Abstract

Mid-infrared (mid-IR) integrated photonics are expected to provide key advances for the demonstration of chip-scale spectroscopic systems. It has been recently reported that Ge-rich SiGe alloy-based photonic structures can provide broadband operation for a wavelength range spanning from 5.5 to 8.5 µm, thus holding great potential for mid-IR applications. In this paper, the Ge-rich SiGe platform is considered for a mid-IR photonic chip-scale sensor, based on the use of the evanescent component of the guided optical mode to probe specific molecular absorption features of the surrounding cladding environment. As a proof of concept, we monitored the absorption spectral patterns of a standalone photoresist spin-coated onto spiral Ge-rich SiGe waveguides. A significant increase of the waveguide optical loss at the spectral window of 5.8-6.2 µm is identified and correlated with the inherent photoresist absorption. The ability of this platform to sense small concentrations of methane gas is also discussed. These results pave the way towards the demonstration of compact, portable, label-free and highly sensitive photonic integrated sensors based on Ge-rich SiGe circuits.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (9)

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J.-M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A.-L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Vakarin, J.-M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A.-Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L.-G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J.-S. Wilkinson, and G.-Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tombez, E. J. Zhang, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, and W. M. J. Green, “Methane absorption spectroscopy on a silicon photonic chip,” Optica 4(11), 1322–1325 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

L. Carletti, M. Sinobad, P. Ma, Y. Yu, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, M. Brun, S. Ortiz, P. Labeye, J. M. Hartmann, S. Nicoletti, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, D. J. Moss, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared nonlinear optical response of Si-Ge waveguides with ultra-short optical pulses,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32202–32214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, and S. Stankovic, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H.-P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N.-K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1- xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allioux, D.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Andrews, A. M.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballabio, A.

Baudet, E.

Bienstman, P.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bodiou, L.

Bogaerts, W.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27300–27308 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boodhoo, L. A.

Boulila, F.

Bouville, D.

Brun, M.

Bureau, B.

Cardenas, J.

Carletti, L.

Carpenter, L.-G.

Carras, M.

Cassan, E.

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J.-M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerutti, L.

Chaisakul, P.

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H.-P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charrier, J.

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.-J.

Chrastina, D.

Dave, U.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Groote, A.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Rooij, N. F.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deckoff-Jones, S.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Detz, H.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhakal, A.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Di Francesco, J.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubreuil, N.

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J.-M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emmenegger, L.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Faijan, F.

Felder, F.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fill, M.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
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Frigerio, J.

Gaeta, A.-L.

Gawith, C. B. E.

Graf, M.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grand, G.

Green, W. M. J.

Griffith, G.

Grillet, C.

Gu, T.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gutierrez-Arroyo, A.

Han, J.-H.

Han, Z.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hardy, I.

Hartmann, J. M.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Hens, Z.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

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P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzig, H.-P.

Hewak, D.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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N.-K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1- xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

Huang, C.-C.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hvozdara, L.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H.-P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isella, G.

Jágerská, J.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

N.-K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1- xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ji, X.

Kamlapurkar, S.

Khokhar, A. Z.

Khokhar, A.-Z.

Kim, H.-J.

Kim, S.

Kimerling, L.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L.-C.

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
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Le Roux, X.

Le Thomas, N.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
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Leo, F.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

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P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
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Littlejohns, C.

Liu, Q.

Looser, H.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
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Luther-Davies, B.

Luzinov, I.

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
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Madden, S.

Malik, A.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
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Martens, D.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
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Mashanovich, G.-Z.

Miller, S.-A.

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Muneeb, M.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
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M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27300–27308 (2014).
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Murugan, G. S.

Musgraves, J.-D.

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
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Nedeljkovic, M.

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Novak, S.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H.-P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
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Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
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M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27300–27308 (2014).
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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ristanic, D.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, J. B.

Roelkens, G.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27300–27308 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruocco, A.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27300–27308 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryckeboer, E.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27300–27308 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, D.

Schrenk, W.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, B.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serna, S.

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J.-M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, J.-P.

Singh, V.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinobad, M.

Smit, M. K.

Soler Penades, J.

Soler Penadés, J.

Song, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

N.-K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1- xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stankovic, S.

Strasser, G.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, A.-Z.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, D. T. H.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tappy, L.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tombez, L.

Tournié, E.

Tuzson, B.

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakarin, V.

Van Campenhout, J.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

van der Wal, P.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

Wada, K.

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wägli, P.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J.-S.

Wuytens, P.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yadav, A.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, E. J.

Zhao, H.

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

B. Tuzson, J. Jágerská, H. Looser, M. Graf, F. Felder, M. Fill, L. Tappy, and L. Emmenegger, “Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89(12), 6377–6383 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N.-K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1- xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (2)

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J.-D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L.-C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Chip-scale Mid-Infrared chemical sensors using air-clad pedestal silicon waveguides,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2161–2166 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

H. Lin, Z. Luo, T. Gu, L.-C. Kimerling, K. Wada, A. Agarwal, and J. Hu, “Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective,” Nanophotonics 7(2), 85 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Hiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J.-M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, M. K. Smit, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27300–27308 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Carletti, M. Sinobad, P. Ma, Y. Yu, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, M. Brun, S. Ortiz, P. Labeye, J. M. Hartmann, S. Nicoletti, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, D. J. Moss, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared nonlinear optical response of Si-Ge waveguides with ultra-short optical pulses,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32202–32214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, E. Baudet, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, I. Hardy, F. Faijan, B. Bureau, V. Nazabal, and J. Charrier, “Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23109–23117 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A.-Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L.-G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J.-S. Wilkinson, and G.-Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Optica (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

A.-Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 47–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J.-M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

http://cmnst.ncku.edu.tw/ezfiles/23/1023/img/127/s1800seriesDataSheet.pdf

International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), “Methane ICSC # 0291. CAS #: 74-82-8 (2010)”, http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0291.html

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) schematic cross-section of the waveguide under consideration: a 11µm-thick graded SiGe layer from Si to Si0.21Ge0.79 is followed by a 2 µm-thick Si0.2Ge0.8 layer. The waveguide width is 5 µm and the etching depth is 4 µm (b) Simulated fundamental TE mode at λ = 6 µm (c) dispersion curve of the waveguide covered by photoresist (d) SEM view of the waveguide covered by the S1818 photoresist (e)Top view of the fabricated sample
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption coefficient of the photoresist. Strong absorption peaks can be seen at 5.86 µm and 6.25 µm. Absorption coefficient larger than 1000 cm−1 is even obtained for wavelengths larger than 6.6 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raw transmission measurement of the spiral waveguides of different lengths (normalized by the set-up transmission with no sample) (a) without and (b) with photoresist cladding, for a TE-polarized optical mode. Interestingly the absorption features of the photoresist at 5.86 µm and 6.25 µm wavelength can be clearly seen in the transmitted spectra of the spin-coated sample. For wavelengths larger than 6.6 µm, the transmission of the waveguides covered by the photoresist is too low to be correctly measured, therefore being limited by the strong photoresist absorption used as waveguide cladding. The minimum detectable transmission of the experimental set-up (noise level) is around −65 dB.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Propagation loss of the Ge-rich SiGe waveguide covered by photoresist, for TE-and TM-polarized optical modes. The photoresist’s absorption features at 5.86 µm and 6.25 µm wavelength can be clearly seen by an increase of the waveguide loss up to 7 and 6.2 dB/cm, respectively. (Inset) illustration of the cut-back method to calculate the optical loss by measuring the slope of the transmission as a function of waveguide length. (b) Comparison between the losses of the waveguide (TE-polarization) covered by photoresist cladding and the photoresist’s absorption coefficient. The curves have been shifted in the vertical axis and normalized in amplitude for better comparison of the spectral features.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculation of the modal power fraction in the upper cladding as a function of the operating wavelength, for both the fundamental TE and TM modes for a photoresist-cladded (n~1.6), and an air–cladded waveguide.

Equations (1)

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C min = ln[ 1 Δ P mindetec P 0 exp( α L opt ) ] ϵ η  L opt