Abstract

This work reports on the nonlinear optical properties of Er doped ZnO (EZO) films, measured by the Z-scan technique with different laser parameters (pulse width, wavelengths and energy). The nonlinear absorption mechanism of EZO films is analyzed by a singlet state three and four-level model, respectively. The effect of the direct current sputtering power of EZO films on the nonlinear optical properties was studied. From the results, the samples show the self-focusing effect and two photon absorption (TPA) induced excited state reverse saturable absorption (RSA) behavior. Under the different laser parameter excitation, it has been determined that the TPA induced saturable absorption (SA) or RSA properties for EZO films with 8 W dc sputtering power. Moreover, these findings indicate that free carrier density increases with Er doping and this behavior leads to excited state absorption. In addition, the ultrafast dynamics of EZO films have been investigated using the two-color pump-probe (TCPP) technique with 325, 380 and 400 nm wavelength excitation and probing over a broad range in the visible region. The decay of the positive signal is found to be biexponential, which we have assigned to the pump-induced deep-level (DL) or excited state absorption. We also present experimental results that the few decade picosecond component has been assigned to vibrational relaxation in the excited electronic states, and the slow components represent the decay from singlet excited state to the ground state (< 1.2 ns) and DL to the ground state (> 1.2 ns). Moreover, these findings indicate that the excitation wavelength increases and the detection wave band widens. Our results show that EZO films are a promising candidate in further optoelectronic device applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores

Richard L. Sutherland, Mark C. Brant, Jim Heinrichs, Joy E. Rogers, Jonathan E. Slagle, Daniel G. McLean, and Paul A. Fleitz
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(9) 1939-1948 (2005)

Giant nonlinear absorption and excited carrier dynamics of black phosphorus few-layer nanosheets in broadband spectra

Runze Chen, Yuhua Tang, Xin Zheng, and Tian Jiang
Appl. Opt. 55(36) 10307-10312 (2016)

Near-resonant high order nonlinear absorption of ZnO thin films

Yun-Pei Chan, Ja-Hon Lin, Chih-Chang Hsu, and Wen-Feng Hsieh
Opt. Express 16(24) 19900-19908 (2008)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Klingshirn, “ZnO: material, physics and applications,” ChemPhysChem 8(6), 782–803 (2010).
  3. A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. F. Zhe, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials (CRC. Press, 2013).
  6. A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. C. Sin, S. M. Lam, K. T. Lee, and A. R. Mohamed, “Preparation of rare earth-doped ZnO hierarchical micro/nanospheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation,” Ceram. Int. 40(4), 5431–5440 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Q. Liu and Z. G. Wang, “Relaxation of carriers in terbium-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 343(5-6), 489–492 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Ishizumi and Y. Kanemitsu, “Structural and luminescence properties of Eu-doped ZnO nanorods fabricated by a microemulsion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253106 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).
  15. L. F. Koao, F. B. Dejene, R. E. Kroon, and H. C. Swart, “Effect of Eu3+ on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition,” J. Lumin. 147, 85–89 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Zamirin, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Rüter and W. Bauhofer, “Highly luminescent Eu3+ or Tb3+ doped and ZnO sensitized optical fibers drawn from silicon compatible sealing glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(7), 892–894 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Chen and X. L. Xu, “Effect of oxygen deficiency on optical band gap shift in Er-doped ZnO films,” Physica B 406(17), 3121–3124 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, and B. Kumar, “Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles for dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 689, 333–341 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Pandey, R. Kurchania, and F. Z. Haque, “Rare earth ion (La, Ce, and Eu) doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method: application in dye sensitized solar cells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(4), 666–671 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. J. Chang, C. Y. Lin, J. K. Chen, and M. H. Hsu, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods based low operation temperature NO2 gas sensors,” Ceram. Int. 40(7), 10867–10875 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. L. Douglas, R. Mundle, R. Konda, C. E. Bonner, A. K. Pradhan, D. R. Sahu, and J. L. Huang, “Influence of doping rate in Er3+:ZnO films on emission characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 815–817 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. M. Williams, D. Hunter, A. K. Pradhan, and I. V. Kityk, “Photoinduced piezo-optical effect in Er doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043116 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  34. R. Zamiri, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  37. V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  39. Y. D. Zhang, L. Ma, C. B. Yang, and P. Yuan, “Nonlinear-optical and optical limiting properties of phenoxy-phthalocyanines studied using the Z-Sscan technique,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(4), 583–589 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  40. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n(2) measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  42. Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  43. M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  44. C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  45. X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  46. X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  47. K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).
  48. J. Tauc, R. Grigorvici, and Y. Yanca, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  49. Z. B. Bahsi and A. Y. Oral, “Effects of Mn and Cu doping on the microstructures and optical properties of sol–gel derived ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 29(6), 672–678 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  50. X. Y. Yan, K. X. Zhang, C. B. Yao, and Q. H. Li, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and optical Kerr effect of In doped ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 176, 49–51 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  51. J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9235–9247 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  53. K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  54. B. S. Kalanoor and P. B. Bisht, “Wavelength dependent resonant nonlinearities in a standard saturable absorber IR26 on picosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4059–4063 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  55. Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  56. E. V. García-Ramírez, S. Almaguer-Valenzuela, O. Sánchez-Dena, O. Baldovino-Pantaleón, and J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of colloidal Au nanorods systems: saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Opt. Express 24(2), A154–A167 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  57. J. K. Anthony, H. C. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. K. Mahapatra, H. M. Lee, C. K. Kim, K. Kim, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Particle size-dependent giant nonlinear absorption in nanostructured Ni-Ti alloys,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11193–11202 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  58. E. Parilov and M. J. Potasek, “Generalized theoretical treatment and numerical method of time-resolved radially dependent laser pulses interacting with multiphoton absorbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(9), 1894–1910 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  59. B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, “Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17745–17751 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  60. M. G. Vivas, T. Shih, T. Voss, E. Mazur, and C. R. Mendonca, “Nonlinear spectra of ZnO: reverse saturable, two- and three-photon absorption,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9628–9633 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  61. C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors [Invited],” Opt. Express 19(23), 22951–22960 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  62. Y. P. Chan, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Near-resonant high order nonlinear absorption of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19900–19908 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  63. M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035207 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  64. T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  65. I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, and B. Kumar, “Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles for dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 689, 333–341 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Yan, K. X. Zhang, C. B. Yao, and Q. H. Li, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and optical Kerr effect of In doped ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 176, 49–51 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. V. García-Ramírez, S. Almaguer-Valenzuela, O. Sánchez-Dena, O. Baldovino-Pantaleón, and J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of colloidal Au nanorods systems: saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Opt. Express 24(2), A154–A167 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pandey, R. Kurchania, and F. Z. Haque, “Rare earth ion (La, Ce, and Eu) doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method: application in dye sensitized solar cells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(4), 666–671 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

C. J. Chang, C. Y. Lin, J. K. Chen, and M. H. Hsu, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods based low operation temperature NO2 gas sensors,” Ceram. Int. 40(7), 10867–10875 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamiri, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Sin, S. M. Lam, K. T. Lee, and A. R. Mohamed, “Preparation of rare earth-doped ZnO hierarchical micro/nanospheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation,” Ceram. Int. 40(4), 5431–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. F. Koao, F. B. Dejene, R. E. Kroon, and H. C. Swart, “Effect of Eu3+ on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition,” J. Lumin. 147, 85–89 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamirin, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).

2012 (3)

Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Chen and X. L. Xu, “Effect of oxygen deficiency on optical band gap shift in Er-doped ZnO films,” Physica B 406(17), 3121–3124 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors [Invited],” Opt. Express 19(23), 22951–22960 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. G. Vivas, T. Shih, T. Voss, E. Mazur, and C. R. Mendonca, “Nonlinear spectra of ZnO: reverse saturable, two- and three-photon absorption,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9628–9633 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. S. Kalanoor and P. B. Bisht, “Wavelength dependent resonant nonlinearities in a standard saturable absorber IR26 on picosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Klingshirn, “ZnO: material, physics and applications,” ChemPhysChem 8(6), 782–803 (2010).

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Zhang, L. Ma, C. B. Yang, and P. Yuan, “Nonlinear-optical and optical limiting properties of phenoxy-phthalocyanines studied using the Z-Sscan technique,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(4), 583–589 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

2007 (5)

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Bahsi and A. Y. Oral, “Effects of Mn and Cu doping on the microstructures and optical properties of sol–gel derived ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 29(6), 672–678 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

E. Parilov and M. J. Potasek, “Generalized theoretical treatment and numerical method of time-resolved radially dependent laser pulses interacting with multiphoton absorbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(9), 1894–1910 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Williams, D. Hunter, A. K. Pradhan, and I. V. Kityk, “Photoinduced piezo-optical effect in Er doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043116 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizumi and Y. Kanemitsu, “Structural and luminescence properties of Eu-doped ZnO nanorods fabricated by a microemulsion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253106 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9235–9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Q. Liu and Z. G. Wang, “Relaxation of carriers in terbium-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 343(5-6), 489–492 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

D. Rüter and W. Bauhofer, “Highly luminescent Eu3+ or Tb3+ doped and ZnO sensitized optical fibers drawn from silicon compatible sealing glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(7), 892–894 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorvici, and Y. Yanca, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Aanand, J. S.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Abaker, M.

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Addou, M.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aga, R.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ahangar, H. A.

R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ajò, D.

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Assiri, M. S.

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Almaguer-Valenzuela, S.

Anthony, J. K.

Aoyagi, Y.

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bahsi, Z. B.

Z. B. Bahsi and A. Y. Oral, “Effects of Mn and Cu doping on the microstructures and optical properties of sol–gel derived ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 29(6), 672–678 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baldovino-Pantaleón, O.

Baskoutas, S.

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Bauhofer, W.

D. Rüter and W. Bauhofer, “Highly luminescent Eu3+ or Tb3+ doped and ZnO sensitized optical fibers drawn from silicon compatible sealing glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(7), 892–894 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bernède, J. C.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bisht, P. B.

B. S. Kalanoor and P. B. Bisht, “Wavelength dependent resonant nonlinearities in a standard saturable absorber IR26 on picosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonner, C. E.

Bubendorff, J. L.

J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buyanova, I. A.

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cannistraro, S.

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, B.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H. T.

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Casero, R. P.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, Y. P.

Chang, C. J.

C. J. Chang, C. Y. Lin, J. K. Chen, and M. H. Hsu, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods based low operation temperature NO2 gas sensors,” Ceram. Int. 40(7), 10867–10875 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chao, K.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. K.

C. J. Chang, C. Y. Lin, J. K. Chen, and M. H. Hsu, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods based low operation temperature NO2 gas sensors,” Ceram. Int. 40(7), 10867–10875 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. M.

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and X. L. Xu, “Effect of oxygen deficiency on optical band gap shift in Er-doped ZnO films,” Physica B 406(17), 3121–3124 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chow, Y. T.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cirloganu, C. M.

Dar, G. N.

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Defourneau, D.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Defourneau, R. M.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dejene, F. B.

L. F. Koao, F. B. Dejene, R. E. Kroon, and H. C. Swart, “Effect of Eu3+ on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition,” J. Lumin. 147, 85–89 (2014).
[Crossref]

Delfino, I.

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennison, C.

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dijkhuis, J. I.

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas, L.

Dounia, R.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dutta, V.

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ebothé, J.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
[Crossref]

El Hichou, A.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z. W.

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fellahi, N.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, J. M. F.

R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamirin, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamiri, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fishman, D. A.

Gao, Y.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

García-Ramírez, E. V.

Goel, S.

H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, and B. Kumar, “Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles for dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 689, 333–341 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goldner, P.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grigorvici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorvici, and Y. Yanca, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Gu, B.

Gu, X. Q.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, W. F.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

Han, Y.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haque, F. Z.

P. Pandey, R. Kurchania, and F. Z. Haque, “Rare earth ion (La, Ce, and Eu) doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method: application in dye sensitized solar cells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(4), 666–671 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, H. P.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, J.

Hebard, A. F.

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

Henini, M.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Heo, S.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heo, Y. W.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hichou, A. E.

J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hmelo, A. B.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, W. F.

Hsu, C. C.

Hsu, M. H.

C. J. Chang, C. Y. Lin, J. K. Chen, and M. H. Hsu, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods based low operation temperature NO2 gas sensors,” Ceram. Int. 40(7), 10867–10875 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, J. Y.

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J. L.

Huang, Y.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunter, D.

T. M. Williams, D. Hunter, A. K. Pradhan, and I. V. Kityk, “Photoinduced piezo-optical effect in Er doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, A. A.

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Ishii, M.

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishizumi, A.

A. Ishizumi and Y. Kanemitsu, “Structural and luminescence properties of Eu-doped ZnO nanorods fabricated by a microemulsion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Isshiki, H.

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ivill, M. P.

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jaganathan, S. K.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ji, S. L.

S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

Jia, W.

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L. X.

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kalanoor, B. S.

B. S. Kalanoor and P. B. Bisht, “Wavelength dependent resonant nonlinearities in a standard saturable absorber IR26 on picosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kanemitsu, Y.

A. Ishizumi and Y. Kanemitsu, “Structural and luminescence properties of Eu-doped ZnO nanorods fabricated by a microemulsion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kang, B. S.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Katsumata, T.

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kaushal, A.

R. Zamirin, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamiri, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. K.

Kim, D. Y.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. C.

Kim, K.

Kityk, I. V.

T. M. Williams, D. Hunter, A. K. Pradhan, and I. V. Kityk, “Photoinduced piezo-optical effect in Er doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Klingshirn, C.

C. Klingshirn, “ZnO: material, physics and applications,” ChemPhysChem 8(6), 782–803 (2010).

Koao, L. F.

L. F. Koao, F. B. Dejene, R. E. Kroon, and H. C. Swart, “Effect of Eu3+ on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition,” J. Lumin. 147, 85–89 (2014).
[Crossref]

Komuro, S.

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Konda, R.

Kong, X.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Krishna, M. G.

K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kroon, R. E.

L. F. Koao, F. B. Dejene, R. E. Kroon, and H. C. Swart, “Effect of Eu3+ on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition,” J. Lumin. 147, 85–89 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuis, T.

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, B.

H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, and B. Kumar, “Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles for dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 689, 333–341 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kumari, V.

V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kurchania, R.

P. Pandey, R. Kurchania, and F. Z. Haque, “Rare earth ion (La, Ce, and Eu) doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method: application in dye sensitized solar cells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(4), 666–671 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

La Roche, J. R.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ladchumananandasivam, R.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lam, S. M.

J. C. Sin, S. M. Lam, K. T. Lee, and A. R. Mohamed, “Preparation of rare earth-doped ZnO hierarchical micro/nanospheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation,” Ceram. Int. 40(4), 5431–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lamrani, M. A.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. M.

Lee, H. W.

Lee, K. T.

J. C. Sin, S. M. Lam, K. T. Lee, and A. R. Mohamed, “Preparation of rare earth-doped ZnO hierarchical micro/nanospheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation,” Ceram. Int. 40(4), 5431–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lemos, A. F.

R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leung, Y. H.

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Li, J.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Q. H.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Yan, K. X. Zhang, C. B. Yao, and Q. H. Li, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and optical Kerr effect of In doped ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 176, 49–51 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. G.

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, L. Y.

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y. M.

K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).

Lim, H.

Lin, C. Y.

C. J. Chang, C. Y. Lin, J. K. Chen, and M. H. Hsu, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods based low operation temperature NO2 gas sensors,” Ceram. Int. 40(7), 10867–10875 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. H.

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, F. Q.

F. Q. Liu and Z. G. Wang, “Relaxation of carriers in terbium-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 343(5-6), 489–492 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. D.

S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. L.

Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).

Liu, Y. L.

Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. B.

Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Llorente, A. G.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

Y. D. Zhang, L. Ma, C. B. Yang, and P. Yuan, “Nonlinear-optical and optical limiting properties of phenoxy-phthalocyanines studied using the Z-Sscan technique,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(4), 583–589 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, S. Y.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maaza, M.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mahapatra, S. K.

Malik, B. P.

V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Manikandan, A.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Manikandan, E.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Manzoni, C.

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

Meenatchi, B.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mehra, R. M.

V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mendonca, C. R.

Mi, J.

Miao, L.

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Millon, E.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mohamed, A. R.

J. C. Sin, S. M. Lam, K. T. Lee, and A. R. Mohamed, “Preparation of rare earth-doped ZnO hierarchical micro/nanospheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation,” Ceram. Int. 40(4), 5431–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mohan, D.

V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moll, O. P. Y.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morgan, S. H.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morikawa, T.

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morkoçd, H.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mu, R.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mundle, R.

Norton, D. P.

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

Oral, A. Y.

Z. B. Bahsi and A. Y. Oral, “Effects of Mn and Cu doping on the microstructures and optical properties of sol–gel derived ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 29(6), 672–678 (2007).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Padilha, L. A.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pandey, P.

P. Pandey, R. Kurchania, and F. Z. Haque, “Rare earth ion (La, Ce, and Eu) doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method: application in dye sensitized solar cells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(4), 666–671 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parilov, E.

Pearton, S. J.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Perrière, J.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Potasek, M. J.

Pradhan, A. K.

L. Douglas, R. Mundle, R. Konda, C. E. Bonner, A. K. Pradhan, D. R. Sahu, and J. L. Huang, “Influence of doping rate in Er3+:ZnO films on emission characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 815–817 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Williams, D. Hunter, A. K. Pradhan, and I. V. Kityk, “Photoinduced piezo-optical effect in Er doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Qu, S. Y.

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qu, Y.

Raju, K. C. J.

K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ran, F.

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rao, S. V.

K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rebelo, A.

R. Zamiri, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamirin, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reblo, A.

R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ren, Q.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Reyes-Esqueda, J. A.

Rino, L.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolli, R.

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

Rüter, D.

D. Rüter and W. Bauhofer, “Highly luminescent Eu3+ or Tb3+ doped and ZnO sensitized optical fibers drawn from silicon compatible sealing glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(7), 892–894 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sahraoui, B.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahu, D. R.

Said, A. A.

Sánchez-Dena, O.

Saravanan, K. V.

K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seiler, W.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shan, G.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. K.

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sheik-bahae, M.

Shi, J. Y.

K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).

Shibata, N.

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shih, T.

Sin, J. C.

J. C. Sin, S. M. Lam, K. T. Lee, and A. R. Mohamed, “Preparation of rare earth-doped ZnO hierarchical micro/nanospheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation,” Ceram. Int. 40(4), 5431–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sinha, N.

H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, and B. Kumar, “Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles for dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 689, 333–341 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sofiani, Z.

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soga, T.

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. L.

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Speghini, A.

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steigerwald, A.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stoof, H. T. C.

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, W. J.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. B.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, “Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17745–17751 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Swart, H. C.

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. F. Koao, F. B. Dejene, R. E. Kroon, and H. C. Swart, “Effect of Eu3+ on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition,” J. Lumin. 147, 85–89 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, M. Y.

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanemura, M.

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanemura, S.

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorvici, and Y. Yanca, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tewari, S. P.

K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, J. G.

Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tien, L. C.

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ueda, A.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

Umar, A.

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Vadivel, S.

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Versteegh, M. A. M.

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Viana, B.

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vivas, M. G.

Voss, T.

Wachtler, K.

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wachtler, M.

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. G.

F. Q. Liu and Z. G. Wang, “Relaxation of carriers in terbium-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 343(5-6), 489–492 (2001).
[Crossref]

Webster, S.

Wei, T. H.

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Williams, T. M.

T. M. Williams, D. Hunter, A. K. Pradhan, and I. V. Kityk, “Photoinduced piezo-optical effect in Er doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. D.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. F.

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. Z.

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Z. G.

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. L.

Y. Chen and X. L. Xu, “Effect of oxygen deficiency on optical band gap shift in Er-doped ZnO films,” Physica B 406(17), 3121–3124 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xue, H.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yadav, H.

H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, and B. Kumar, “Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles for dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 689, 333–341 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, X. Y.

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Yan, K. X. Zhang, C. B. Yao, and Q. H. Li, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and optical Kerr effect of In doped ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 176, 49–51 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yanca, Y.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorvici, and Y. Yanca, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. B.

Y. D. Zhang, L. Ma, C. B. Yang, and P. Yuan, “Nonlinear-optical and optical limiting properties of phenoxy-phthalocyanines studied using the Z-Sscan technique,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(4), 583–589 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. L.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. B.

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, C. B.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Yan, K. X. Zhang, C. B. Yao, and Q. H. Li, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and optical Kerr effect of In doped ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 176, 49–51 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. H.

S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z. Z.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yin, L. L.

S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, K. S.

K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).

Yu, Y.

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

Y. D. Zhang, L. Ma, C. B. Yang, and P. Yuan, “Nonlinear-optical and optical limiting properties of phenoxy-phthalocyanines studied using the Z-Sscan technique,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(4), 583–589 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaidi, S. A.

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Zamiri, R.

R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamiri, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zamirin, R.

R. Zamirin, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zang, W. P.

Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J. M.

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhai, F. X.

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F. J.

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. H.

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K. X.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Yan, K. X. Zhang, C. B. Yao, and Q. H. Li, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and optical Kerr effect of In doped ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 176, 49–51 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. D.

S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. D.

Y. D. Zhang, L. Ma, C. B. Yang, and P. Yuan, “Nonlinear-optical and optical limiting properties of phenoxy-phthalocyanines studied using the Z-Sscan technique,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(4), 583–589 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Z.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. L.

K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).

Zhao, B. H.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C. H.

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhou, F.

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. P.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

V. Kumar, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, T. Soga, V. Dutta, and H. C. Swart, “Rare earth doped zinc oxide nanophosphor powder: a future material for solid state lighting and solar cells,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2613–2637 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 μm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Heo, L. C. Tien, Y. Kwon, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, and J. R. La Roche, “Depletion-mode ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2274–2276 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. M. Williams, D. Hunter, A. K. Pradhan, and I. V. Kityk, “Photoinduced piezo-optical effect in Er doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043116 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizumi and Y. Kanemitsu, “Structural and luminescence properties of Eu-doped ZnO nanorods fabricated by a microemulsion method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253106 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Rüter and W. Bauhofer, “Highly luminescent Eu3+ or Tb3+ doped and ZnO sensitized optical fibers drawn from silicon compatible sealing glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(7), 892–894 (1996).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Li, L. Y. Liang, H. T. Cao, Z. G. Xiao, X. Z. Wu, Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, T. H. Wei, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in SnOx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 102103 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. V. Saravanan, K. C. J. Raju, M. G. Krishna, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Large three-photon absorption in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films studied using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 232905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (5)

R. Zamirin, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamiri, A. F. Lemos, A. Reblo, H. A. Ahangar, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Effects of rare-earth (Er, La and Yb) doping on morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical method,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 523–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Sin, S. M. Lam, K. T. Lee, and A. R. Mohamed, “Preparation of rare earth-doped ZnO hierarchical micro/nanospheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation,” Ceram. Int. 40(4), 5431–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. J. Chang, C. Y. Lin, J. K. Chen, and M. H. Hsu, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods based low operation temperature NO2 gas sensors,” Ceram. Int. 40(7), 10867–10875 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zamiri, A. Kaushal, A. Rebelo, and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Er doped ZnO nanoplates: Synthesis, optical and dielectric properties,” Ceram. Int. 40(1), 1635–1639 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Q. Liu and Z. G. Wang, “Relaxation of carriers in terbium-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 343(5-6), 489–492 (2001).
[Crossref]

ChemPhysChem (1)

C. Klingshirn, “ZnO: material, physics and applications,” ChemPhysChem 8(6), 782–803 (2010).

IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. (1)

D. P. Norton, M. P. Ivill, A. F. Hebard, J. M. Zavada, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions,” IEEE. T. Electron. Dev. 54(5), 1040–1048 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (2)

A. Manikandan, E. Manikandan, B. Meenatchi, S. Vadivel, S. K. Jaganathan, R. Ladchumananandasivam, M. Henini, M. Maaza, and J. S. Aanand, “Rare earth element (REE) lanthanum doped zinc oxide (La: ZnO) nanomaterials: Synthesis structural optical and antibacterial studies,” J. Alloys Compd. 723, 1155–1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, and B. Kumar, “Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles for dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 689, 333–341 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

J. L. Bubendorff, J. Ebothé, A. E. Hichou, R. Dounia, and M. Addou, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014505 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Luminescent spectroscopy and imaging of textured sprayed Er-doped ZnO films in the near ultraviolet and visible regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. P. Casero, A. G. Llorente, O. P. Y. Moll, W. Seiler, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, E. Millon, J. Perrière, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054905 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoçd, “A comprehensive review of ZnO and related devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

L. F. Koao, F. B. Dejene, R. E. Kroon, and H. C. Swart, “Effect of Eu3+ on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition,” J. Lumin. 147, 85–89 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Nanomater. (1)

K. S. Yu, J. Y. Shi, Z. L. Zhang, Y. M. Liang, and W. Liu, “Synthesis, pharacterization, and photocatalysis of ZnO and Er-Doped ZnO,” J. Nanomater. 1, 75 (2013).

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

Y. D. Zhang, L. Ma, C. B. Yang, and P. Yuan, “Nonlinear-optical and optical limiting properties of phenoxy-phthalocyanines studied using the Z-Sscan technique,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18(4), 583–589 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

I. Delfino, C. Manzoni, K. Sato, C. Dennison, G. Cerullo, and S. Cannistraro, “Ultrafast pump-probe study of excited-state charge-transfer dynamics in umecyanin from horseradish root,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17252–17259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Kong, G. Shan, Y. Yu, Y. Sun, L. Feng, K. Chao, S. Lu, and Y. Li, “Luminescence spectroscopy and visible upconversion properties of Er3+ in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(48), 18408–18413 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. L. Ji, L. L. Yin, G. D. Liu, L. D. Zhang, and C. H. Ye, “Synthesis of rare earth ions-doped ZnO nanostructures with efficient host-guest energy transfer,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(37), 16439–16444 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Steigerwald, A. B. Hmelo, and R. Mu, “Er-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed e-beam deposition,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(26), 266216 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Fang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yang, X. Z. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, F. Zhou, and Y. L. Song, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-type GaN wafer under different carrier distributions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(4), 045105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

F. J. Zhang, W. F. Guo, X. B. Sun, Q. Ren, Y. Gao, H. L. Yang, G. H. Zhang, Y. T. Chow, and D. Xu, “Nonlinear optical absorption of [(C2H5)4N]2Cu(dmit)2 irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(3), 230–233 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

X. Y. Yan, K. X. Zhang, C. B. Yao, and Q. H. Li, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and optical Kerr effect of In doped ZnO nanowires,” Mater. Lett. 176, 49–51 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, and N. Shibata, “Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148(1), 35–39 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

J. Wu, B. Cao, L. Rino, Y. Fang, L. Hu, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and B. Dong, “Strong up-conversion luminescence of rare-earth doped oxide films enhanced by gap modes on ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale 10(2), 726–732 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (4)

V. Kumari, V. Kumar, B. P. Malik, R. M. Mehra, and D. Mohan, “Nonlinear optical properties of erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) films,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2182–2188 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Lamrani, M. Addou, Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, J. Ebothé, A. El Hichou, N. Fellahi, J. C. Bernède, and R. Dounia, “Cathodoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of undoped and erbium doped nanostructured ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 196–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. F. Wu, C. H. Zhou, L. X. Jiang, F. X. Zhai, W. Jia, and Z. W. Fan, “Ultrafast dynamics of BixSb1-x film studied by femtosecond pump–probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4383–4386 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. S. Kalanoor and P. B. Bisht, “Wavelength dependent resonant nonlinearities in a standard saturable absorber IR26 on picosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

J. K. Anthony, H. C. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. K. Mahapatra, H. M. Lee, C. K. Kim, K. Kim, H. Lim, and F. Rotermund, “Particle size-dependent giant nonlinear absorption in nanostructured Ni-Ti alloys,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11193–11202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, “Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17745–17751 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Chan, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Near-resonant high order nonlinear absorption of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19900–19908 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Vivas, T. Shih, T. Voss, E. Mazur, and C. R. Mendonca, “Nonlinear spectra of ZnO: reverse saturable, two- and three-photon absorption,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9628–9633 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors [Invited],” Opt. Express 19(23), 22951–22960 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. V. García-Ramírez, S. Almaguer-Valenzuela, O. Sánchez-Dena, O. Baldovino-Pantaleón, and J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of colloidal Au nanorods systems: saturable and reverse-saturable absorption,” Opt. Express 24(2), A154–A167 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, Y. Qu, H. Li, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Three-photon absorption in ZnO and ZnS crystals,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9235–9247 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (4)

Z. B. Bahsi and A. Y. Oral, “Effects of Mn and Cu doping on the microstructures and optical properties of sol–gel derived ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 29(6), 672–678 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Tan, C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, J. Li, S. Y. Qu, J. Y. Hu, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, and S. B. Yang, “Structural and nonlinear optical behavior of Ag-doped ZnO films,” Opt. Mater. 51, 133–138 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. B. Yao, X. Y. Yan, M. Y. Tan, J. Li, W. J. Sun, and S. B. Yang, “The fluorescence and dynamics properties in phenoxy-phthalocyanines liquid,” Opt. Mater. 44(1), 33–36 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, Y. Han, C. B. Yao, K. X. Zhang, J. Li, W. J. Sun, Q. H. Li, M. Zhang, and J. D. Wu, “The photoluminescence, ultrafast nonlinear optical properties and carrier dynamics of 1D In-doped ZnO nanostructures: Experiment and mechanism,” Opt. Mater. 77, 67–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

P. Pandey, R. Kurchania, and F. Z. Haque, “Rare earth ion (La, Ce, and Eu) doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via sol-gel method: application in dye sensitized solar cells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(4), 666–671 (2015).
[Crossref]

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

Y. L. Liu, H. L. Liu, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, and J. G. Tian, “Effects of solvent on nonlinear absorption properties of tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in the nanosecond regime,” Optik (Stuttg.) 123(11), 1015–1018 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorvici, and Y. Yanca, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Physica B (1)

Y. Chen and X. L. Xu, “Effect of oxygen deficiency on optical band gap shift in Er-doped ZnO films,” Physica B 406(17), 3121–3124 (2011).
[Crossref]

Physica E (1)

Y. Chen, X. L. Xu, G. H. Zhang, H. Xue, and S. Y. Ma, “Blue shift of optical band gap in Er-doped ZnO films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering technique,” Physica E 42(5), 1713–1716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. (1)

G. N. Dar, A. Umar, S. A. Zaidi, A. A. Ibrahim, M. Abaker, S. Baskoutas, and M. S. Al-Assiri, “Ce-doped ZnO nanorods for the detection of hazardous chemical,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 173(10), 72–78 (2012).

Small (1)

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

R. Rolli, K. Wachtler, M. Wachtler, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and D. Ajò, “Optical spectroscopy of lanthanide ions in ZnO-TeO2 glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 57(10), 2009–2017 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (2)

S. Heo, S. K. Sharma, S. Lee, Y. Lee, C. Kim, B. Lee, H. Lee, and D. Y. Kim, “Effects of Y contents on surface, structural, optical, and electrical properties for Y-doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films 558(17), 27–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. F. Zhe, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials (CRC. Press, 2013).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of EZO films deposited on quartz substrates.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM (a-d) image of AZO films at dc power of 2 W, 4 W, 8 W and 12W, respectively. The inset shows the distribution of the particle size for EZO films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption (a) and transmittance (b) spectra of EZO films
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized open (a) and closed (b) aperture Z-scan transmittance curves of EZO films measured at 532 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Open aperture Z-scan curves of sample irradiated by 5ns, 21 ps and 100 fs laser pulses at 532 nm (a), and three distinct wavelengths: 400, 532 and 800 nm, all measured with energies of 60 nj at 100 fs laser pulses (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Open-aperture Z-scan curves of the EZO films in different input light intensities at 400 nm (a), 532 nm (b) and 800 nm (c).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic illustration of photodynamic in semiconductor materials nanocrystals.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured transient absorption change of EZO for three different pump wavelength (a) 325 nm, (b) 380 nm and (c) 400 nm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Principal pump-induced absorption processes for a) SPA induced DLA, b) SPA induced ESA and c) simultaneous two-photon absorption induced ESA.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nonlinear absorption coefficients of EZO film at different pules and wavelength, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Nonlinear absorption coefficients of EZO film under different laser energy with 400, 532 and 800 nm laser wavelengths at femtosecond pulse, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

(a) S 0 2h v 1 S 2 TPA-induced GA or DL SA (b) S 0 2h v 1 S 2 S 1 / DL 2PA-induced DL or ES RSA (c) S 0 3h v 1 S 2 ES3PA-induced ES RSA
S 0 S 1 S 2 pump-induced absorption S 0 nh v 1 S 1 DLpump-induced absorption