Abstract

In this work, we report a comparative study of the nonlinear optical responses of CH3NH3PbX3 (where X is a chlorine, bromine, or iodine halogen atom) perovskite thin (~200 nm) films using 40 fs, 800 nm pulses. We found that these films possess strong nonlinear absorption coefficients comparable with the highest reported values for thin film structures (up to 7 × 10−7 cm W−1). We also analyze the photoluminescence emission from CH3NH3PbBr3 film and demonstrate the quadratic dependence of emission intensity on the intensity of probe pulse indicating a two-photon mechanism of luminescence.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (10)

J. Yi, L. Miao, W. Hu, W. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in the mid-infrared regime,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 3894–3901 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(15), 3796–3806 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Fu, Q. Song, T. Lin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, Z. Su, B. Chu, F. Jin, H. Zhao, W. Li, and C. S. Lee, “High performance photomultiplication perovskite photodetectors with PC60BM and NPB as the interlayers,” Org. Electron. 51, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, S.-Z. A. Lo, G. G. Gurzadyan, S. Mhaisalkar, J. L. Brédas, and C. Soci, “Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(11), 2771–2780 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Wei, B. Du, B. Wu, J. Guo, M. Li, J. Fu, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, T. Hou, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Two-photon optical properties in individual organic–inorganic perovskite microplates,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(24), 1700809 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, J. Xing, J. Zhao, X. Wen, K. Wang, P. Lu, and Q. Xiong, “Giant two-photon absorption and its saturation in 2D organic–inorganic perovskite,” Adv. Optical Mater. 5(7), 1601045 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. O. Saouma, D. Y. Park, S. H. Kim, M. S. Jeong, and J. I. Jang, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients of organic−inorganic lead halide perovskites CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) single crystals,” Chem. Mater. 29(16), 6876–6882 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. O. Saouma, C. C. Stoumpos, J. Wong, M. G. Kanatzidis, and J. I. Jang, “Selective enhancement of optical nonlinearity in two-dimensional organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 742 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, K. Žídek, P. Chábera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(10), 2316–2321 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 quantum dots: a comparison study using Z-scan technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear optical response of organic–inorganic halide perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Zhao, L. Xiao, H. Zeng, and H. Sun, “Nonlinear absorption and low-threshold multiphoton pumped stimulated emission from all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 448–453 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mirershadi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, A. Zawadzka, H. Rouhbakhsh, and B. Sahraoui, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of organometal halide perovskite by means of the Z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 7–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in organometallic methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Abdel-Baki, F. Boitier, H. Diab, G. Lanty, K. Jemli, F. Lédée, D. Garrot, E. Deleporte, and J. S. Lauret, “Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(6), 064301 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Kuang, S. Eyderman, M.-L. Hsieh, A. Post, S. John, and S. Y. Lin, “Achieving an accurate surface profile of a photonic crystal for near-unity solar absorption in a super thin-film architecture,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6116–6124 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, S. Zhang, H. Dong, X. Yuan, X. Jiang, J. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption and emission in CsPb(Br/I)3cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” CrystEngComm 18(41), 7945–7949 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

C. E. R. Disney, S. Pillai, C. M. Johnson, and M. A. Green, “Self-assembled nanostructured rear reflector designs for thin-film solar cells,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1108–1116 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Mirershadi and S. A. Kandjani, “Efficient thin luminescent solar concentrator based on organometal halide perovskite,” Dyes Pigments 120, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-photon absorption in organometallic bromide perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

V. Gonzalez-Pedro, E. J. Juarez-Perez, W. S. Arsyad, E. M. Barea, F. Fabregat-Santiago, I. Mora-Sero, and J. Bisquert, “General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 888–893 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Oskooi, M. De Zoysa, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Experimental demonstration of quasi-resonant absorption in silicon thin films for enhanced solar light trapping,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 304–309 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Dota, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in transparent solids using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 703–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

E. A. Muller, J. E. Johns, B. W. Caplins, and C. B. Harris, “Quantum confinement and anisotropy in thin-film molecular semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 83(16), 165422 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Baskoutas, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, M. Angelakeris, and N. K. Flevaris, “Strong quantum confinement effects in thin zinc selenide films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 417(4–6), 461–464 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Blömer, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Nonlinear refractive index of fs-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2151–2157 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, “Competition of third- and fifth-order nonlinear optical processes in C60 thin films,” Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13(2), 131–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Reflection Z-scan measurements of opaque semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(1), 120–125 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, “Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SuO2 at λ=532 nm,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(3), R1–R4 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Investigation of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption of semiconductor nanoparticles solutions prepared by laser ablation,” J. Opt. A 5(4), 409–417 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Kikuchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Architecture and optical properties of two-dimensional perovskite compounds containing fluoroamines,” Synth. Met. 137(1–3), 904–910 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, “Two-photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. A 4(4), 446–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190(1–6), 351–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, “Theoretical study on the closed-aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 431–437 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Brzozovski and E. H. Sargent, “Azobenzenes for photonic network Applications: third-order nonlinear optical properties,” J. Mater. Sci. Electron. 12(9), 483–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of C60 and C70 films and solutions,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 473–478 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

O. Alvarez-Fregoso, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Quantum confinement in nanostructured CdNiTe composite thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 708–712 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Mater. Phys. 6(3), 251–293 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Abate, A.

Abdel-Baki, K.

K. Abdel-Baki, F. Boitier, H. Diab, G. Lanty, K. Jemli, F. Lédée, D. Garrot, E. Deleporte, and J. S. Lauret, “Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(6), 064301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.

S. Mirershadi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, A. Zawadzka, H. Rouhbakhsh, and B. Sahraoui, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of organometal halide perovskite by means of the Z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 7–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

Al-Marri, M. J.

J. Chen, K. Žídek, P. Chábera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(10), 2316–2321 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarez-Fregoso, O.

O. Alvarez-Fregoso, J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Quantum confinement in nanostructured CdNiTe composite thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 708–712 (1997).
[Crossref]

Angelakeris, M.

S. Baskoutas, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, M. Angelakeris, and N. K. Flevaris, “Strong quantum confinement effects in thin zinc selenide films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 417(4–6), 461–464 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arsyad, W. S.

V. Gonzalez-Pedro, E. J. Juarez-Perez, W. S. Arsyad, E. M. Barea, F. Fabregat-Santiago, I. Mora-Sero, and J. Bisquert, “General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 888–893 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakr, O. M.

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-photon absorption in organometallic bromide perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barea, E. M.

V. Gonzalez-Pedro, E. J. Juarez-Perez, W. S. Arsyad, E. M. Barea, F. Fabregat-Santiago, I. Mora-Sero, and J. Bisquert, “General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 888–893 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baskoutas, S.

S. Baskoutas, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, M. Angelakeris, and N. K. Flevaris, “Strong quantum confinement effects in thin zinc selenide films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 417(4–6), 461–464 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bisquert, J.

V. Gonzalez-Pedro, E. J. Juarez-Perez, W. S. Arsyad, E. M. Barea, F. Fabregat-Santiago, I. Mora-Sero, and J. Bisquert, “General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 888–893 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blömer, D.

Boitier, F.

K. Abdel-Baki, F. Boitier, H. Diab, G. Lanty, K. Jemli, F. Lédée, D. Garrot, E. Deleporte, and J. S. Lauret, “Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(6), 064301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brédas, J. L.

D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, S.-Z. A. Lo, G. G. Gurzadyan, S. Mhaisalkar, J. L. Brédas, and C. Soci, “Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(11), 2771–2780 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bruno, A.

D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, S.-Z. A. Lo, G. G. Gurzadyan, S. Mhaisalkar, J. L. Brédas, and C. Soci, “Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(11), 2771–2780 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brzozovski, L.

L. Brzozovski and E. H. Sargent, “Azobenzenes for photonic network Applications: third-order nonlinear optical properties,” J. Mater. Sci. Electron. 12(9), 483–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

Caplins, B. W.

E. A. Muller, J. E. Johns, B. W. Caplins, and C. B. Harris, “Quantum confinement and anisotropy in thin-film molecular semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 83(16), 165422 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chábera, P.

J. Chen, K. Žídek, P. Chábera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(10), 2316–2321 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Mater. Phys. 6(3), 251–293 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 quantum dots: a comparison study using Z-scan technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, K. Žídek, P. Chábera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(10), 2316–2321 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, P.

J. Chen, K. Žídek, P. Chábera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(10), 2316–2321 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, B.

Y. Fu, Q. Song, T. Lin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, Z. Su, B. Chu, F. Jin, H. Zhao, W. Li, and C. S. Lee, “High performance photomultiplication perovskite photodetectors with PC60BM and NPB as the interlayers,” Org. Electron. 51, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Comin, R.

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-photon absorption in organometallic bromide perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cortecchia, D.

D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, S.-Z. A. Lo, G. G. Gurzadyan, S. Mhaisalkar, J. L. Brédas, and C. Soci, “Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(11), 2771–2780 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Zoysa, M.

A. Oskooi, M. De Zoysa, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Experimental demonstration of quasi-resonant absorption in silicon thin films for enhanced solar light trapping,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 304–309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deleporte, E.

K. Abdel-Baki, F. Boitier, H. Diab, G. Lanty, K. Jemli, F. Lédée, D. Garrot, E. Deleporte, and J. S. Lauret, “Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(6), 064301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

K. Dota, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in transparent solids using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 703–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

K. Dota, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in transparent solids using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 703–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

Diab, H.

K. Abdel-Baki, F. Boitier, H. Diab, G. Lanty, K. Jemli, F. Lédée, D. Garrot, E. Deleporte, and J. S. Lauret, “Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(6), 064301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Disney, C. E. R.

C. E. R. Disney, S. Pillai, C. M. Johnson, and M. A. Green, “Self-assembled nanostructured rear reflector designs for thin-film solar cells,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1108–1116 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, H.

J. Li, S. Zhang, H. Dong, X. Yuan, X. Jiang, J. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption and emission in CsPb(Br/I)3cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” CrystEngComm 18(41), 7945–7949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dorsinville, R.

Dota, K.

K. Dota, J. A. Dharmadhikari, D. Mathur, and A. K. Dharmadhikari, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in transparent solids using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 703–709 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dreisow, F.

Du, B.

Q. Wei, B. Du, B. Wu, J. Guo, M. Li, J. Fu, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, T. Hou, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Two-photon optical properties in individual organic–inorganic perovskite microplates,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(24), 1700809 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eyderman, S.

P. Kuang, S. Eyderman, M.-L. Hsieh, A. Post, S. John, and S. Y. Lin, “Achieving an accurate surface profile of a photonic crystal for near-unity solar absorption in a super thin-film architecture,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6116–6124 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabregat-Santiago, F.

V. Gonzalez-Pedro, E. J. Juarez-Perez, W. S. Arsyad, E. M. Barea, F. Fabregat-Santiago, I. Mora-Sero, and J. Bisquert, “General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 888–893 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear optical response of organic–inorganic halide perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Flevaris, N. K.

S. Baskoutas, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, M. Angelakeris, and N. K. Flevaris, “Strong quantum confinement effects in thin zinc selenide films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 417(4–6), 461–464 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fostiropoulos, K.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, “Competition of third- and fifth-order nonlinear optical processes in C60 thin films,” Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13(2), 131–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fu, J.

Q. Wei, B. Du, B. Wu, J. Guo, M. Li, J. Fu, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, T. Hou, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Two-photon optical properties in individual organic–inorganic perovskite microplates,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(24), 1700809 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, Q. Song, T. Lin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, Z. Su, B. Chu, F. Jin, H. Zhao, W. Li, and C. S. Lee, “High performance photomultiplication perovskite photodetectors with PC60BM and NPB as the interlayers,” Org. Electron. 51, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev and A. I. Ryasnyansky, “Reflection Z-scan measurements of opaque semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(1), 120–125 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. A. Ganeev, V. I. Redkorechev, T. Usmanov, G. Priebe, and K. Fostiropoulos, “Competition of third- and fifth-order nonlinear optical processes in C60 thin films,” Fuller. Nanotub. Carbon Nanostruct. 13(2), 131–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, “Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SuO2 at λ=532 nm,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(3), R1–R4 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Investigation of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption of semiconductor nanoparticles solutions prepared by laser ablation,” J. Opt. A 5(4), 409–417 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, “Two-photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. A 4(4), 446–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of C60 and C70 films and solutions,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 473–478 (2000).
[Crossref]

Garrot, D.

K. Abdel-Baki, F. Boitier, H. Diab, G. Lanty, K. Jemli, F. Lédée, D. Garrot, E. Deleporte, and J. S. Lauret, “Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(6), 064301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

Gonzalez-Pedro, V.

V. Gonzalez-Pedro, E. J. Juarez-Perez, W. S. Arsyad, E. M. Barea, F. Fabregat-Santiago, I. Mora-Sero, and J. Bisquert, “General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 888–893 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottesman, R.

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in organometallic methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gouda, L.

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in organometallic methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).
[Crossref]

Graetzel, M.

Green, M. A.

C. E. R. Disney, S. Pillai, C. M. Johnson, and M. A. Green, “Self-assembled nanostructured rear reflector designs for thin-film solar cells,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1108–1116 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gui, L.

Guo, J.

Q. Wei, B. Du, B. Wu, J. Guo, M. Li, J. Fu, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, T. Hou, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Two-photon optical properties in individual organic–inorganic perovskite microplates,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(24), 1700809 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, S.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, “Theoretical study on the closed-aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 431–437 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

D. Cortecchia, J. Yin, A. Bruno, S.-Z. A. Lo, G. G. Gurzadyan, S. Mhaisalkar, J. L. Brédas, and C. Soci, “Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(11), 2771–2780 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hadfeldt, A.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Haltzi, E.

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in organometallic methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, D. B.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 quantum dots: a comparison study using Z-scan technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, J. B.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 quantum dots: a comparison study using Z-scan technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

J. Chen, K. Žídek, P. Chábera, D. Liu, P. Cheng, L. Nuuttila, M. J. Al-Marri, H. Lehtivuori, M. E. Messing, K. Han, K. Zheng, and T. Pullerits, “Size- and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption cross-section of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(10), 2316–2321 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, C. B.

E. A. Muller, J. E. Johns, B. W. Caplins, and C. B. Harris, “Quantum confinement and anisotropy in thin-film molecular semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 83(16), 165422 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, J.-H.

T.-C. Wei, S. Mokkapati, T.-Y. Li, C.-H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, C. Jagadish, and J.-H. He, “Nonlinear absorption applications of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1707175 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Mater. Phys. 6(3), 251–293 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hoogland, S.

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-photon absorption in organometallic bromide perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, L.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, “Theoretical study on the closed-aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 431–437 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hou, T.

Q. Wei, B. Du, B. Wu, J. Guo, M. Li, J. Fu, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, T. Hou, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Two-photon optical properties in individual organic–inorganic perovskite microplates,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(24), 1700809 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, M.-L.

P. Kuang, S. Eyderman, M.-L. Hsieh, A. Post, S. John, and S. Y. Lin, “Achieving an accurate surface profile of a photonic crystal for near-unity solar absorption in a super thin-film architecture,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6116–6124 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

Huang, W.

Q. Wei, B. Du, B. Wu, J. Guo, M. Li, J. Fu, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, T. Hou, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Two-photon optical properties in individual organic–inorganic perovskite microplates,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(24), 1700809 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ishizaki, K.

A. Oskooi, M. De Zoysa, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Experimental demonstration of quasi-resonant absorption in silicon thin films for enhanced solar light trapping,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 304–309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jagadish, C.

T.-C. Wei, S. Mokkapati, T.-Y. Li, C.-H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, C. Jagadish, and J.-H. He, “Nonlinear absorption applications of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1707175 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. I.

F. O. Saouma, D. Y. Park, S. H. Kim, M. S. Jeong, and J. I. Jang, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients of organic−inorganic lead halide perovskites CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) single crystals,” Chem. Mater. 29(16), 6876–6882 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. O. Saouma, C. C. Stoumpos, J. Wong, M. G. Kanatzidis, and J. I. Jang, “Selective enhancement of optical nonlinearity in two-dimensional organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 742 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemli, K.

K. Abdel-Baki, F. Boitier, H. Diab, G. Lanty, K. Jemli, F. Lédée, D. Garrot, E. Deleporte, and J. S. Lauret, “Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(6), 064301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jeong, M. S.

F. O. Saouma, D. Y. Park, S. H. Kim, M. S. Jeong, and J. I. Jang, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients of organic−inorganic lead halide perovskites CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) single crystals,” Chem. Mater. 29(16), 6876–6882 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 190(1–6), 351–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

J. Li, S. Zhang, H. Dong, X. Yuan, X. Jiang, J. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption and emission in CsPb(Br/I)3cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots,” CrystEngComm 18(41), 7945–7949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, F.

Y. Fu, Q. Song, T. Lin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, Z. Su, B. Chu, F. Jin, H. Zhao, W. Li, and C. S. Lee, “High performance photomultiplication perovskite photodetectors with PC60BM and NPB as the interlayers,” Org. Electron. 51, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

John, S.

P. Kuang, S. Eyderman, M.-L. Hsieh, A. Post, S. John, and S. Y. Lin, “Achieving an accurate surface profile of a photonic crystal for near-unity solar absorption in a super thin-film architecture,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6116–6124 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johns, J. E.

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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanosheets for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-photon absorption in organometallic bromide perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kuang, S. Eyderman, M.-L. Hsieh, A. Post, S. John, and S. Y. Lin, “Achieving an accurate surface profile of a photonic crystal for near-unity solar absorption in a super thin-film architecture,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6116–6124 (2016).
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ACS Photonics (4)

C. E. R. Disney, S. Pillai, C. M. Johnson, and M. A. Green, “Self-assembled nanostructured rear reflector designs for thin-film solar cells,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1108–1116 (2015).
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A. Oskooi, M. De Zoysa, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Experimental demonstration of quasi-resonant absorption in silicon thin films for enhanced solar light trapping,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 304–309 (2014).
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B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in organometallic methylammonium lead iodide perovskite thin films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear optical response of organic–inorganic halide perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of films preparation. (b) Absorption spectra of MAPbI3, MAPbBr3, and MAPbCl3 films in the near infrared, visible and UV ranges. The bandgaps of above films were defined to be 1.59, 2.32, and 3.01 eV respectively. (c) Measurement of MAPbBr3 film thickness using Tolansky interferometer. The shift of interference strips at the border of “perovskite-glass” shown on the CCD image is caused by phase shift, from which the thickness of film was calculated to be 240 nm. (d) SEM images of (from left to right) the MAPbBr3, MAPbCl3, and MAPbI3 films. White lines correspond to 20 μm (MAPbBr3), 0.5 μm (MAPbCl3), and 1 μm (MAPbI3).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Closed-aperture Z-scans of (a) MAPbBr3 and (b) MAPbCl3 films. The corresponding nonlinear optical parameters are shown on the graphs. The fitting curves correspond to Eq. (2). (a) The intensity of 800 nm radiation in the focal plane was 7 × 1011 W cm−2 (E = 1 × 10−6 J). The corresponding ΔФ0 was found to be 0.76. (b) The intensity of 800 nm radiation in the focal plane was 1.7 × 1011 W cm−2 (E = 0.25 × 10−6 J). The corresponding ΔФ0 and ρ were found to be 0.9 and 0.05.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Open-aperture Z-scans of (a) MAPbCl3, (b) MAPbBr3, and (c) MAPbI3 films. The corresponding nonlinear optical parameters are shown on the graphs. The fitting curves correspond to Eq. (3) describing TPA and phenomenological model of saturable absorption. (a) The intensity in the focal plane was 3.5 × 1011 W cm−2 (E = 0.5 × 10−6 J). q was found to be 0.105. (b) The intensity in the focal plane was 5.2 × 1011 W cm−2 (E = 0.75 × 10−6 J). q was found to be 0.5. (c) The intensity in the focal plane was 2 × 1011 W cm−2 (E = 0.32 × 10−6 J) and q = 2. Isat was found to be 8 × 1011 W cm−2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photoluminescence from MAPbBr3 film. (a) Dependence of the PL intensity on the laser pulse energy. This dependence shows the almost quadratic slope (l ≈2) up to the pulse energy of ~1 μJ for different components of a broad PL spectrum centered at 543 nm. Inset shows the band structure of perovskite. (b) Dependence of PL intensity on the rotation of polarization angle of laser radiation in the case of MAPbBr3 polycrystalline film by pumping with 400 nJ, 800 nm, 40 fs pulses. Inset shows the photoluminescence of thin film during illumination through the mask containing the acronym for Guo Photonics Laboratory. (c) PL spectra observed from singly-crystalline (left side) and polycrystalline (right side) MAPbBr3 perovskites using different energies of 800 nm pulses.

Equations (6)

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T=1+ 4x ( x 2 +9)( x 2 +1) Δ Φ 0 2( x 2 +3) ( x 2 +9)( x 2 +1) Δ ψ 0 ,
T=1+ 2(ρ x 2 +2x3ρ) ( x 2 +9)( x 2 +1) Δ Φ o
T= q 1  ln( 1+q ),
α( z )= α 0 /[ 1 +I( z )/ I sat ],
α( z )= α 0 / [ 1 +I ( z )/ I sat ] 0.5 .
α( z )= α 0 /{ 1 + [ I( z )/ I sat ] 0.5 }