Abstract

Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites exhibit wide nonlinear optical applications, but the nonlinear coefficient is not sufficiently high that it limits the potential application. Thus, we improve the nonlinear optical response of Nd:YAG by dual implantation with Zn and Ag ions to induce the formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the surface of a crystal. And the structural and optical properties of the NPs embedded in the Nd:YAG have been investigated. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of Ag NPs in Nd:YAG crystal shows ~3 times enhancement with a narrower spatial distribution of NPs. Meanwhile, third-order nonlinear coefficients of the crystal embedded with NPs increase to 8 orders of magnitude larger than that of pure Nd:YAG due to the SPR effect. Furthermore, annealing can further modify SPR and nonlinear optical properties owing to improved crystalline structure. The present work provides an alternative route for enhancing the nonlinear optical properties and potential application in optical devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

M. M. Yue, J. H. Si, L. H. Yan, Y. Yu, and X. Hou, “Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(3), 698–703 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Mu, X. Liu, X. Wang, H. Dai, and C. Liu, “Growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods in Ti and Cu ion sequentially implanted SiO2 and the involved mechanisms,” Nanotechnology 29(2), 025601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, N. Dong, F. Ren, H. Amekura, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Nonlinear absorption response correlated to embedded Ag nanoparticles in BGO single crystal: from two-photon to three-photon absorption,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1977 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Q. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. J. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded Au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. L. Quan, X. Yang, M. M. Yang, D. C. Ma, J. Q. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, and B. Wang, “Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 200–205 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (8)

E. N. Epie, D. Scott, and W. K. Chu, “Manipulating the optical properties of dual implanted Au and Zn nanoparticles in sapphire,” Photon. Nanostructures 27, 17–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Mu, J. Wang, and C. L. Liu, “Enhancement of Ag nanoparticles concentration by prior ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 406, 555–560 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Y. He, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Embedded silver nanoparticles in KTP crystal produced by ion implantation,” Mater. Lett. 193, 158–160 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ali, Y. Khan, Y. Iqbal, K. Hayat, and M. Ali, “Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy,” J. Nanophotonics 11(1), 016011 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Zhang and Y. H. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles: a review,” RSC Advances 7(71), 45129–45144 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

G. Y. Jia, H. T. Dai, X. Y. Mu, C. G. Guo, and C. L. Liu, “Implantation-synthesized Cu/Cu–Zn core/shell nanoparticles in SiO2 and their optical properties,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1156–1167 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, R. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “High-order nonlinearity of surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles: paradoxical combination of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Tao, G. Y. Jia, X. Y. Mu, H. T. Dai, and C. L. Liu, “Synthesis and optical properties of Cu core/Ti-related shell nanoparticles in silica sequentially implanted with Ti and Cu ions,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1869–1876 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. H. Wang, X. X. Yu, F. Liu, and Y. M. Wang, “Nonlinear refraction of lithium niobate crystal doped with different metal nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 123(9), 35–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, H. Stöcker, B. Abendroth, W. Wesch, and C. Ronning, “Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 25(13), 135611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sato, M. Ohnuma, K. Oyoshi, and Y. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoparticles: effects of size quantization,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(12), 125417 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Wang, G. Y. Jia, B. Zhang, H. X. Liu, and C. L. Liu, “Formation and optical absorption property of nanometer metallic colloids in Zn and Ag dually implanted silica: synthesis of the modified Ag nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 034304 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Q. An, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and W. H. Lin, “Photonic crystal structure in Nd:YAG laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1811–1814 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Milz, J. Rensberg, C. Ronning, and W. Wesch, “Correlation between damage evolution, cluster formation and optical properties of silver implanted lithium niobate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 286(286), 67–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. L. Stepanov, “Synthesis Of silver nanoparticles in dielectric matrix by ion implantation: a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 26(1), 1–29 (2010).

D. S. Wang, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Nanocrystalline intermetallics and alloys,” Nano Res. 3(8), 574–580 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Fujita, K. Ijima, N. Mitsui, K. Mochiduki, A. Y. J. Ho, and Y. Saito, “Microstructures and optical properties of LiNbO3 sequentially implanted with Ag and Cu ions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 7224–7229 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens and P. G. Kik, “Numerical study of surface plasmon enhanced nonlinear absorption and refraction,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10823–10834 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, “The new “p-n junction”: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30(5), 385–389 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. H. Magruder and A. Meldrum, “Effect of Ti on the optical properties of Ag nanocrystals in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(2), 024306 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite materials formed by ion implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

P. W. Voorhees, “The theory of Ostwald ripening,” J. Stat. Phys. 38(1–2), 231–252 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abendroth, B.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, H. Stöcker, B. Abendroth, W. Wesch, and C. Ronning, “Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 25(13), 135611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afra, B.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ali, M.

S. Ali, Y. Khan, Y. Iqbal, K. Hayat, and M. Ali, “Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy,” J. Nanophotonics 11(1), 016011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ali, S.

S. Ali, Y. Khan, Y. Iqbal, K. Hayat, and M. Ali, “Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy,” J. Nanophotonics 11(1), 016011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ali, Z. A.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amekura, H.

R. Li, N. Dong, F. Ren, H. Amekura, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Nonlinear absorption response correlated to embedded Ag nanoparticles in BGO single crystal: from two-photon to three-photon absorption,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1977 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, Q.

Q. An, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and W. H. Lin, “Photonic crystal structure in Nd:YAG laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1811–1814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arenas-Alatorre, J.

O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, “The new “p-n junction”: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30(5), 385–389 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bayle, M.

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benassayag, G.

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benzo, P.

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bharuth-Ram, K.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, G.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bierschenk, T.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bin Hasan, S.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boatner, L. A.

A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite materials formed by ion implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bonafos, C.

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Böttger, R.

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Q. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. J. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded Au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carles, R.

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheang-Wong, J. C.

O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Q. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. J. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded Au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Li, N. Dong, F. Ren, H. Amekura, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Nonlinear absorption response correlated to embedded Ag nanoparticles in BGO single crystal: from two-photon to three-photon absorption,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1977 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Y. He, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Embedded silver nanoparticles in KTP crystal produced by ion implantation,” Mater. Lett. 193, 158–160 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. An, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and W. H. Lin, “Photonic crystal structure in Nd:YAG laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1811–1814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Q. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. J. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded Au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, W. K.

E. N. Epie, D. Scott, and W. K. Chu, “Manipulating the optical properties of dual implanted Au and Zn nanoparticles in sapphire,” Photon. Nanostructures 27, 17–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, H.

X. Mu, X. Liu, X. Wang, H. Dai, and C. Liu, “Growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods in Ti and Cu ion sequentially implanted SiO2 and the involved mechanisms,” Nanotechnology 29(2), 025601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, H. T.

C. F. Tao, G. Y. Jia, X. Y. Mu, H. T. Dai, and C. L. Liu, “Synthesis and optical properties of Cu core/Ti-related shell nanoparticles in silica sequentially implanted with Ti and Cu ions,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1869–1876 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Jia, H. T. Dai, X. Y. Mu, C. G. Guo, and C. L. Liu, “Implantation-synthesized Cu/Cu–Zn core/shell nanoparticles in SiO2 and their optical properties,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1156–1167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z.

W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Lieto, A.

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, “The new “p-n junction”: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30(5), 385–389 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, L. J.

Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, N.

R. Li, N. Dong, F. Ren, H. Amekura, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Nonlinear absorption response correlated to embedded Ag nanoparticles in BGO single crystal: from two-photon to three-photon absorption,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1977 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, N. N.

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Q. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. J. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded Au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. An, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and W. H. Lin, “Photonic crystal structure in Nd:YAG laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1811–1814 (2012).
[Crossref]

Epie, E. N.

E. N. Epie, D. Scott, and W. K. Chu, “Manipulating the optical properties of dual implanted Au and Zn nanoparticles in sapphire,” Photon. Nanostructures 27, 17–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Farcau, C.

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, T.

T. Fujita, K. Ijima, N. Mitsui, K. Mochiduki, A. Y. J. Ho, and Y. Saito, “Microstructures and optical properties of LiNbO3 sequentially implanted with Ag and Cu ions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 7224–7229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Groenen, J.

R. Carles, C. Farcau, C. Bonafos, G. Benassayag, M. Bayle, P. Benzo, J. Groenen, and A. Zwick, “Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8774–8782 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, C. G.

Guo, Q.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Haglund, R. F.

A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite materials formed by ion implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hayat, K.

S. Ali, Y. Khan, Y. Iqbal, K. Hayat, and M. Ali, “Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy,” J. Nanophotonics 11(1), 016011 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, R. Y.

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Y. He, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Embedded silver nanoparticles in KTP crystal produced by ion implantation,” Mater. Lett. 193, 158–160 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, Z. Y.

Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hei, H. J.

Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ho, A. Y. J.

T. Fujita, K. Ijima, N. Mitsui, K. Mochiduki, A. Y. J. Ho, and Y. Saito, “Microstructures and optical properties of LiNbO3 sequentially implanted with Ag and Cu ions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 7224–7229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hou, X.

Huang, J. Q.

J. L. Quan, X. Yang, M. M. Yang, D. C. Ma, J. Q. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, and B. Wang, “Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 200–205 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hübner, R.

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ijima, K.

T. Fujita, K. Ijima, N. Mitsui, K. Mochiduki, A. Y. J. Ho, and Y. Saito, “Microstructures and optical properties of LiNbO3 sequentially implanted with Ag and Cu ions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 7224–7229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Iqbal, Y.

S. Ali, Y. Khan, Y. Iqbal, K. Hayat, and M. Ali, “Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy,” J. Nanophotonics 11(1), 016011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ismail, M. A.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jia, G. Y.

G. Y. Jia, H. T. Dai, X. Y. Mu, C. G. Guo, and C. L. Liu, “Implantation-synthesized Cu/Cu–Zn core/shell nanoparticles in SiO2 and their optical properties,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1156–1167 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. F. Tao, G. Y. Jia, X. Y. Mu, H. T. Dai, and C. L. Liu, “Synthesis and optical properties of Cu core/Ti-related shell nanoparticles in silica sequentially implanted with Ti and Cu ions,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1869–1876 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, G. Y. Jia, B. Zhang, H. X. Liu, and C. L. Liu, “Formation and optical absorption property of nanometer metallic colloids in Zn and Ag dually implanted silica: synthesis of the modified Ag nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 034304 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y. X.

Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z. X.

M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, C.

W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johannes, A.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Z.

M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khan, Y.

S. Ali, Y. Khan, Y. Iqbal, K. Hayat, and M. Ali, “Size determination of gold nanoparticles in silicate glasses by UV-Vis spectroscopy,” J. Nanophotonics 11(1), 016011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kik, P. G.

Kohlgraf-Owens, D. C.

Lee, C. S. J.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

R. Li, N. Dong, F. Ren, H. Amekura, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Nonlinear absorption response correlated to embedded Ag nanoparticles in BGO single crystal: from two-photon to three-photon absorption,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1977 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Q. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. J. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded Au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, S. Q.

M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. D.

D. S. Wang, Q. Peng, and Y. D. Li, “Nanocrystalline intermetallics and alloys,” Nano Res. 3(8), 574–580 (2010).
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Li, Z. Q.

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X. Y. Mu, J. Wang, and C. L. Liu, “Enhancement of Ag nanoparticles concentration by prior ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 406, 555–560 (2017).
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Ma, G. W.

Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
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H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, “The new “p-n junction”: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30(5), 385–389 (2005).
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W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
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A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite materials formed by ion implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
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S. Milz, J. Rensberg, C. Ronning, and W. Wesch, “Correlation between damage evolution, cluster formation and optical properties of silver implanted lithium niobate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 286(286), 67–71 (2012).
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Mitsui, N.

T. Fujita, K. Ijima, N. Mitsui, K. Mochiduki, A. Y. J. Ho, and Y. Saito, “Microstructures and optical properties of LiNbO3 sequentially implanted with Ag and Cu ions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 7224–7229 (2008).
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Mu, X.

X. Mu, X. Liu, X. Wang, H. Dai, and C. Liu, “Growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods in Ti and Cu ion sequentially implanted SiO2 and the involved mechanisms,” Nanotechnology 29(2), 025601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu, X. Y.

X. Y. Mu, J. Wang, and C. L. Liu, “Enhancement of Ag nanoparticles concentration by prior ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 406, 555–560 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. F. Tao, G. Y. Jia, X. Y. Mu, H. T. Dai, and C. L. Liu, “Synthesis and optical properties of Cu core/Ti-related shell nanoparticles in silica sequentially implanted with Ti and Cu ions,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1869–1876 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Jia, H. T. Dai, X. Y. Mu, C. G. Guo, and C. L. Liu, “Implantation-synthesized Cu/Cu–Zn core/shell nanoparticles in SiO2 and their optical properties,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1156–1167 (2015).
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Nayan, N.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
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S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
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O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
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R. Sato, M. Ohnuma, K. Oyoshi, and Y. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoparticles: effects of size quantization,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(12), 125417 (2014).
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O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
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T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
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H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, “The new “p-n junction”: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30(5), 385–389 (2005).
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Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
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M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
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T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151122 (2012).
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Qin, W. P.

M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
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T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. J. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Y. Yang, G. S. Qin, and W. P. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151122 (2012).
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Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
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Qiu, J.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
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J. L. Quan, X. Yang, M. M. Yang, D. C. Ma, J. Q. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, and B. Wang, “Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 200–205 (2018).
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Reduan, S. A.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
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R. Li, N. Dong, F. Ren, H. Amekura, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Nonlinear absorption response correlated to embedded Ag nanoparticles in BGO single crystal: from two-photon to three-photon absorption,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1977 (2018).
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R. Y. He, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Embedded silver nanoparticles in KTP crystal produced by ion implantation,” Mater. Lett. 193, 158–160 (2017).
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R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
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S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, H. Stöcker, B. Abendroth, W. Wesch, and C. Ronning, “Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 25(13), 135611 (2014).
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S. Milz, J. Rensberg, C. Ronning, and W. Wesch, “Correlation between damage evolution, cluster formation and optical properties of silver implanted lithium niobate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 286(286), 67–71 (2012).
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Ridgway, M.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
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Rockstuhl, C.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
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Rodriguez, M.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
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Rodriguez-Fernandez, L.

O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
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Rodriguez-Iglesias, V.

O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
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Ronning, C.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, H. Stöcker, B. Abendroth, W. Wesch, and C. Ronning, “Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 25(13), 135611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Milz, J. Rensberg, C. Ronning, and W. Wesch, “Correlation between damage evolution, cluster formation and optical properties of silver implanted lithium niobate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 286(286), 67–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ruslan, N. E.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
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Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Saito, Y.

T. Fujita, K. Ijima, N. Mitsui, K. Mochiduki, A. Y. J. Ho, and Y. Saito, “Microstructures and optical properties of LiNbO3 sequentially implanted with Ag and Cu ions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 7224–7229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sato, R.

R. Sato, M. Ohnuma, K. Oyoshi, and Y. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoparticles: effects of size quantization,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(12), 125417 (2014).
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E. N. Epie, D. Scott, and W. K. Chu, “Manipulating the optical properties of dual implanted Au and Zn nanoparticles in sapphire,” Photon. Nanostructures 27, 17–23 (2017).
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Shaharuddin, R. A.

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Shen, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
[Crossref]

Si, J. H.

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Silva-Pereyra, H. G.

O. Pena, U. Pal, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. Arenas-Alatorre, and A. Oliver, “Formation of Au-Ag core-Shell nanostructures in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(6), 2296–2300 (2009).
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Smit, F.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
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Song, H. W.

M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
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A. L. Stepanov, “Synthesis Of silver nanoparticles in dielectric matrix by ion implantation: a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 26(1), 1–29 (2010).

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S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, H. Stöcker, B. Abendroth, W. Wesch, and C. Ronning, “Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 25(13), 135611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L.

H. A. Atwater, S. Maier, A. Polman, J. A. Dionne, and L. Sweatlock, “The new “p-n junction”: plasmonics enables photonic access to the nanoworld,” MRS Bull. 30(5), 385–389 (2005).
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Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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P. W. Voorhees, “The theory of Ostwald ripening,” J. Stat. Phys. 38(1–2), 231–252 (1985).
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J. L. Quan, X. Yang, M. M. Yang, D. C. Ma, J. Q. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, and B. Wang, “Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 200–205 (2018).
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W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
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Y. H. Wang, X. X. Yu, F. Liu, and Y. M. Wang, “Nonlinear refraction of lithium niobate crystal doped with different metal nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 123(9), 35–37 (2014).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite materials formed by ion implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
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S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, H. Stöcker, B. Abendroth, W. Wesch, and C. Ronning, “Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 25(13), 135611 (2014).
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W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
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Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
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S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, R. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “High-order nonlinearity of surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles: paradoxical combination of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).
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J. L. Quan, X. Yang, M. M. Yang, D. C. Ma, J. Q. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, and B. Wang, “Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 200–205 (2018).
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W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
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S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, R. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “High-order nonlinearity of surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles: paradoxical combination of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).
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Y. H. Wang, X. X. Yu, F. Liu, and Y. M. Wang, “Nonlinear refraction of lithium niobate crystal doped with different metal nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 123(9), 35–37 (2014).
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Yue, M. M.

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J. Wang, G. Y. Jia, B. Zhang, H. X. Liu, and C. L. Liu, “Formation and optical absorption property of nanometer metallic colloids in Zn and Ag dually implanted silica: synthesis of the modified Ag nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 034304 (2013).
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S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, R. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “High-order nonlinearity of surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles: paradoxical combination of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).
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Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
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Zhang, X.

W. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Dai, W. Wu, L. Cheng, F. Mei, X. Zhang, and C. Jiang, “Fabrication of highly homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Ag ion implantation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(25), 254003 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
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W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
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Y. X. Zhang and Y. H. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles: a review,” RSC Advances 7(71), 45129–45144 (2017).
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S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, R. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “High-order nonlinearity of surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles: paradoxical combination of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).
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M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
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W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
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C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Q. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. J. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded Au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
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R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
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J. L. Quan, X. Yang, M. M. Yang, D. C. Ma, J. Q. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, and B. Wang, “Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 200–205 (2018).
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ACS Omega (1)

R. Li, N. N. Dong, C. Cheng, F. Ren, R. Hübner, J. Wang, S. Q. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of nonlinear optical response in Nd:YAG single crystals by embedded silver nanoparticles,” ACS Omega 2(4), 1279–1286 (2017).
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A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite materials formed by ion implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
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S. X. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, R. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and Q. H. Xiong, “High-order nonlinearity of surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles: paradoxical combination of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1342–1348 (2015).
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Y. Y. Shen, Y. X. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. J. Hei, T. Qi, S. W. Yu, Z. Y. He, Y. X. Jia, G. W. Ma, and L. J. Dong, “The effect of Cu ion implantation and post-annealing on surface morphology and electron field emission in ultrananocrystalline diamond,” J. Alloys Compd. 709, 8–15 (2017).
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M. Y. Liu, D. L. Zhou, Z. X. Jia, Z. R. Li, N. Li, S. Q. Li, Z. Kang, J. Yi, C. J. Zhao, G. S. Qin, H. W. Song, and W. P. Qin, “Plasmonic Cu1.8S nanocrystals as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(16), 4034–4039 (2017).
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Nanoscale (1)

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
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Nanotechnology (3)

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, H. Stöcker, B. Abendroth, W. Wesch, and C. Ronning, “Utilizing dynamic annealing during ion implantation: synthesis of silver nanoparticles in crystalline lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 25(13), 135611 (2014).
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S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
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X. Mu, X. Liu, X. Wang, H. Dai, and C. Liu, “Growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods in Ti and Cu ion sequentially implanted SiO2 and the involved mechanisms,” Nanotechnology 29(2), 025601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

S. Milz, J. Rensberg, C. Ronning, and W. Wesch, “Correlation between damage evolution, cluster formation and optical properties of silver implanted lithium niobate,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 286(286), 67–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B (1)

X. Y. Mu, J. Wang, and C. L. Liu, “Enhancement of Ag nanoparticles concentration by prior ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 406, 555–560 (2017).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Ahmad, N. E. Ruslan, Z. A. Ali, S. A. Reduan, C. S. J. Lee, R. A. Shaharuddin, N. Nayan, and M. A. Ismail, “Ag-nanoparticle as a Q switched device for tunable C-band fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 85–90 (2016).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Q. An, N. N. Dong, F. Chen, and W. H. Lin, “Photonic crystal structure in Nd:YAG laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1811–1814 (2012).
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Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Photon. Nanostructures (1)

E. N. Epie, D. Scott, and W. K. Chu, “Manipulating the optical properties of dual implanted Au and Zn nanoparticles in sapphire,” Photon. Nanostructures 27, 17–23 (2017).
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Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

R. Sato, M. Ohnuma, K. Oyoshi, and Y. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoparticles: effects of size quantization,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(12), 125417 (2014).
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Plasmonics (1)

C. F. Tao, G. Y. Jia, X. Y. Mu, H. T. Dai, and C. L. Liu, “Synthesis and optical properties of Cu core/Ti-related shell nanoparticles in silica sequentially implanted with Ti and Cu ions,” Plasmonics 10(6), 1869–1876 (2015).
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A. L. Stepanov, “Synthesis Of silver nanoparticles in dielectric matrix by ion implantation: a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 26(1), 1–29 (2010).

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Y. X. Zhang and Y. H. Wang, “Nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles: a review,” RSC Advances 7(71), 45129–45144 (2017).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. Zhang, S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Mei, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and J. Wang, “Atomic-layer molybdenum sulfide optical modulator for visible coherent light,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11342 (2015).
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R. Li, N. Dong, F. Ren, H. Amekura, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Nonlinear absorption response correlated to embedded Ag nanoparticles in BGO single crystal: from two-photon to three-photon absorption,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1977 (2018).
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Other (1)

J. F. Ziegler, computer code, SRIM 2013, available online at: http://www.Srim.org/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 OA spectra of the (a) Zn, (b) Ag and (c) Zn + Ag samples before and after annealing at different temperatures.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XTEM results of the ((a)-(c)) Ag and ((d)-(f)) Zn + Ag samples. (a), (d) are overall morphologies, and the insets represent the corresponding SAED patterns. (b), (e) are particle size distributions. (c), (f) are HRTEM micrographs and the corresponding FFT patterns of a region as marked with the white rectangle.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 XTEM micrographs of the Zn + Ag sample after annealing at 700 °C. (a) Overall morphology, (b) particle size distributions, (c) SAED pattern, (d) typical HRTEM micrographs of NPs and (e) HRTEM micrograph of the rectangular areas labeled as A together with the corresponding FFT of amorphous areas and SAED pattern of virgin Nd:YAG crystal.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 RBS spectra in random configuration of the virgin Nd:YAG as well as the RBS/C spectra in aligned configuration of virgin Nd:YAG, Ag and Zn + Ag samples before and after annealing at 700 °C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized transmittance curves of virgin Nd:YAG, Zn, Ag and Zn + Ag samples before and after annealing at 700 °C: (a, c) open-aperture; (b, d) closed-aperture. Scattered points and solid lines represent the experimental values and the theoretical fitted curves, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Nonlinear optical parameters of the samples that before and after annealing at 700 °C

Equations (6)

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T open (z)= m=0 ( q 0 (z)) m (1+ x 2 ) m (m+1) 3 2
T close (z)=1+ 4Δ Φ 0 x (1+ x 2 )(9+ x 2 )
q 0 =β I 0 L eff
Δ T pv =0.406 (1S) 0.25 Δ Φ 0
Re χ (3) = c n 0 2 120 π 2 ( n 2 α 2k n 0 β 2k )
Im χ (3) = c n 0 2 120 π 2 ( β 2k + α 2k n 0 n 2 )