Abstract

We have demonstrated a refractive index (RI) sensor based on an S-tapered fiber probe (STFP) with a silver mirror on its end facet. The fiber probe has a compact size of about 1 mm, making it proper for sensing in narrow or limited space. The reflection spectra of the STFPs with different structure lengths have been analyzed and simulated. Its RI sensitivity in the range of 1.332 ~1.387 reaches 268.8 nm/RI unit, which is 9 times higher than that of the existing reflective fiber-taper-based RI sensor. Furthermore, the thermal response experimental results show that the STFP is temperature insensitive.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (5)

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Towards refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings at level of tens of µm per refractive index unit: fiber cladding etching and nano-coating deposition,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11897–11904 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhang, G. Humbert, Z. Wu, K. Li, P. P. Shum, N. M. Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, J. L. Auguste, X. Q. Dinh, and L. Wei, “In-line optofluidic refractive index sensing in a side-channel photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27674–27682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Fu, H. H. Dai, Q. G. Shi, and B. J. Peng, “A refractive index sensor based on the tapering theory,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 954–957 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, and X. Bao, “Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1750–1752 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1105–1107 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. F. Taylor, “Bending effects in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 617–628 (1984).
[Crossref]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Araújo, F. M.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arif, R.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Auguste, J. L.

Bao, X.

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, and X. Bao, “Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1750–1752 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bock, W.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bock, W. J.

Carotenuto, B.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, L.

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, and X. Bao, “Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1750–1752 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q. D.

Choi, H. Y.

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, and H. Y. Choi, “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2467–2486 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consales, M.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Crescitelli, A.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Csaki, A.

Cui, Y.

Culverhouse, P.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cusano, A.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Cusano, D. Paladino, and A. Iadicicco, “Microstructured fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1663–1697 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, H. H.

S. L. Fu, H. H. Dai, Q. G. Shi, and B. J. Peng, “A refractive index sensor based on the tapering theory,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 954–957 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dinh, X. Q.

Eggleton, B. J.

Eom, J. B.

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, and H. Y. Choi, “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2467–2486 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esposito, E.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, L. A.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fraser, J. M.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fritzsche, W.

Fu, S. L.

S. L. Fu, H. H. Dai, Q. G. Shi, and B. J. Peng, “A refractive index sensor based on the tapering theory,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 954–957 (2016).
[Crossref]

Greig, P.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guo, J. C.

Guo, T.

Harris, E.

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, and X. Bao, “Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1750–1752 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Humbert, G.

Iadicicco, A.

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kalli, K.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. J.

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, and H. Y. Choi, “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2467–2486 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, and H. Y. Choi, “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2467–2486 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koba, M.

Kobelke, J.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Kundrát, V.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lai, M.

Lee, B. H.

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, and H. Y. Choi, “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2467–2486 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, and X. Bao, “Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1750–1752 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, R.

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, D.

Loock, H. P.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1105–1107 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

Ma, X.

Miao, Y.

Mikulic, P.

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oleschuk, R. D.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Paladino, D.

Park, K. S.

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, and H. Y. Choi, “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2467–2486 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, B. J.

S. L. Fu, H. H. Dai, Q. G. Shi, and B. J. Peng, “A refractive index sensor based on the tapering theory,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 954–957 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pisco, M.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quero, G.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rho, B. S.

B. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, K. S. Park, J. B. Eom, M. J. Kim, B. S. Rho, and H. Y. Choi, “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2467–2486 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ricciardi, A.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schröder, K.

Schuster, K.

Schwuchow, A.

Shi, Q. G.

S. L. Fu, H. H. Dai, Q. G. Shi, and B. J. Peng, “A refractive index sensor based on the tapering theory,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 954–957 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

Shum, P. P.

Smietana, M.

Song, B.

Sun, H. B.

Sun, Q.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taylor, H. F.

H. F. Taylor, “Bending effects in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 617–628 (1984).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1105–1107 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vaiano, P.

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Arif, R. Neal, K. Kalli, V. Kundrát, A. Rozhin, P. Culverhouse, and D. J. Webb, “Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(2), e16036 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.

Wo, J.

Wu, D. K.

Wu, J.

Wu, Z.

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xue, Y.

Yam, S. S. H.

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[Crossref]

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W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, L. Chen, E. Harris, and X. Bao, “Double-pass in-line fiber taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1750–1752 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

S. L. Fu, H. H. Dai, Q. G. Shi, and B. J. Peng, “A refractive index sensor based on the tapering theory,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 954–957 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

P. Vaiano, B. Carotenuto, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, G. Quero, M. Consales, A. Crescitelli, E. Esposito, and A. Cusano, “Lab on fiber technology for biological sensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 922–961 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the STFP. (b) Experimental setup for RI sensing. Inset figure is the optical microscope image of the STFP.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmission spectrum of the SFT. (b), (c), (d) Reflection spectra of the STFPs with L of 10 mm, 375 μm, and 20 μm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Computed transmission spectrum of the SFT. (b), (c), (d) Computed reflection spectra of the STFPs with L of 10 mm, 375 μm, 20 μm, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Reflection spectrum of the loss peak A changes with different SRI. (b) Relationship between the wavelength of peak A and SRI. (c) Reflection spectrum of the loss peak B changes with different SRI. (d) Relationship between the wavelength of peak B and SRI.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a), (b) Wavelengths of peak A and peak B change with temperature, respectively.

Equations (2)

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I T = I 1 + I 2 +2 I 1 I 2 cos(ΔΦ)
I R = I 1 '+ I 2 '+ I cl +2 I 1 ' I 2 ' cos(Δ Φ 1 )+2 I 1 ' I cl cos(Δ Φ 2 )+2 I 2 ' I cl cos(Δ Φ 3 )

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