Benson, T. M.

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).

Biswas, K.

A. D. Sontakke, K. Biswas, A. K. Mandal, and K. Annapurna, “Concentration quenched luminescence and energy transfer analysis of Nd3+ ion doped Ba-Al-metaphosphate laser glasses,” Appl. Phys,B-Lasers Opt. 101(1-2), 235–244 (2010).

Bodiou, L.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

Bohnke, O.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Boussard-Plédel, C.

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

Braud, A.

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

Brilland, L.

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

Brown, I. D.

I. D. Brown, “The bond-valence method: an empirical approach to chemical structure and bonding,” Structure and Bonding in Crystals II, 1–30 (1981).

Bureau, B.

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

G. Le Caer, B. Bureau, and D. Massiot, ““An extension of the Czjzek model for the distributions of electric field gradients in disordered solids and an application to NMR spectra of Ga-71 in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys.-,” Condes. Matter 22, 17 (2010).

Busse, L. E.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Bychkov, E.

A. Bytchkov, G. J. Cuello, S. Kohara, C. J. Benmore, D. L. Price, and E. Bychkov, “Unraveling the atomic structure of Ge-rich sulfide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(22), 8487–8494 (2013).

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, A. Cuisset, and E. Bychkov, “Spatially resolved Raman analysis of laser induced refractive index variation in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(12), 1768–1775 (2012).

Bytchkov, A.

A. Bytchkov, G. J. Cuello, S. Kohara, C. J. Benmore, D. L. Price, and E. Bychkov, “Unraveling the atomic structure of Ge-rich sulfide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(22), 8487–8494 (2013).

Cai, X.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireaulozach, and M. Guittard, “Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Ge-Ga-Ag Sulfide Glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State Materials for Advanced Technology 22(2-3), 191–200 (1994).

Calvez, L.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

Camy, P.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

Canat, G.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

Carlie, N.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I Pr3+ Nd3+ Pm3+ Sm3+ Dy3+ Ho3+ Er3+ and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).

Chahal, R.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

Chang, C. L.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).

Chardon, A. M.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).

Charpentier, F.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

Charrier, J.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

Chbani, N.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireaulozach, and M. Guittard, “Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Ge-Ga-Ag Sulfide Glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State Materials for Advanced Technology 22(2-3), 191–200 (1994).

Chen, B. M.

B. Liu, Z. T. Song, T. Zhang, S. L. Feng, and B. M. Chen, “Raman spectra and XPS studies of phase changes in Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Chin. Phys. 13(11), 1947–1950 (2004).

Choi, Y. G.

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “Dy3+ doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers for the mid-IR gain media,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1087–1091 (2008).

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 µm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).

J. H. Song, Y. G. Choi, and J. Heo, “Ge and GaK-edge EXAFS analyses on the structure of Ge-Ga-S-CsBr glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 423–428 (2006).

Chovanec, J.

J. Malek, J. Chovanec, R. Svoboda, Y. Taniguchi, and H. Kawaji, “Heat capacity of vitreous GeS2,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 81, 101–108 (2015).

J. Chovanec, M. Chromcikova, M. Liska, J. Shanelova, and J. Malek, “Thermodynamic model and viscosity of Ge-S glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 116(2), 581–588 (2014).

Chromcikova, M.

J. Chovanec, M. Chromcikova, M. Liska, J. Shanelova, and J. Malek, “Thermodynamic model and viscosity of Ge-S glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 116(2), 581–588 (2014).

Chung, W. J.

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “Dy3+ doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers for the mid-IR gain media,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1087–1091 (2008).

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 µm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).

Churbanov, M. F.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Cole, B. C.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Conradson, S. D.

A. L. Ankudinov, B. Ravel, J. J. Rehr, and S. D. Conradson, “Real-space multiple-scattering calculation and interpretation of X-ray-absorption near-edge structure,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7565–7576 (1998).

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).

Cuello, G. J.

A. Bytchkov, G. J. Cuello, S. Kohara, C. J. Benmore, D. L. Price, and E. Bychkov, “Unraveling the atomic structure of Ge-rich sulfide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(22), 8487–8494 (2013).

Cuisset, A.

Davolos, M. R.

M. R. Davolos, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, “Luminescence of Eu2+ in strontium and barium thiogallates,” J. Solid State Chem. 83(2), 316–323 (1989).

deNeufville, J. P.

G. Lucovsky, J. P. deNeufville, and F. L. Galeener, “Study of optic modes of Ge0.30S0.70 glass by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 9(4), 1591–1597 (1974).

Desevedavy, F.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

Doualan, J. L.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, L. Griscom, S. Girard, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption at 1.3 µm in Nd3+-doped fluoride and sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 276–281 (1999).

Doualan, J.-L.

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

Dumeige, Y.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

Duverger, C.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Duverger-Arfuso, C.

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

Fabian, M.

M. Fabian, E. Svab, V. Pamukchieva, A. Szekeres, K. Todorova, S. Vogel, and U. Ruett, “Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data for new chalcogenide Ge-Sb-S(Se)-Te glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(10), 1355–1362 (2013).

Fang, L.

W. H. Wei, L. Fang, X. Shen, and R. P. Wang, “Transition threshold in GexSb10Se90-x glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(11), 113510 (2014).

Feng, S. L.

B. Liu, Z. T. Song, T. Zhang, S. L. Feng, and B. M. Chen, “Raman spectra and XPS studies of phase changes in Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Chin. Phys. 13(11), 1947–1950 (2004).

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I Pr3+ Nd3+ Pm3+ Sm3+ Dy3+ Ho3+ Er3+ and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).

Florian, P.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

Fouassier, C.

M. R. Davolos, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, “Luminescence of Eu2+ in strontium and barium thiogallates,” J. Solid State Chem. 83(2), 316–323 (1989).

A. Garcia, F. Guillen, and C. Fouassier, “Charge-transfer excitation of the Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ emission CaGa2S4,” J. Lumin. 33(1), 15–27 (1985).

Frumar, M.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

Furniss, D.

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).

Gadret, G.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

Galagan, Y. N.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

Galeener, F. L.

G. Lucovsky, J. P. deNeufville, and F. L. Galeener, “Study of optic modes of Ge0.30S0.70 glass by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 9(4), 1591–1597 (1974).

Gammon, R. W.

R. W. G. R. Shuker and R. W. Gammon, “Raman-scattering selection-rule breaking and the density of states in amophous materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(4), 222–225 (1970).

Garcia, A.

M. R. Davolos, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, “Luminescence of Eu2+ in strontium and barium thiogallates,” J. Solid State Chem. 83(2), 316–323 (1989).

A. Garcia, F. Guillen, and C. Fouassier, “Charge-transfer excitation of the Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ emission CaGa2S4,” J. Lumin. 33(1), 15–27 (1985).

Garrabos, Y.

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

Girard, S.

J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, L. Griscom, S. Girard, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption at 1.3 µm in Nd3+-doped fluoride and sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 276–281 (1999).

Glebov, L.

A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

Griscom, L.

J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, L. Griscom, S. Girard, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption at 1.3 µm in Nd3+-doped fluoride and sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 276–281 (1999).

Guignard, M.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Guillen, F.

A. Garcia, F. Guillen, and C. Fouassier, “Charge-transfer excitation of the Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ emission CaGa2S4,” J. Lumin. 33(1), 15–27 (1985).

Guin, J. P.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

Guittard, M.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireaulozach, and M. Guittard, “Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Ge-Ga-Ag Sulfide Glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State Materials for Advanced Technology 22(2-3), 191–200 (1994).

Gutierrez-Arroyo, A.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

Hagenmuller, P.

M. R. Davolos, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, “Luminescence of Eu2+ in strontium and barium thiogallates,” J. Solid State Chem. 83(2), 316–323 (1989).

Harbison, B. B.

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L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

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S. D. Pangavhane, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, A. Moreac, P. Jóvári, and J. Havel, “Laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of erbium-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S glasses,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28(11), 1221–1232 (2014).

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B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “Dy3+ doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers for the mid-IR gain media,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1087–1091 (2008).

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A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).

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K. Kadono, M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, H. Higuchi, and Y. Kawamoto, “Radiative and non-radiative relaxation of rare-earth ions in Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259(1-3), 39–44 (1999).

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Houizot, P.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

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M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Near- and mid-infrared emissions from Dy3+ and Nd3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-Sb2S3 glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1914–1917 (2013).

M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Mid-infrared emissions from Er3+ in Ga(2)S(3)-GeS2-Sb2S3 glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 25(11), 2111–2119 (2010).

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H. Takebe, T. Ishibashi, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Nd solubility in RS-Ga2S3 (R = Sr, Ba) glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1298), 755–757 (2003).

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H. Takebe, T. Ishibashi, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Nd solubility in RS-Ga2S3 (R = Sr, Ba) glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1298), 755–757 (2003).

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M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Near- and mid-infrared emissions from Dy3+ and Nd3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-Sb2S3 glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1914–1917 (2013).

M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Mid-infrared emissions from Er3+ in Ga(2)S(3)-GeS2-Sb2S3 glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 25(11), 2111–2119 (2010).

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A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).

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B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 µm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).

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Jóvári, P.

S. D. Pangavhane, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, A. Moreac, P. Jóvári, and J. Havel, “Laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of erbium-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S glasses,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28(11), 1221–1232 (2014).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

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Jurdyc, A. M.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

Kadono, K.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Near- and mid-infrared emissions from Dy3+ and Nd3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-Sb2S3 glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1914–1917 (2013).

M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Mid-infrared emissions from Er3+ in Ga(2)S(3)-GeS2-Sb2S3 glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 25(11), 2111–2119 (2010).

H. Higuchi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, and K. Kadono, “Local structures of Er3+ containing Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 40, 122–125 (1999).

K. Kadono, M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, H. Higuchi, and Y. Kawamoto, “Radiative and non-radiative relaxation of rare-earth ions in Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259(1-3), 39–44 (1999).

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P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)(100-x)(Sb2Se3)(x) glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).

Kamiya, K.

Y. Nakane, H. Nasu, J. Heo, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled Ge-S glass system,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 113(1323), 728–732 (2005).

Kanno, R.

H. Higuchi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, and K. Kadono, “Local structures of Er3+ containing Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 40, 122–125 (1999).

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A. W. Mao, B. G. Aitken, R. E. Youngman, D. C. Kaseman, and S. Sen, “Structure of Glasses in the Pseudobinary System Ga2Se3-GeSe2: Violation of Chemical Order and 8-N Coordination Rule,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(51), 16594–16601 (2013).

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H. Higuchi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, M. Takahashi, and K. Kadono, “Local structures of Er3+ containing Ga2S3-GeS2-La2S3 glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 40, 122–125 (1999).

K. Kadono, M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, H. Higuchi, and Y. Kawamoto, “Radiative and non-radiative relaxation of rare-earth ions in Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259(1-3), 39–44 (1999).

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A. M. Loireau-Lozach, F. Keller-Besrest, and S. Bénazeth, “Short and medium range order in Ga-Ge-S glasses: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study at room and low temperatures,” J. Solid State Chem. 123(1), 60–67 (1996).

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J. Kobelke, J. Kirchhof, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, “Effects of carbon, hydrocarbon and hydroxide impurities on praseodymium doped arsenic sulfide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1-3), 123–127 (2001).

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M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Le Caer, G.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

G. Le Caer, B. Bureau, and D. Massiot, ““An extension of the Czjzek model for the distributions of electric field gradients in disordered solids and an application to NMR spectra of Ga-71 in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys.-,” Condes. Matter 22, 17 (2010).

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Lecoutre, C.

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

Ledemi, Y.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

Lee, D. J.

D. J. Lee, J. Heo, and S. H. Park, “Energy transfer and 1.48 mu m emission properties in chalcohalide glasses doped with Tm3+ and Tb3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 184–189 (2003).

Lemaitre, J.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

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A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

Lhermite, H.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

Liaw, S. K.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).

Liska, M.

J. Chovanec, M. Chromcikova, M. Liska, J. Shanelova, and J. Malek, “Thermodynamic model and viscosity of Ge-S glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 116(2), 581–588 (2014).

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C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireaulozach, and M. Guittard, “Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Ge-Ga-Ag Sulfide Glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State Materials for Advanced Technology 22(2-3), 191–200 (1994).

Loireau-Lozach, A. M.

A. M. Loireau-Lozach, F. Keller-Besrest, and S. Bénazeth, “Short and medium range order in Ga-Ge-S glasses: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study at room and low temperatures,” J. Solid State Chem. 123(1), 60–67 (1996).

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Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

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Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

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Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

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A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

Mairaj, A. K.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).

Malek, J.

J. Malek, J. Chovanec, R. Svoboda, Y. Taniguchi, and H. Kawaji, “Heat capacity of vitreous GeS2,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 81, 101–108 (2015).

J. Chovanec, M. Chromcikova, M. Liska, J. Shanelova, and J. Malek, “Thermodynamic model and viscosity of Ge-S glasses,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 116(2), 581–588 (2014).

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Mandal, A. K.

A. D. Sontakke, K. Biswas, A. K. Mandal, and K. Annapurna, “Concentration quenched luminescence and energy transfer analysis of Nd3+ ion doped Ba-Al-metaphosphate laser glasses,” Appl. Phys,B-Lasers Opt. 101(1-2), 235–244 (2010).

Manshina, A.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).

Mao, A. W.

A. W. Mao, B. G. Aitken, R. E. Youngman, D. C. Kaseman, and S. Sen, “Structure of Glasses in the Pseudobinary System Ga2Se3-GeSe2: Violation of Chemical Order and 8-N Coordination Rule,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(51), 16594–16601 (2013).

Marre, S.

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

Martinelli, G.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Masselin, P.

Massiot, D.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

G. Le Caer, B. Bureau, and D. Massiot, ““An extension of the Czjzek model for the distributions of electric field gradients in disordered solids and an application to NMR spectra of Ga-71 in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys.-,” Condes. Matter 22, 17 (2010).

Massot, M.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireaulozach, and M. Guittard, “Raman and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Ge-Ga-Ag Sulfide Glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State Materials for Advanced Technology 22(2-3), 191–200 (1994).

Michel, K.

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

Mikhailov, M.

A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

Miklos, R.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Moizan, V.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

Moncorge, R.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, L. Griscom, S. Girard, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption at 1.3 µm in Nd3+-doped fluoride and sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 276–281 (1999).

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Morais, S.

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

Moreac, A.

S. D. Pangavhane, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, A. Moreac, P. Jóvári, and J. Havel, “Laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of erbium-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S glasses,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28(11), 1221–1232 (2014).

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Morinaga, K.

H. Takebe, T. Hirakawa, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Thermal stability and structure of Ge-Sb-S glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1296), 572–575 (2003).

H. Takebe, T. Ishibashi, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Nd solubility in RS-Ga2S3 (R = Sr, Ba) glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1298), 755–757 (2003).

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J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

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Y. Nakane, H. Nasu, J. Heo, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled Ge-S glass system,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 113(1323), 728–732 (2005).

Nasu, H.

Y. Nakane, H. Nasu, J. Heo, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled Ge-S glass system,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 113(1323), 728–732 (2005).

Nazabal, V.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, R. Chahal, V. Nazabal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Wavelength conversion in Er3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for optical gas sensors,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4163–4172 (2015).

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)(100-x)(Sb2Se3)(x) glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

S. D. Pangavhane, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, A. Moreac, P. Jóvári, and J. Havel, “Laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of erbium-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S glasses,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28(11), 1221–1232 (2014).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

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L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)(100-x)(Sb2Se3)(x) glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).

S. D. Pangavhane, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, A. Moreac, P. Jóvári, and J. Havel, “Laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of erbium-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S glasses,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28(11), 1221–1232 (2014).

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

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J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

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P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)(100-x)(Sb2Se3)(x) glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).

Palencia, F.

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

Palma, G.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

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S. D. Pangavhane, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, A. Moreac, P. Jóvári, and J. Havel, “Laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of erbium-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S glasses,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 28(11), 1221–1232 (2014).

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B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 µm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “Dy3+ doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers for the mid-IR gain media,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1087–1091 (2008).

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L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).

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V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

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M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

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A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

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A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

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L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

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A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

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J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

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M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

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F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

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B. G. Aitken, C. W. Ponader, and R. S. Quimby, “Clustering of rare earths in GeAs sulfide glass,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 865–872 (2002).

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M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

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L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).

Rodriguez, V.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006).

Roiland, C.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

Roselle, D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

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M. Fabian, E. Svab, V. Pamukchieva, A. Szekeres, K. Todorova, S. Vogel, and U. Ruett, “Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data for new chalcogenide Ge-Sb-S(Se)-Te glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(10), 1355–1362 (2013).

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T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 419–421 (1997).

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J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

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M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

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H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).

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J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Smetanin, S. V.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

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M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

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H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).

Song, J. H.

J. H. Song, Y. G. Choi, and J. Heo, “Ge and GaK-edge EXAFS analyses on the structure of Ge-Ga-S-CsBr glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 423–428 (2006).

Song, Z. T.

B. Liu, Z. T. Song, T. Zhang, S. L. Feng, and B. M. Chen, “Raman spectra and XPS studies of phase changes in Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Chin. Phys. 13(11), 1947–1950 (2004).

Sontakke, A. D.

A. D. Sontakke and K. Annapurna, “Spectroscopic properties and concentration effects on luminescence behavior of Nd3+ doped Zinc-Boro-Bismuthate glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 137(3), 916–921 (2013).

A. D. Sontakke, K. Biswas, A. K. Mandal, and K. Annapurna, “Concentration quenched luminescence and energy transfer analysis of Nd3+ ion doped Ba-Al-metaphosphate laser glasses,” Appl. Phys,B-Lasers Opt. 101(1-2), 235–244 (2010).

Soulard, R.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

Starecki, F.

L. Bodiou, F. Starecki, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, J.-L. Doualan, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, A. Braud, R. Soulard, P. Camy, P. Nemec, G. Palma, F. Prudenzano, and J. Charrier, “Mid-infrared guided photoluminescence from integrated Pr3+-doped selenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 75, 109–115 (2018).

F. Starecki, N. Abdellaoui, A. Braud, J.-L. Doualan, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, P. Camy, and V. Nazabal, “8 μm luminescence from a Tb3+ GaGeSbSe fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1211–1214 (2018).

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

R. Chahal, F. Starecki, C. Boussard-Plédel, J.-L. Doualan, K. Michel, L. Brilland, A. Braud, P. Camy, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy based on IR fluorescent chalcogenide fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 229, 209–216 (2016).

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

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Sujecki, S.

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).

Svab, E.

M. Fabian, E. Svab, V. Pamukchieva, A. Szekeres, K. Todorova, S. Vogel, and U. Ruett, “Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data for new chalcogenide Ge-Sb-S(Se)-Te glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(10), 1355–1362 (2013).

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J. Malek, J. Chovanec, R. Svoboda, Y. Taniguchi, and H. Kawaji, “Heat capacity of vitreous GeS2,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 81, 101–108 (2015).

Szekeres, A.

M. Fabian, E. Svab, V. Pamukchieva, A. Szekeres, K. Todorova, S. Vogel, and U. Ruett, “Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data for new chalcogenide Ge-Sb-S(Se)-Te glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(10), 1355–1362 (2013).

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K. Kadono, M. Shojiya, M. Takahashi, H. Higuchi, and Y. Kawamoto, “Radiative and non-radiative relaxation of rare-earth ions in Ga2S3–GeS2–La2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259(1-3), 39–44 (1999).

Takebe, H.

H. Takebe, T. Hirakawa, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Thermal stability and structure of Ge-Sb-S glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1296), 572–575 (2003).

H. Takebe, T. Ishibashi, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Nd solubility in RS-Ga2S3 (R = Sr, Ba) glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1298), 755–757 (2003).

Talley, D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

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S. Tanabe, “Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: how the local structure works in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259(1-3), 1–9 (1999).

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H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).

Taniguchi, Y.

J. Malek, J. Chovanec, R. Svoboda, Y. Taniguchi, and H. Kawaji, “Heat capacity of vitreous GeS2,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 81, 101–108 (2015).

Tao, H.

Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

Todorova, K.

M. Fabian, E. Svab, V. Pamukchieva, A. Szekeres, K. Todorova, S. Vogel, and U. Ruett, “Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data for new chalcogenide Ge-Sb-S(Se)-Te glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(10), 1355–1362 (2013).

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Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

Troles, J.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).

F. Charpentier, F. Starecki, J. L. Doualan, P. Jóvári, P. Camy, J. Troles, S. Belin, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR luminescence of Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S(Se)65 bulk glasses and fibers,” Mater. Lett. 101, 21–24 (2013).

J. Troles, Y. Niu, C. Duverger-Arfuso, F. Smektala, L. Brilland, V. Nazabal, V. Moizan, F. Desevedavy, and P. Houizot, “Synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glasses from the system Ga-Ge-Sb-S and preparation of a single-mode fiber at 1.55 µm,” Mater. Res. Bull. 43(4), 976–982 (2008).

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J. L. Adam, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 31(1), 39–46 (2008).

Tver’yanovich, Y.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).

Vogel, S.

M. Fabian, E. Svab, V. Pamukchieva, A. Szekeres, K. Todorova, S. Vogel, and U. Ruett, “Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data for new chalcogenide Ge-Sb-S(Se)-Te glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(10), 1355–1362 (2013).

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M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Near- and mid-infrared emissions from Dy3+ and Nd3+-doped Ga2S3-GeS2-Sb2S3 glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1914–1917 (2013).

M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Mid-infrared emissions from Er3+ in Ga(2)S(3)-GeS2-Sb2S3 glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 25(11), 2111–2119 (2010).

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W. H. Wei, L. Fang, X. Shen, and R. P. Wang, “Transition threshold in GexSb10Se90-x glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(11), 113510 (2014).

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Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

Wei, W. H.

W. H. Wei, L. Fang, X. Shen, and R. P. Wang, “Transition threshold in GexSb10Se90-x glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(11), 113510 (2014).

Yang, A.

Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

Yang, Q. H.

Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

Yang, Z.

Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

Youngman, R. E.

A. W. Mao, B. G. Aitken, R. E. Youngman, D. C. Kaseman, and S. Sen, “Structure of Glasses in the Pseudobinary System Ga2Se3-GeSe2: Violation of Chemical Order and 8-N Coordination Rule,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(51), 16594–16601 (2013).

R. E. Youngman and B. G. Aitken, “Structure and properties of GeGaP sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 50–55 (2004).

Yuan, Z. J.

Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

Zeghlache, H.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Zhang, B.

Y. Yang, Z. Yang, P. Lucas, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, A. Yang, B. Zhang, and H. Tao, “Composition dependence of physical and optical properties in Ge-As-S chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 38–42 (2016).

Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

Zhang, H. J.

Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

Zhang, S.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J. L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).

Zhang, T.

B. Liu, Z. T. Song, T. Zhang, S. L. Feng, and B. M. Chen, “Raman spectra and XPS studies of phase changes in Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Chin. Phys. 13(11), 1947–1950 (2004).

Zhou, J.

Q. H. Yang, S. Z. Lu, B. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Z. J. Yuan, Y. F. Qi, and Q. H. Lou, “Preparation and laser performance of Nd-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramic,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 692–694 (2011).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moreac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys,B-Lasers Opt. (1)

A. D. Sontakke, K. Biswas, A. K. Mandal, and K. Annapurna, “Concentration quenched luminescence and energy transfer analysis of Nd3+ ion doped Ba-Al-metaphosphate laser glasses,” Appl. Phys,B-Lasers Opt. 101(1-2), 235–244 (2010).

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).

C. R. Chim. (1)

B. G. Aitken, C. W. Ponader, and R. S. Quimby, “Clustering of rare earths in GeAs sulfide glass,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 865–872 (2002).

Chin. Phys. (1)

B. Liu, Z. T. Song, T. Zhang, S. L. Feng, and B. M. Chen, “Raman spectra and XPS studies of phase changes in Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Chin. Phys. 13(11), 1947–1950 (2004).

Condes. Matter (1)

G. Le Caer, B. Bureau, and D. Massiot, ““An extension of the Czjzek model for the distributions of electric field gradients in disordered solids and an application to NMR spectra of Ga-71 in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Phys.-,” Condes. Matter 22, 17 (2010).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, D. Talley, D. Roselle, and R. Miklos, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D. W. Hewak, “Laser performance and spectroscopic analysis of optically written channel waveguides in neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1381–1388 (2002).

Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control (1)

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. H. Wei, L. Fang, X. Shen, and R. P. Wang, “Transition threshold in GexSb10Se90-x glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(11), 113510 (2014).

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (4)

H. Takebe, T. Hirakawa, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Thermal stability and structure of Ge-Sb-S glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1296), 572–575 (2003).

H. Takebe, T. Ishibashi, T. Ichiki, and K. Morinaga, “Nd solubility in RS-Ga2S3 (R = Sr, Ba) glasses,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 111(1298), 755–757 (2003).

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “Dy3+ doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers for the mid-IR gain media,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1087–1091 (2008).

Y. Nakane, H. Nasu, J. Heo, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled Ge-S glass system,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 113(1323), 728–732 (2005).

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J. Chem. Thermodyn. (1)

J. Malek, J. Chovanec, R. Svoboda, Y. Taniguchi, and H. Kawaji, “Heat capacity of vitreous GeS2,” J. Chem. Thermodyn. 81, 101–108 (2015).

J. Lumin. (3)

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 µm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).

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M. Ichikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Wakasugi, and K. Kadono, “Mid-infrared emissions from Er3+ in Ga(2)S(3)-GeS2-Sb2S3 glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 25(11), 2111–2119 (2010).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (14)

A. Belykh, L. Glebov, C. Lerminiaux, S. Lunter, M. Mikhailov, A. Plyukhin, M. Prassas, and A. Przhevuskii, “Spectral and luminescence properties of neodymium in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213-214, 238–244 (1997).

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 257, 6–16 (1999).

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Pyrkov, and Y. N. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 301–305 (2003).

J. Heo, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glasses for fiber-optic amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 410–415 (2003).

D. J. Lee, J. Heo, and S. H. Park, “Energy transfer and 1.48 mu m emission properties in chalcohalide glasses doped with Tm3+ and Tb3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 331, 184–189 (2003).

J. Kobelke, J. Kirchhof, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, “Effects of carbon, hydrocarbon and hydroxide impurities on praseodymium doped arsenic sulfide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1-3), 123–127 (2001).

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, G. Le Caer, L. Calvez, C. Roiland, G. Tricot, P. Florian, V. Nazabal, and D. Massiot, “Ga-71 NMR in chalcogenide and chalco-halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 216–221 (2014).

R. E. Youngman and B. G. Aitken, “Structure and properties of GeGaP sulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 50–55 (2004).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Absorption coefficient around optical band-gap for several glass compositions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Refractive index obtained by prism coupling (dots) and ellipsometry (line) for several compositions of Ga-Ge-Sb-S system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 71Ga NMR spectra for glasses of the Ga-Ge-Sb-S system (a) and for some glass-ceramics and crystals (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Raman spectra of several glass compositions of Ga-Ge-Sb-S system (a), deconvoluted Raman spectrum of Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 (b), Ga5Ge15Sb10S70 (c) and Ga1Ge29Sb5S65 (d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 EXAFS spectrum showing oscillations (left) and radial distribution function non-corrected of phase shift (right) for Nd3+ ions in Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 glass.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Evolution of absorption coefficient for several Nd3+ concentrations in 2S2G glass, with the inset showing the absorption coefficient for the 4F5/2 level.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Energy diagram of Nd3+ ion in 2S2G glass matrix.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Absorption cross-section of Nd-doped 2S2G glass (a) and Nd-doped GaGeSbS-S70 glass (b).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Emission spectra of Nd3+ doped 2S2G glass with different concentrations of rare earth.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Fluorescence lifetimes measured for Nd3+ ions in 2S2G and GaGeSbS-S70 glasses.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Attenuation of Nd3+-doped 2S2G fiber (Øfiber = 350 µm).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Emission spectra of Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 and Ga5Ge20Sb5S70 fiber doped with 1000 ppmw of Nd3+ions.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Glass transition temperature, density, Ge/S ratio, stoichiometry deviation R and average coordination number Z for studied compositions

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Table 2 Overview of some optical properties for several compositions in Ga-Ge-Sb-S system concerning the cut-off wavelength at α = 10 cm−1, refractive index and Abbe number in the 3-5 µm range.

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Table 3 Characteristic vibration mode observed in Ga-Ge-Sb-S system by Raman spectroscopy

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Table 4 Coordination numbers (N), bond distances (R) and Debye-Waller factors (σ2) of Ga-S, Ge-S, Sb-S, and Nd-S bonds in Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 glass, with R-factor showing the validity of fitting

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Table 5 Radiative parameters of Nd3+ ions in 2S2G glass calculated using Judd-Ofelt analysis.

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Table 6 Radiative parameters of Nd3+ ions in GaGeSbS-S70 glass calculated using Judd-Ofelt analysis.

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Table 7 Experimental and calculated 4F3/2 branching ratios and emission cross-sections for 2S2G and 2S2G-S70

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z=w N c (Ga)+x N c (Ge)+y N c (Sb)+z N c (S),
R= z N c (S) w N c (Ga)+x N c (Ge)+y N c (Sb) .
V 35 = n 4 1 n 3 n 5 ,
β ji = I ji × λ ji k I jk × λ jk ,
σ e (λ)= λ 5 8πc n 2 β τ i(λ) if λi(λ) dλ

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