Abstract

Ge-on-Si structures with three different dopants (P, As and B) and those without intentional doping were grown, annealed and characterized by several different materials characterization methods. All samples have a smooth surface (roughness < 1.5 nm), and the Ge films are almost entirely relaxed. B doped Ge films have threading dislocations above 1 × 108 cm−2, while P and As doping can reduce the threading dislocation density to be less than 106 cm−2 without annealing. The interdiffusion of Si and Ge of different films have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A quantitative model of Si-Ge interdiffusion under extrinsic conditions across the full xGe range was established including the dislocation-mediated diffusion. The Kirkendall effect has been observed. The results are of technical significance for the structure, doping, and process design of Ge-on-Si based devices, especially for photonic applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

J. Ke, L. Chrostowski, and G. Xia, “Stress engineering with silicon nitride stressors for Ge-on-Si lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–15 (2017).

2016 (3)

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, B. Wang, C. Wang, S. F. Yoon, J. Michel, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in Ge/Si using a heavily As-doped Ge seed layer,” AIP Adv. 6(2), 025028 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Z. Li, S. Li, L. Chrostowski, and G. M. Xia, “Design considerations of biaxially tensile-strained germanium-on-silicon lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(6), 065015 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cai, D. H. Anjum, X. Zhang, and G. Xia, “Study of Si-Ge interdiffusion with phosphorus doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 165108 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

F. Cai, Y. Dong, Y. H. Tan, C. S. Tan, and G. M. Xia, “Enhanced Si–Ge interdiffusion in high phosphorus-doped germanium on silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30, 105008 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Südkamp, H. Bracht, G. Impellizzeri, J. Lundsgaard Hansen, A. Nylandsted Larsen, and E. Haller, “Doping dependence of self-diffusion in germanium and the charge states of vacancies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 242103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, Y. Lin, S. Li, S. McCoy, and G. Xia, “A unified interdiffusivity model and model verification for tensile and relaxed SiGe interdiffusion over the full germanium content range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(4), 044909 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, C. Li, Z. Zhou, C. Chen, Y. Zheng, W. Huang, H. Lai, and S. Chen, “Depth-dependent etch pit density in Ge epilayer on Si substrate with a self-patterned Ge coalescence island template,” Thin Solid Films 520(6), 2307–2310 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Murao, T. Taishi, Y. Tokumoto, Y. Ohno, and I. Yonenaga, “Impurity effects on the generation and velocity of dislocations in Ge,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113502 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

G. Xia and J. L. Hoyt, “Si–Ge interdiffusion under oxidizing conditions in epitaxial SiGe heterostructures with high compressive stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 122107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Kube, H. Bracht, J. L. Hansen, A. N. Larsen, E. Haller, S. Paul, and W. Lerch, “Composition dependence of Si and Ge diffusion in relaxed Si 1− x Ge x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073520 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Gavelle, E. M. Bazizi, E. Scheid, P. F. Fazzini, F. Cristiano, C. Armand, W. Lerch, S. Paul, Y. Campidelli, and A. Halimaoui, “Detailed investigation of Ge–Si interdiffusion in the full range of Si 1− x Ge x (0≤ x≤ 1) composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113524 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. M. Xia, M. Canonico, and J. L. Hoyt, “Interdiffusion in strained Si/strained SiGe epitaxial heterostructures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(1), S55–S58 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

G. Xia, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, and M. Canonico, “Strain dependence of Si–Ge interdiffusion in epitaxial Si/ Si 1− y Ge y/ Si heterostructures on relaxed Si 1− x Ge x substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013507 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Silvestri, H. Bracht, J. L. Hansen, A. N. Larsen, and E. Haller, “Diffusion of silicon in crystalline germanium,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(6), 758–762 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation–impurity interaction in Si,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 124, 293–296 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1-2), 90–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. Fédéli, M. Rouviere, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Uppal, A. F. Willoughby, J. M. Bonar, N. E. Cowern, T. Grasby, R. J. Morris, and M. G. Dowsett, “Diffusion of boron in germanium at 800–900 C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1376–1380 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Yang, M. Groenert, C. Leitz, A. Pitera, M. Currie, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “Crack formation in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si and SiGe virtual substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3859–3865 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

P. Ranade, H. Takeuchi, V. Subramanian, and T.-J. King, “Observation of boron and arsenic mediated interdiffusion across germanium/silicon interfaces,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5(2), G5–G7 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Takeuchi, P. Ranade, V. Subramanian, and T.-J. King, “Observation of dopant-mediated intermixing at Ge/Si Interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3706–3708 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

K. Sumino, “Impurity reaction with dislocations in semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi 171(1), 111–122 (1999).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 909–965 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband transitions in Sn x Ge 1− x alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353, 335 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Shimizu, M. Enatsu, M. Furukawa, T. Mizuki, and T. Sakurai, “Dislocation-density studies in MOCVD GaAs on Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 93(1-4), 475–480 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

K. Ishida, M. Akiyama, and S. Nishi, “Misfit and threading dislocations in GaAs layers grown on Si substrates by MOCVD,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(2), L163–L165 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abbadie, A.

J. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. Fédéli, M. Rouviere, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, M.

K. Ishida, M. Akiyama, and S. Nishi, “Misfit and threading dislocations in GaAs layers grown on Si substrates by MOCVD,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(2), L163–L165 (1987).
[Crossref]

Anjum, D. H.

F. Cai, D. H. Anjum, X. Zhang, and G. Xia, “Study of Si-Ge interdiffusion with phosphorus doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 165108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Armand, C.

M. Gavelle, E. M. Bazizi, E. Scheid, P. F. Fazzini, F. Cristiano, C. Armand, W. Lerch, S. Paul, Y. Campidelli, and A. Halimaoui, “Detailed investigation of Ge–Si interdiffusion in the full range of Si 1− x Ge x (0≤ x≤ 1) composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113524 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband transitions in Sn x Ge 1− x alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bao, S.

K. H. Lee, S. Bao, B. Wang, C. Wang, S. F. Yoon, J. Michel, E. A. Fitzgerald, and C. S. Tan, “Reduction of threading dislocation density in Ge/Si using a heavily As-doped Ge seed layer,” AIP Adv. 6(2), 025028 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bazizi, E. M.

M. Gavelle, E. M. Bazizi, E. Scheid, P. F. Fazzini, F. Cristiano, C. Armand, W. Lerch, S. Paul, Y. Campidelli, and A. Halimaoui, “Detailed investigation of Ge–Si interdiffusion in the full range of Si 1− x Ge x (0≤ x≤ 1) composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 113524 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Billon, T.

J. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si (001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1-2), 90–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. Fédéli, M. Rouviere, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si (001) for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[Crossref]

Blanco, A.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bo, X.-Z.

Y. A. Vlasov, X.-Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogumilowicz, Y.

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X. Li, Z. Li, S. Li, L. Chrostowski, and G. M. Xia, “Design considerations of biaxially tensile-strained germanium-on-silicon lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(6), 065015 (2016).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of the structures in this work. X stands for As/HB/LB/P or undoped.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 HRXRD results of the samples (a) without annealing; and (b) after annealing. The results show that the Ge layers are almost fully strained relaxed.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example of EPD results of (a) Sample U-NA with 15 s etching imaged with an optical microscope; and (b) Sample LB-5TC with 12 s etching imaged with a scanning electron microscope.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Images of PVTEM show different shapes and densities of threading dislocations in (a) LB-NA and; (b) LB-5TC.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross section TEM images in bright mode of Sample (a) U-5TC and; (b) LB-5TC. The TDD levels in regions close to the Ge seeding layer of both samples are estimated to over 1 × 108 cm−2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Ge molar fraction profiles measured by SIMS; (b) Dopants (As/P/B) profiles of samples with and without annealing measured by SIMS.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The time-averaged interdiffusivity as a function of Ge molar fraction using the Boltzmann-Matano method extracted from Sample U/P/A/HB/LB.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulation results (lines) with different parameters in comparison with SIMS data (symbols). (a) Sample P-5TC; (b) sample A-5TC.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Ge and P profiles of P doped samples with no annealing, with 50 minutes annealing and 200 minutes annealing respectively. The annealing was at T = 870 °C. The SIMS profiles have not been shifted as there is no Ge sublimation during annealing.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Wafer offcut information and the average and root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of the samples.

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Table 2 TDD value of the 12 samples measured by EPD.

Equations (8)

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D ˜ (n) D ˜ ( n i ) = 1+ r=1 2 ( n n i ) r m r exp( r E i n=1 r E v n kT ) 1+ r=1 2 ( n n i ) r exp( r E i n=1 r E v n kT ) FF , (m=1,m20) .
D ˜ total = D ˜ dislocation + D ˜ lattice
D ˜ total = D ˜ dislocation + D ˜ lattice *FF,
FF 1+ r=1 2 ( n n i ) r m r exp( r E i n=1 r E v n kT ) 1+ r=1 2 ( n n i ) r exp( r E i n=1 r E v n kT ) .
D ˜ dislocation = D ˜ ( n i ) D ˜ lattice ,
n i ( x Ge )= n i,Ge x Ge + n i,Si (1 x Ge )
n i ( x Ge )= n i,Si exp(ln n i,Ge n i,Si × x Ge )
C Ge t = z ( D ˜ (n) C Ge z )

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