Abstract

Large-size DKDP crystals are grown by conventional-growth (CG) and rapid-growth (RG) methods and their deuterium homogeneities are measured in situ by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of deuterium homogeneity on third harmonic generation (THG) is also researched. The results indicate that the CG DKDP crystal is in good homogeneity of deuterium content (0.005% cm−1 deviation along the e-axis) and its influence on the third harmonic generation can be neglected, while the RG DKDP crystal shows a more complicated distribution of deuterium content. Its deuterium content decreases gradually, about 0.2% per cm with crystal growing, which will lead to about 5% inhomogeneity of the THG efficiency at 3 GW/cm2 of fundamental radiation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

D. Kaminski, N. Radenovic, M. A. Deij, W. J. P. van Enckevort, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Ordering at the KDP {100}-Solution Interface,” Cryst. Growth Des. 6(2), 588–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Liiri, Y. Enqvist, J. Kallas, and J. Aittamaa, “CFD modelling of single crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) from binary water solution at 30°C,” J. Cryst. Growth 286(2), 413–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

1998 (1)

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

1992 (1)

1985 (1)

E. Anachkova and I. Savatinova, “Isotopic shift and mode interaction in K(DxH1-x)2PO4 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 131(2), K101–K105 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

1981 (1)

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(9), 1771–1782 (1981).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K(H1-xDx)2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Aittamaa, J.

M. Liiri, Y. Enqvist, J. Kallas, and J. Aittamaa, “CFD modelling of single crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) from binary water solution at 30°C,” J. Cryst. Growth 286(2), 413–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anachkova, E.

E. Anachkova and I. Savatinova, “Isotopic shift and mode interaction in K(DxH1-x)2PO4 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 131(2), K101–K105 (1985).
[Crossref]

Arsic, J.

M. F. Reedijk, J. Arsic, F. F. A. Hollander, S. A. deVries, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Order at the Interface of KDP Crystals withWater: Evidence for Icelike Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(6), 066103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Auerbach, J. M.

Balascio, J. F.

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K(H1-xDx)2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Bennema, P.

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bennett, S. L.

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Berakdar, J.

Bhar, G. C.

G. C. Ghosh and G. C. Bhar, “Temperature dispersion in ADP, KDP, and KD*P for nonlinear devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 143–145 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bowers, M. W.

Boyd, R. D.

Broslavets, Yu. Yu.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Burnham, A.

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carman, L.

N. Zaitseva and L. Carman, “Rapid growth of KDP-type crystals,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 43(1), 1–118 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chai, X. X.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. P.

Couture, S. A.

Craxton, R. S.

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(9), 1771–1782 (1981).
[Crossref]

De Vries, S. A.

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

De Yoreo, J. J.

T. Huser, C. W. Hollars, W. J. Siekhaus, J. J. De Yoreo, T. I. Suratwala, and T. A. Land, “Characterization of proton exchange layer profiles in KD2PO4 crystals by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(3), 349–351 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Deij, M. A.

D. Kaminski, N. Radenovic, M. A. Deij, W. J. P. van Enckevort, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Ordering at the KDP {100}-Solution Interface,” Cryst. Growth Des. 6(2), 588–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Demos, S. G.

deVries, S. A.

M. F. Reedijk, J. Arsic, F. F. A. Hollander, S. A. deVries, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Order at the Interface of KDP Crystals withWater: Evidence for Icelike Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(6), 066103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dixit, S. N.

Eimerl, D.

Enqvist, Y.

M. Liiri, Y. Enqvist, J. Kallas, and J. Aittamaa, “CFD modelling of single crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) from binary water solution at 30°C,” J. Cryst. Growth 286(2), 413–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G. V.

Feng, B.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, G. C.

G. C. Ghosh and G. C. Bhar, “Temperature dispersion in ADP, KDP, and KD*P for nonlinear devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 143–145 (1982).
[Crossref]

Goedtkindt, P.

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, S.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Hackel, L. A.

Haynam, C. A.

Heestand, G. M.

Henesian, M. A.

Hermann, M. R.

Hibbard, R. L.

Hildum, J. S.

Hollander, F. F. A.

M. F. Reedijk, J. Arsic, F. F. A. Hollander, S. A. deVries, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Order at the Interface of KDP Crystals withWater: Evidence for Icelike Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(6), 066103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hollars, C. W.

Huisman, W. J.

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hunt, J. T.

Huser, T.

Jancaitis, K. S.

Ji, S. H.

Johnson, B. C.

Ju, X.

Kallas, J.

M. Liiri, Y. Enqvist, J. Kallas, and J. Aittamaa, “CFD modelling of single crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) from binary water solution at 30°C,” J. Cryst. Growth 286(2), 413–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, D.

D. Kaminski, N. Radenovic, M. A. Deij, W. J. P. van Enckevort, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Ordering at the KDP {100}-Solution Interface,” Cryst. Growth Des. 6(2), 588–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. W.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Kim, Y. S.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Land, T. A.

Li, F. Q.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ji, F. Q. Li, F. Wang, X. G. Xu, Z. P. Wang, and X. Sun, “Homogeneity of rapid grown DKDP crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 997–1002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liiri, M.

M. Liiri, Y. Enqvist, J. Kallas, and J. Aittamaa, “CFD modelling of single crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) from binary water solution at 30°C,” J. Cryst. Growth 286(2), 413–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Linford, G. J.

Liu, B. A.

Liu, F. F.

Loiacono, G. M.

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K(H1-xDx)2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Manes, K. R.

Marshall, C. D.

Martin, W. E.

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

Milam, D.

Moses, E.

Murray, J. R.

Negres, R. A.

Norton, M. A.

Nostrand, M. C.

Orth, C. D.

Osborne, W.

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K(H1-xDx)2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Patterson, R.

Radenovic, N.

D. Kaminski, N. Radenovic, M. A. Deij, W. J. P. van Enckevort, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Ordering at the KDP {100}-Solution Interface,” Cryst. Growth Des. 6(2), 588–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Raman, R. N.

Reedijk, M. F.

M. F. Reedijk, J. Arsic, F. F. A. Hollander, S. A. deVries, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Order at the Interface of KDP Crystals withWater: Evidence for Icelike Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(6), 066103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sacks, R. A.

Savatinova, I.

E. Anachkova and I. Savatinova, “Isotopic shift and mode interaction in K(DxH1-x)2PO4 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 131(2), K101–K105 (1985).
[Crossref]

Schaffers, K. I.

Shaw, M. J.

Sidoryuk, O. E.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Siekhaus, W. J.

Smilgies, D. M.

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. L.

Snyder, K.

Spaeth, M.

Sun, G. G.

Sun, X.

Suratwala, T. I.

Sutton, S. B.

Thakur, A.

van Enckevort, W. J. P.

D. Kaminski, N. Radenovic, M. A. Deij, W. J. P. van Enckevort, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Ordering at the KDP {100}-Solution Interface,” Cryst. Growth Des. 6(2), 588–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Velsko, S. P.

Vercimak, C. L.

Vlieg, E.

D. Kaminski, N. Radenovic, M. A. Deij, W. J. P. van Enckevort, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Ordering at the KDP {100}-Solution Interface,” Cryst. Growth Des. 6(2), 588–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. F. Reedijk, J. Arsic, F. F. A. Hollander, S. A. deVries, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Order at the Interface of KDP Crystals withWater: Evidence for Icelike Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(6), 066103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ji, F. Q. Li, F. Wang, X. G. Xu, Z. P. Wang, and X. Sun, “Homogeneity of rapid grown DKDP crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 997–1002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. Q.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. P.

Webb, M. S.

Wegner, P. J.

Wen, C. W.

White, R. K.

Whitman, P.

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

Whitman, P. K.

Widmayer, C. C.

Williams, W. H.

Xia, Y. H.

Xie, L.

Xu, M.

Xu, M. X.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. F. Liu, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. P. Chen, L. Xie, Y. H. Xia, C. W. Wen, L. S. Zhang, X. Ju, G. G. Sun, and X. Sun, “Determination of deuteration level of K(H1−xDx)2PO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2221–2228 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. G.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ji, F. Q. Li, F. Wang, X. G. Xu, Z. P. Wang, and X. Sun, “Homogeneity of rapid grown DKDP crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 997–1002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yakshin, M. A.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Yang, S. T.

Yoreo, D.

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zaitseva, N.

N. Zaitseva and L. Carman, “Rapid growth of KDP-type crystals,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 43(1), 1–118 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, L. S.

Zhu, Q. H.

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zwanenburg, M. J.

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K(H1-xDx)2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

D. Kaminski, N. Radenovic, M. A. Deij, W. J. P. van Enckevort, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Ordering at the KDP {100}-Solution Interface,” Cryst. Growth Des. 6(2), 588–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

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[Crossref]

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(9), 1771–1782 (1981).
[Crossref]

Int. Mater. Rev. (1)

D. Yoreo, A. Burnham, and P. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. Liiri, Y. Enqvist, J. Kallas, and J. Aittamaa, “CFD modelling of single crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) from binary water solution at 30°C,” J. Cryst. Growth 286(2), 413–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Yu. Yu. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. X. Chai, F. Wang, B. Feng, F. Q. Li, Q. H. Zhu, M. X. Xu, X. G. Xu, and L. Q. Wang, “Noncritical phase-matched fourth harmonic generation properties of conventional grown large-size DKDP crystal,” Opt. Commun. 392, 162–166 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. De Vries, P. Goedtkindt, S. L. Bennett, W. J. Huisman, M. J. Zwanenburg, D. M. Smilgies, J. J. De Yoreo, W. J. P. van Enckevort, P. Bennema, and E. Vlieg, “Surface Atomic Structure of KDP Crystals in Aqueous Solution: An Explanation of the Growth Shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(10), 2229–2232 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

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[Crossref]

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. (1)

N. Zaitseva and L. Carman, “Rapid growth of KDP-type crystals,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 43(1), 1–118 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

X. X. Chai, F. Q. Li, S. L. Wang, B. Feng, Q. H. Zhu, B. A. Liu, X. Sun, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of deuteration degree on the transverse stimulated Raman scattering gain coefficient of DKDP crystal,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 64(3), 034213 (2015).

B. A. Liu, G. H. Hu, Q. H. Zhang, X. Sun, and X. G. Xu, “Effect of raw material and growth method on optical properties of DKDP crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett., 12(10), 101604 (2014).

M. F. Reedijk, J. Arsic, F. F. A. Hollander, S. A. deVries, and E. Vlieg, “Liquid Order at the Interface of KDP Crystals withWater: Evidence for Icelike Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(6), 066103 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Third ed. (Academic Press, 2008), pp. 74–84.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cutting schematic diagram and photograph of (a) CG DKDP crystal and (b) RG DKDP crystal samples.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the measuring system used to perform the Raman spectrum measurements of large-size KDP and DKDP crystals.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Raman spectra of KDP and DKDP crystals, (b) Raman shift of the v1 mode in KDP and DKDP crystals.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Spacial distribution of R v 1 in Sample 2#, (b) variation of R v 1 along o and e axis in Sample 2#.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Spacial distribution of deuterium content in Sample 1#, (b) variation of deuterium content in Sample 1# along o and e axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Spacial distribution of R v 1 in Sample 5#, (b) spacial distribution of deuterium content in Sample 3# and (c) Sample 4#
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Type-I/type-II converter scheme and its polarization directions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Phase-matching angle of tripler versus deuterium content, (b) dependence of the THG efficiency on the deuterium content deviation. Iω represents the intensity of fundamental laser. The relative reduction of ηTHG at each fundamental intensity for ΔD = 0.5% and 0.2% are plotted in the inset.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of samples and their homogeneities

Equations (2)

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K=0.68exp(0.00382M)
Δk= k 3ω e k 2ω o = k ω e =(3 n 3ω e 2 n 2ω o n ω e )ω/c=0