Abstract

The choice of rare earth additive when doping chalcogenide glasses can affect their mid-infrared fiber performance. Three praseodymium additives, Pr-foil, PrCl3 and PrI3 are investigated in Ge-As-Ga-Se fibers. All the fibers are X-ray amorphous and the Pr(foil)-doped fiber has the lowest overall optical loss. Pumping at 1550 nm wavelength, the Pr3+-doped fibers exhibit photoluminescence across a 3.5 to 6 μm span; photoluminescence lifetimes are 10 ms for 3H53H4 and 2-3 ms for (3H6, 3F2)→3H5 transitions. A fast 0.21 ms decay for (3F3, 3F4)→3H6 is observed only in the PrCl3-doped fiber due to a lower phonon energy local environment of Pr3+ ions.

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2018 (4)

X. Xiao, Y. Xu, H. Guo, P. Wang, X. Cui, M. Lu, Y. Wang, and B. Peng, “Theoretical modeling of 4.3 μm mid-infrared lasing in Dy3+-doped chalcogenide fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. A. Khamis, R. Sevilla, and K. Ennser, “Large mode area Pr3+-doped chalcogenide PCF design for high efficiency mid-IR laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(9), 825–828 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Low gallium-content, dysprosium III doped, Ge-As-Ga-Se chalcogenide glasses for active mid-infrared fiber optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 0(0), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. A. Anashkina, “Design and numerical modeling of broadband mid-IR rare-earth-doped chalcogenide fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(13), 1190–1193 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Z. Liu, H. Chen, J. Bian, X. Zhang, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Research on structure and mid-infrared photoluminescence of Ga3+/Er3+ co-doped As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 471, 456–461 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. A. Anashkina, T. V. Kotereva, and G. E. Snopatin, “Core-clad Pr(3+)-doped Ga(In)-Ge-As-Se-(I) glass fibers: preparation, investigation, simulation of laser characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 72, 654–660 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Guo, Y. Xu, H. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Lin, X. Cui, P. Wang, F. Gao, M. Lu, and B. Peng, “Effect of iodine (I2) on structural, thermal and optical properties of Ge-Sb-S chalcohalide host glasses and ones doped with Dy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 464, 81–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Bian, Y. Huang, T. Xu, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Fabrication and characterization of mid-infrared emission of Pr3+ doped selenide chalcogenide glasses and fibres,” RSC Advances 7(66), 41520–41526 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “New energy-transfer upconversion process in Er3+:ZBLAN mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 24(7), 6869–6883 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, A. P. Velmuzhov, L. A. Ketkova, and G. E. Snopatin, “Preparation of high-purity Pr3+ doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 177, 275–279 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, and M. F. Churbanov, “Preparation of high-purity Pr(3+) doped Ge–Ga–Sb–Se glasses with intensive middle infrared luminescence,” J. Lumin. 170, 37–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, E. Barney, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Dy3+-doped selenide chalcogenide glasses: influence of Dy3+ dopant-additive and containment,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(7), 2283–2291 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Dy3+ doped GeGaSbS fluorescent fiber at 4.4 μm for optical gas sensing: comparison of simulation and experiment,” Opt. Mater. 61, 37–44 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga-As-S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, A. Yang, Y. Peng, B. Zhang, H. Ren, W. Guo, Y. Yang, C. Zhai, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, and D. Tang, “Dy3+-doped Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses for mid-infrared lasers,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 55–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, V. S. Shiryaev, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, and M. F. Churbanov, “Low loss Ge-As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber, fabricated using extruded preform, for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1722–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, C. Wei, L. Brandon Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly efficient cascaded amplification using Pr3+-doped mid-infrared chalcogenide fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3687–3690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Barney, Z. Tang, A. Seddon, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. Benson, N. Neate, and D. Gianolio, “The local environment of Dy3+ in selenium-rich chalcogenide glasses,” RSC Advances 4(80), 42364–42371 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. S. Shiryaev, A. P. Velmuzhov, Z. Q. Tang, M. F. Churbanov, and A. B. Seddon, “Preparation of high purity glasses in the Ga–Ge–As–Se system,” Opt. Mater. 37(0), 18–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

M. Churbanov, G. Snopatin, V. Shiryaev, V. Plotnichenko, and E. Dianov, “Recent advances in preparation of high-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides for fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11), 2352–2357 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, B. K. Jin, W. J. Chung, B. J. Park, J. Heo, and Y. G. Choi, “Influence of the Ga addition on optical properties of Pr in Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 72(11), 1386–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, and M. F. Churbanov, “Equilibrium in GeI4-S(Se) systems,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(11–12), 1437–1441 (2011).

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, A. I. Suchkov, A. M. Potapov, R. M. Shaposhnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation of Ge-Sb-S-I glass system via volatile iodides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(8), 936–939 (2011).

2010 (1)

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 104204 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy3+ chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 microns,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 123–125 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 μm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

W. J. Chung, H. S. Seo, B. J. Park, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Selenide glass optical fiber doped with Pr3+ for U-band optical amplifier,” ETRI J. 27(4), 411–417 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

B. G. Aitken, C. W. Ponader, and R. S. Quimby, “Clustering of rare earths in GeAs sulfide glass,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 865–872 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. Cole, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth doped selenide glasses and fibers for active applications in the near and mid-IR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 253–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. B. Seddon, “Chalcogenide glasses: a review of their preparation, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(0), 44–50 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. R. Bowman, J. Ganem, B. J. Feldman, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 2925–2928 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. B. Seddon and M. A. Hemingway, “Thermal properties of chalcogenide-halide glasses in the system: Ge-S-I,” J. Therm. Anal. 37(9), 2189–2203 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

M. E. Lines, “Scattering losses in optic fiber materials. II. Numerical estimates,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 4058–4063 (1984).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous Emission Probabilities and Quantum Efficiencies for Excited States of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(10), 4774–4780 (1968).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

Aggarwal, I.

Aggarwal, I. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, C. Wei, L. Brandon Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly efficient cascaded amplification using Pr3+-doped mid-infrared chalcogenide fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3687–3690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy3+ chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 microns,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 123–125 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Cole, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth doped selenide glasses and fibers for active applications in the near and mid-IR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 253–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. T.

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 μm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Chung, H. S. Seo, B. J. Park, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Selenide glass optical fiber doped with Pr3+ for U-band optical amplifier,” ETRI J. 27(4), 411–417 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aitken, B. G.

B. G. Aitken, C. W. Ponader, and R. S. Quimby, “Clustering of rare earths in GeAs sulfide glass,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 865–872 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anashkina, E. A.

E. A. Anashkina, “Design and numerical modeling of broadband mid-IR rare-earth-doped chalcogenide fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(13), 1190–1193 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. A. Anashkina, T. V. Kotereva, and G. E. Snopatin, “Core-clad Pr(3+)-doped Ga(In)-Ge-As-Se-(I) glass fibers: preparation, investigation, simulation of laser characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 72, 654–660 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barney, E.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, E. Barney, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Dy3+-doped selenide chalcogenide glasses: influence of Dy3+ dopant-additive and containment,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(7), 2283–2291 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barney, E. R.

E. R. Barney, Z. Tang, A. Seddon, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. Benson, N. Neate, and D. Gianolio, “The local environment of Dy3+ in selenium-rich chalcogenide glasses,” RSC Advances 4(80), 42364–42371 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bayya, S. S.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benson, T.

E. R. Barney, Z. Tang, A. Seddon, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. Benson, N. Neate, and D. Gianolio, “The local environment of Dy3+ in selenium-rich chalcogenide glasses,” RSC Advances 4(80), 42364–42371 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benson, T. M.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Low gallium-content, dysprosium III doped, Ge-As-Ga-Se chalcogenide glasses for active mid-infrared fiber optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 0(0), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, E. Barney, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Dy3+-doped selenide chalcogenide glasses: influence of Dy3+ dopant-additive and containment,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(7), 2283–2291 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, V. S. Shiryaev, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, and M. F. Churbanov, “Low loss Ge-As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber, fabricated using extruded preform, for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1722–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ł. Sójka, Z. Tang, H. Zhu, E. Beres-Pawlik, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Study of mid-infrared laser action in chalcogenide rare earth doped glass with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1632–1640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beres-Pawlik, E.

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ł. Sójka, Z. Tang, H. Zhu, E. Beres-Pawlik, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Study of mid-infrared laser action in chalcogenide rare earth doped glass with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1632–1640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bian, J.

Z. Liu, J. Bian, Y. Huang, T. Xu, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Fabrication and characterization of mid-infrared emission of Pr3+ doped selenide chalcogenide glasses and fibres,” RSC Advances 7(66), 41520–41526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Z. Liu, H. Chen, J. Bian, X. Zhang, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Research on structure and mid-infrared photoluminescence of Ga3+/Er3+ co-doped As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 471, 456–461 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Dy3+ doped GeGaSbS fluorescent fiber at 4.4 μm for optical gas sensing: comparison of simulation and experiment,” Opt. Mater. 61, 37–44 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, J. Ganem, B. J. Feldman, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 2925–2928 (1994).
[Crossref]

Brandon Shaw, L.

Braud, A.

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Dy3+ doped GeGaSbS fluorescent fiber at 4.4 μm for optical gas sensing: comparison of simulation and experiment,” Opt. Mater. 61, 37–44 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bureau, B.

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Dy3+ doped GeGaSbS fluorescent fiber at 4.4 μm for optical gas sensing: comparison of simulation and experiment,” Opt. Mater. 61, 37–44 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Busse, L. E.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Camy, P.

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Dy3+ doped GeGaSbS fluorescent fiber at 4.4 μm for optical gas sensing: comparison of simulation and experiment,” Opt. Mater. 61, 37–44 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chahal, R.

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Dy3+ doped GeGaSbS fluorescent fiber at 4.4 μm for optical gas sensing: comparison of simulation and experiment,” Opt. Mater. 61, 37–44 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Charpentier, F.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Y. Huang, Z. Liu, H. Chen, J. Bian, X. Zhang, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Research on structure and mid-infrared photoluminescence of Ga3+/Er3+ co-doped As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 471, 456–461 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chin, G. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. G.

J. K. Kim, B. K. Jin, W. J. Chung, B. J. Park, J. Heo, and Y. G. Choi, “Influence of the Ga addition on optical properties of Pr in Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 72(11), 1386–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 μm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Chung, H. S. Seo, B. J. Park, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Selenide glass optical fiber doped with Pr3+ for U-band optical amplifier,” ETRI J. 27(4), 411–417 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chung, W. J.

J. K. Kim, B. K. Jin, W. J. Chung, B. J. Park, J. Heo, and Y. G. Choi, “Influence of the Ga addition on optical properties of Pr in Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 72(11), 1386–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Park, H. S. Seo, J. T. Ahn, Y. G. Choi, D. Y. Jeon, and W. J. Chung, “Mid-infrared (3.5-5.5 μm) spectroscopic properties of Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lumin. 128(10), 1617–1622 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Chung, H. S. Seo, B. J. Park, J. T. Ahn, and Y. G. Choi, “Selenide glass optical fiber doped with Pr3+ for U-band optical amplifier,” ETRI J. 27(4), 411–417 (2005).
[Crossref]

Churbanov, M.

M. Churbanov, G. Snopatin, V. Shiryaev, V. Plotnichenko, and E. Dianov, “Recent advances in preparation of high-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides for fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11), 2352–2357 (2011).
[Crossref]

Churbanov, M. F.

V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Huang, Y.

Z. Liu, J. Bian, Y. Huang, T. Xu, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Fabrication and characterization of mid-infrared emission of Pr3+ doped selenide chalcogenide glasses and fibres,” RSC Advances 7(66), 41520–41526 (2017).
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V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. A. Anashkina, T. V. Kotereva, and G. E. Snopatin, “Core-clad Pr(3+)-doped Ga(In)-Ge-As-Se-(I) glass fibers: preparation, investigation, simulation of laser characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 72, 654–660 (2017).
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E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, A. P. Velmuzhov, L. A. Ketkova, and G. E. Snopatin, “Preparation of high-purity Pr3+ doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 177, 275–279 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, and M. F. Churbanov, “Preparation of high-purity Pr(3+) doped Ge–Ga–Sb–Se glasses with intensive middle infrared luminescence,” J. Lumin. 170, 37–41 (2016).
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Ketkova, L. A.

V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, A. P. Velmuzhov, L. A. Ketkova, and G. E. Snopatin, “Preparation of high-purity Pr3+ doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 177, 275–279 (2016).
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M. A. Khamis, R. Sevilla, and K. Ennser, “Large mode area Pr3+-doped chalcogenide PCF design for high efficiency mid-IR laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(9), 825–828 (2018).
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Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, B. K. Jin, W. J. Chung, B. J. Park, J. Heo, and Y. G. Choi, “Influence of the Ga addition on optical properties of Pr in Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 72(11), 1386–1389 (2011).
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Kim, W. H.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
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V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
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A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, A. I. Suchkov, A. M. Potapov, R. M. Shaposhnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation of Ge-Sb-S-I glass system via volatile iodides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(8), 936–939 (2011).

Kotereva, T. V.

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. A. Anashkina, T. V. Kotereva, and G. E. Snopatin, “Core-clad Pr(3+)-doped Ga(In)-Ge-As-Se-(I) glass fibers: preparation, investigation, simulation of laser characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 72, 654–660 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, and M. F. Churbanov, “Preparation of high-purity Pr(3+) doped Ge–Ga–Sb–Se glasses with intensive middle infrared luminescence,” J. Lumin. 170, 37–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, A. P. Velmuzhov, L. A. Ketkova, and G. E. Snopatin, “Preparation of high-purity Pr3+ doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 177, 275–279 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kueny, A. W.

S. R. Bowman, J. Ganem, B. J. Feldman, and A. W. Kueny, “Infrared laser characteristics of praseodymium-doped lanthanum trichloride,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 2925–2928 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kung, F. H.

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F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).
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Morais, S.

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Nazabal, V.

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M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
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F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Low gallium-content, dysprosium III doped, Ge-As-Ga-Se chalcogenide glasses for active mid-infrared fiber optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 0(0), 1–12 (2018).
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Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, E. Barney, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Dy3+-doped selenide chalcogenide glasses: influence of Dy3+ dopant-additive and containment,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(7), 2283–2291 (2016).
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Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
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Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2453–2462 (2011).
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W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
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L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
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Palencia, F.

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).
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X. Xiao, Y. Xu, H. Guo, P. Wang, X. Cui, M. Lu, Y. Wang, and B. Peng, “Theoretical modeling of 4.3 μm mid-infrared lasing in Dy3+-doped chalcogenide fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–11 (2018).
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Peng, Y.

M. Zhang, A. Yang, Y. Peng, B. Zhang, H. Ren, W. Guo, Y. Yang, C. Zhai, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, and D. Tang, “Dy3+-doped Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses for mid-infrared lasers,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 55–59 (2015).
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G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
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Prudenzano, F.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
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B. Cole, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth doped selenide glasses and fibers for active applications in the near and mid-IR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 253–259 (1999).
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F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy3+ chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 microns,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 123–125 (2008).
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B. G. Aitken, C. W. Ponader, and R. S. Quimby, “Clustering of rare earths in GeAs sulfide glass,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 865–872 (2002).
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Ren, H.

M. Zhang, A. Yang, Y. Peng, B. Zhang, H. Ren, W. Guo, Y. Yang, C. Zhai, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, and D. Tang, “Dy3+-doped Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses for mid-infrared lasers,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 55–59 (2015).
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Sakr, H.

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
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H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).
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L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
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H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
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Sanghera, J. S.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
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J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, C. Wei, L. Brandon Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly efficient cascaded amplification using Pr3+-doped mid-infrared chalcogenide fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3687–3690 (2015).
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R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy3+ chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 microns,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 123–125 (2008).
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L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
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B. Cole, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth doped selenide glasses and fibers for active applications in the near and mid-IR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 253–259 (1999).
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Seddon, A.

E. R. Barney, Z. Tang, A. Seddon, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. Benson, N. Neate, and D. Gianolio, “The local environment of Dy3+ in selenium-rich chalcogenide glasses,” RSC Advances 4(80), 42364–42371 (2014).
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Seddon, A. B.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Low gallium-content, dysprosium III doped, Ge-As-Ga-Se chalcogenide glasses for active mid-infrared fiber optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 0(0), 1–12 (2018).
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L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
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H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).
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Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, E. Barney, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Dy3+-doped selenide chalcogenide glasses: influence of Dy3+ dopant-additive and containment,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(7), 2283–2291 (2016).
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Z. Tang, V. S. Shiryaev, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, and M. F. Churbanov, “Low loss Ge-As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber, fabricated using extruded preform, for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1722–1737 (2015).
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H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
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Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
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V. S. Shiryaev, A. P. Velmuzhov, Z. Q. Tang, M. F. Churbanov, and A. B. Seddon, “Preparation of high purity glasses in the Ga–Ge–As–Se system,” Opt. Mater. 37(0), 18–23 (2014).
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Ł. Sójka, Z. Tang, H. Zhu, E. Beres-Pawlik, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Study of mid-infrared laser action in chalcogenide rare earth doped glass with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1632–1640 (2012).
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Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2453–2462 (2011).
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Shaw, L.

Shaw, L. B.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. S. Quimby, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Modeling of cascade lasing in Dy3+ chalcogenide glass fiber laser with efficient output at 4.5 microns,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 123–125 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Cole, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Rare-earth doped selenide glasses and fibers for active applications in the near and mid-IR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 253–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shiryaev, V.

M. Churbanov, G. Snopatin, V. Shiryaev, V. Plotnichenko, and E. Dianov, “Recent advances in preparation of high-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides for fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11), 2352–2357 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shiryaev, V. S.

V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. A. Anashkina, T. V. Kotereva, and G. E. Snopatin, “Core-clad Pr(3+)-doped Ga(In)-Ge-As-Se-(I) glass fibers: preparation, investigation, simulation of laser characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 72, 654–660 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, A. P. Velmuzhov, L. A. Ketkova, and G. E. Snopatin, “Preparation of high-purity Pr3+ doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 177, 275–279 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, and M. F. Churbanov, “Preparation of high-purity Pr(3+) doped Ge–Ga–Sb–Se glasses with intensive middle infrared luminescence,” J. Lumin. 170, 37–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, V. S. Shiryaev, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, and M. F. Churbanov, “Low loss Ge-As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber, fabricated using extruded preform, for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1722–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Shiryaev, A. P. Velmuzhov, Z. Q. Tang, M. F. Churbanov, and A. B. Seddon, “Preparation of high purity glasses in the Ga–Ge–As–Se system,” Opt. Mater. 37(0), 18–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, and M. F. Churbanov, “Equilibrium in GeI4-S(Se) systems,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(11–12), 1437–1441 (2011).

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, A. I. Suchkov, A. M. Potapov, R. M. Shaposhnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation of Ge-Sb-S-I glass system via volatile iodides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(8), 936–939 (2011).

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sibirkin, A. A.

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, A. I. Suchkov, A. M. Potapov, R. M. Shaposhnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation of Ge-Sb-S-I glass system via volatile iodides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(8), 936–939 (2011).

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, and M. F. Churbanov, “Equilibrium in GeI4-S(Se) systems,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(11–12), 1437–1441 (2011).

Simdyankin, S. I.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 104204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Skripachev, I.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga-As-S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Snopatin, G.

M. Churbanov, G. Snopatin, V. Shiryaev, V. Plotnichenko, and E. Dianov, “Recent advances in preparation of high-purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides for fiber optics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11), 2352–2357 (2011).
[Crossref]

Snopatin, G. E.

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, E. A. Anashkina, T. V. Kotereva, and G. E. Snopatin, “Core-clad Pr(3+)-doped Ga(In)-Ge-As-Se-(I) glass fibers: preparation, investigation, simulation of laser characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 72, 654–660 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, A. P. Velmuzhov, L. A. Ketkova, and G. E. Snopatin, “Preparation of high-purity Pr3+ doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 177, 275–279 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sojka, L.

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, V. S. Shiryaev, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, and M. F. Churbanov, “Low loss Ge-As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber, fabricated using extruded preform, for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1722–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sójka, L.

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ł. Sójka, Z. Tang, H. Zhu, E. Beres-Pawlik, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Study of mid-infrared laser action in chalcogenide rare earth doped glass with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1632–1640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Starecki, F.

A. L. Pelé, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, R. Moncorgé, and P. Camy, “Dy3+ doped GeGaSbS fluorescent fiber at 4.4 μm for optical gas sensing: comparison of simulation and experiment,” Opt. Mater. 61, 37–44 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, S. Morais, R. Chahal, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, F. Palencia, C. Lecoutre, Y. Garrabos, S. Marre, and V. Nazabal, “IR emitting Dy3+ doped chalcogenide fibers for in situ CO2 monitoring in high pressure microsystems,” Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 55, 36–41 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suchkov, A. I.

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, A. I. Suchkov, A. M. Potapov, R. M. Shaposhnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation of Ge-Sb-S-I glass system via volatile iodides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(8), 936–939 (2011).

Sujecki, S.

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, V. S. Shiryaev, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, and M. F. Churbanov, “Low loss Ge-As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber, fabricated using extruded preform, for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1722–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Barney, Z. Tang, A. Seddon, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. Benson, N. Neate, and D. Gianolio, “The local environment of Dy3+ in selenium-rich chalcogenide glasses,” RSC Advances 4(80), 42364–42371 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ł. Sójka, Z. Tang, H. Zhu, E. Beres-Pawlik, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Study of mid-infrared laser action in chalcogenide rare earth doped glass with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1632–1640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sukhanov, M. V.

V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

M. Zhang, A. Yang, Y. Peng, B. Zhang, H. Ren, W. Guo, Y. Yang, C. Zhai, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, and D. Tang, “Dy3+-doped Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses for mid-infrared lasers,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 55–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Low gallium-content, dysprosium III doped, Ge-As-Ga-Se chalcogenide glasses for active mid-infrared fiber optics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 0(0), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, E. Bereś-Pawlik, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Numerical and experimental investigation of mid-infrared laser action in resonantly pumped Pr3+ doped chalcogenide fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(1), 21 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Promising emission behavior in Pr3+/In selenide-chalcogenide-glass small-core step index fiber (SIF),” Opt. Mater. 67, 98–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, N. C. Neate, E. Barney, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Dy3+-doped selenide chalcogenide glasses: influence of Dy3+ dopant-additive and containment,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 99(7), 2283–2291 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, V. S. Shiryaev, D. Furniss, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, and M. F. Churbanov, “Low loss Ge-As-Se chalcogenide glass fiber, fabricated using extruded preform, for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1722–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Sakr, D. Furniss, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, N. A. Moneim, E. Barney, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Superior photoluminescence (PL) of Pr3+-In, compared to Pr3+-Ga, selenide-chalcogenide bulk glasses and PL of optically-clad fiber,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21236–21252 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tang, D. Furniss, M. Fay, N. C. Neate, Y. Cheng, E. Barney, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “First identification of rare-earth oxide nucleation in chalcogenide glasses and implications for fabrication of mid-infrared active fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(2), 432–441 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Barney, Z. Tang, A. Seddon, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. Benson, N. Neate, and D. Gianolio, “The local environment of Dy3+ in selenium-rich chalcogenide glasses,” RSC Advances 4(80), 42364–42371 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Sójka, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, H. Sakr, A. Oladeji, E. Bereś-Pawlik, H. Dantanarayana, E. Faber, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Broadband, mid-infrared emission from Pr3+ doped GeAsGaSe chalcogenide fiber, optically clad,” Opt. Mater. 36(6), 1076–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ł. Sójka, Z. Tang, H. Zhu, E. Beres-Pawlik, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Study of mid-infrared laser action in chalcogenide rare earth doped glass with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1632–1640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, N. C. Neate, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “Crystallization behavior of Dy3+-doped selenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2453–2462 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z. Q.

V. S. Shiryaev, A. P. Velmuzhov, Z. Q. Tang, M. F. Churbanov, and A. B. Seddon, “Preparation of high purity glasses in the Ga–Ge–As–Se system,” Opt. Mater. 37(0), 18–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thielen, P. A.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Mid-wave IR and long-wave IR laser potential of rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(9), 1127–1137 (2001).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

M. C. Falconi, G. Palma, F. Starecki, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, S. Taccheo, M. Ferrari, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an efficient pumping scheme for mid-IR Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 PCF fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(18), 1984–1987 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga-As-S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Velmuzhov, A. P.

V. S. Shiryaev, E. V. Karaksina, T. V. Kotereva, M. F. Churbanov, A. P. Velmuzhov, M. V. Sukhanov, L. A. Ketkova, N. S. Zernova, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation and investigation of Pr3+-doped Ge–Sb–Se–In–I glasses as promising material for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 183, 129–134 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. V. Karaksina, V. S. Shiryaev, T. V. Kotereva, A. P. Velmuzhov, L. A. Ketkova, and G. E. Snopatin, “Preparation of high-purity Pr3+ doped Ge–As–Se–In–I glasses for active mid-infrared optics,” J. Lumin. 177, 275–279 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. S. Shiryaev, A. P. Velmuzhov, Z. Q. Tang, M. F. Churbanov, and A. B. Seddon, “Preparation of high purity glasses in the Ga–Ge–As–Se system,” Opt. Mater. 37(0), 18–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, and M. F. Churbanov, “Equilibrium in GeI4-S(Se) systems,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(11–12), 1437–1441 (2011).

A. P. Velmuzhov, A. A. Sibirkin, V. S. Shiryaev, M. F. Churbanov, A. I. Suchkov, A. M. Potapov, R. M. Shaposhnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and V. V. Koltashev, “Preparation of Ge-Sb-S-I glass system via volatile iodides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 13(8), 936–939 (2011).

Wang, P.

X. Xiao, Y. Xu, H. Guo, P. Wang, X. Cui, M. Lu, Y. Wang, and B. Peng, “Theoretical modeling of 4.3 μm mid-infrared lasing in Dy3+-doped chalcogenide fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Guo, Y. Xu, H. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Lin, X. Cui, P. Wang, F. Gao, M. Lu, and B. Peng, “Effect of iodine (I2) on structural, thermal and optical properties of Ge-Sb-S chalcohalide host glasses and ones doped with Dy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 464, 81–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Huang, Z. Liu, H. Chen, J. Bian, X. Zhang, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Research on structure and mid-infrared photoluminescence of Ga3+/Er3+ co-doped As-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 471, 456–461 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Bian, Y. Huang, T. Xu, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Fabrication and characterization of mid-infrared emission of Pr3+ doped selenide chalcogenide glasses and fibres,” RSC Advances 7(66), 41520–41526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Xiao, Y. Xu, H. Guo, P. Wang, X. Cui, M. Lu, Y. Wang, and B. Peng, “Theoretical modeling of 4.3 μm mid-infrared lasing in Dy3+-doped chalcogenide fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, A. Yang, Y. Peng, B. Zhang, H. Ren, W. Guo, Y. Yang, C. Zhai, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, and D. Tang, “Dy3+-doped Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses for mid-infrared lasers,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 55–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous Emission Probabilities and Quantum Efficiencies for Excited States of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(10), 4774–4780 (1968).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, Y. Xu, H. Guo, P. Wang, X. Cui, M. Lu, Y. Wang, and B. Peng, “Theoretical modeling of 4.3 μm mid-infrared lasing in Dy3+-doped chalcogenide fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Guo, Y. Xu, H. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Lin, X. Cui, P. Wang, F. Gao, M. Lu, and B. Peng, “Effect of iodine (I2) on structural, thermal and optical properties of Ge-Sb-S chalcohalide host glasses and ones doped with Dy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 464, 81–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

Z. Liu, J. Bian, Y. Huang, T. Xu, X. Wang, and S. Dai, “Fabrication and characterization of mid-infrared emission of Pr3+ doped selenide chalcogenide glasses and fibres,” RSC Advances 7(66), 41520–41526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

X. Xiao, Y. Xu, H. Guo, P. Wang, X. Cui, M. Lu, Y. Wang, and B. Peng, “Theoretical modeling of 4.3 μm mid-infrared lasing in Dy3+-doped chalcogenide fiber lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Guo, Y. Xu, H. Guo, X. Xiao, C. Lin, X. Cui, P. Wang, F. Gao, M. Lu, and B. Peng, “Effect of iodine (I2) on structural, thermal and optical properties of Ge-Sb-S chalcohalide host glasses and ones doped with Dy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 464, 81–88 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, A.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Rod preforms of 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil), Pr3+(PrI3) and Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se glasses, showing excellent surface quality without distinct (contamination) spots (cf [15,16].).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Set-up for measurement of the Pr3+ -doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se glass fibers for fiber side-collection of (a) PL spectrum and (b) PL lifetime.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Powder XRD patterns of the 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil), Pr3+(PrI3) and Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se glass fibers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical loss spectra of the 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil), Pr3+(PrI3) and Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se glass fibers and Ge-As-Se fiber. The inset shows enlarged details of the low loss for comparison.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 FTIR spectra of as-prepared bulk glass samples cut and polished from rod-preforms prior to fiber-drawing. The bulk glasses were: 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil), Pr3+(PrI3) and Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se glasses and the Ge-As-Se glass. Inset (a) shows the enlarged characteristic of absorption bands at wavelengths of 1.5 μm, 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. Inset (b) shows the enlarged absorption band at about 4.5 μm wavelength.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photoluminescence spectra of the 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil), Pr3+(PrI3) and Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se fibers, pumped at 1550 nm wavelength with 65 mW power. Fiber side collection of the PL was applied and spectra were corrected for system response.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variation of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity, taken at the position of maximum intensity PL at 4700 nm wavelength, with pump power at 1550 nm wavelength, of the 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil), Pr3+(PrI3) and Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se fibers.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PL decay and exponential fits of the 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil) and Pr3+(PrI3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se fibers, at 4700 nm wavelength. Pump power was 65 mW, at 1550 nm wavelength. The inset presents the two lifetimes of 3 ms ((3H6, 3F2)→3H5) and 10 ms (3H53H4) in a Pr3+-ion simplified energy level diagram [45–47]. The wavelength of each down arrow is the peak wavelength of the potential PL band in each transition.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 PL decay and exponential fit of the 500 ppmw Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se fiber, at 4700 nm wavelength (65 mW pump power at 1550 nm wavelength). The inset presents three lifetimes of 0.21 ms ((3F3, 3F4)→3H6), 2.4 ms ((3H6, 3F2)→3H5) and 10.3 ms (3H53H4) in a simplified energy level diagram of Pr3+-ion [45–47].
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Schematic diagram of the proposed candidate environments of Pr3+ ion facilitating PL in the 500 ppmw Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se fiber: Se coordination of Pr3+ ions and partial/full Cl coordination of Pr3+ ions. In addition, simplified energy level diagrams of the Pr3+ions [45–47] reveal the PL radiative decay (3F3, 3F4)→3H6 (lifetime 0.21 ms, Fig. 9) encouraged by the very low phonon energy of a chloride local environment of the Pr3+ ions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Key information on glass preparation and fiber fabrication of 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil), Pr3+(PrI3) and Pr3+(PrCl3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se glass fibers and the Ge-As-Se fiber. (Note N is nines’ purity.)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Observed PL decay lifetimes for: 3H53H4, (3H6, 3F2)→3H5 and (3F3, 3F4)→3H6 in 500 ppmw Pr3+(foil)-, Pr3+(PrCl3)- and Pr3+(PrI3)-doped Ge-As-Ga1-Se fibers, together with calculated and experimental literature values. All samples were Pr3+-doped Ge-As-Ga-Se glass hosts.

Equations (1)

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HSe | Se | Ge | Se | Se +  Cl    HCl ( g )  + Se | Se | Ge | Se | Se