Abstract

A wide range of saturable absorbers composed of novel low-dimensional nanomaterials were fabricated, and their linear and nonlinear optical properties were characterized. Furthermore, their suitability for ultrashort-pulse generation in waveguide laser operating at a wavelength of 2 microns was demonstrated and passively q-switched mode-locked operation was achieved with all absorbers. The material systems that were studied in this work include nanosheet-based absorbers composed of graphene, carbon nanotubes, black phosphorus, transition-metal dichalcogenides, topological insulators and indium tin oxide. By utilizing a uniform few-layer spin coating fabrication technique and by employing a single, identical laser resonator, a direct comparison of the individual characteristics of these materials in the context of short-pulse generation in waveguide lasers was made possible. Each of the individually fabricated and characterized saturable absorbers was placed inside a thulium-doped fluoride glass waveguide chip laser cavity and the resulting output performance was analyzed and contrasted. It was further found that the few-layer spin coating approach enables fine-tuning of the absorber characteristics and that all low-dimensional nanomaterials under investigation can be utilized for ultrashort pulse generation in the 2-micron wavelength range. General guidelines for the design of passively modulated short-pulsed laser oscillators are presented based on those findings.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

2016 (4)

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ulstrup, A. G. Čabo, J. A. Miwa, J. M. Riley, S. S. Grønborg, J. C. Johannsen, C. Cacho, O. Alexander, R. T. Chapman, E. Springate, M. Bianchi, M. Dendzik, J. V. Lauritsen, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast band structure control of a two-dimensional heterostructure,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6315–6322 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, S. Y. Choi, C. Zhu, M. H. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. J. Park, D. H. Shin, M. Y. Jung, F. Wang, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr2+:ZnS laser with ~300 nm tuning range,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20774–20780 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, E. Palleau, T. Amand, S. Tongay, X. Marie, and B. Urbaszek, “Polarization and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of excitons in MoSe2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 112101 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, Z. Xue, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Zhao, and T. Mu, “Large-scale, highly efficient, and green liquid-exfoliation of black phosphorus in ionic liquids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(50), 27608–27612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Iliev, I. Buchvarov, S. Y. Choi, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and V. Petrov, “1.34 μm Nd:YVO4 laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE 8235, 82350I (2012)

M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3532–3536 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Bai, C. Li, and G. Shi, “Functional composite materials based on chemically converted graphene,” Adv. Mater. 23(9), 1089–1115 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the non linear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (4)

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Jong Hyuk, C. Won Bae, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kihong, L. Hanjo, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and H. Inoue, “Model of laser cooling in the Yb3+-doped fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN,” Phys. Rev. B 75(14), 144302 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Fuerbach, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, T. Fuji, and F. Krausz, “Chirped-pulse oscillators for the generation of high-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 23(02), 113–116 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mu m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Jong Hyuk, C. Won Bae, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kihong, L. Hanjo, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mu m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alam, M. Z.

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexander, O.

S. Ulstrup, A. G. Čabo, J. A. Miwa, J. M. Riley, S. S. Grønborg, J. C. Johannsen, C. Cacho, O. Alexander, R. T. Chapman, E. Springate, M. Bianchi, M. Dendzik, J. V. Lauritsen, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast band structure control of a two-dimensional heterostructure,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6315–6322 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amand, T.

G. Wang, E. Palleau, T. Amand, S. Tongay, X. Marie, and B. Urbaszek, “Polarization and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of excitons in MoSe2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 112101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

Anija, M.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

A. Fuerbach, A. Fernandez, A. Apolonski, T. Fuji, and F. Krausz, “Chirped-pulse oscillators for the generation of high-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Part. Beams 23(02), 113–116 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, H.

H. Bai, C. Li, and G. Shi, “Functional composite materials based on chemically converted graphene,” Adv. Mater. 23(9), 1089–1115 (2011).
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S. Ulstrup, A. G. Čabo, J. A. Miwa, J. M. Riley, S. S. Grønborg, J. C. Johannsen, C. Cacho, O. Alexander, R. T. Chapman, E. Springate, M. Bianchi, M. Dendzik, J. V. Lauritsen, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast band structure control of a two-dimensional heterostructure,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6315–6322 (2016).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
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Y. Jong Hyuk, C. Won Bae, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kihong, L. Hanjo, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161106 (2008).
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Y. Jong Hyuk, C. Won Bae, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kihong, L. Hanjo, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161106 (2008).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
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M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and H. Inoue, “Model of laser cooling in the Yb3+-doped fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN,” Phys. Rev. B 75(14), 144302 (2007).
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S. Ulstrup, A. G. Čabo, J. A. Miwa, J. M. Riley, S. S. Grønborg, J. C. Johannsen, C. Cacho, O. Alexander, R. T. Chapman, E. Springate, M. Bianchi, M. Dendzik, J. V. Lauritsen, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast band structure control of a two-dimensional heterostructure,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6315–6322 (2016).
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Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
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W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the non linear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
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Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
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G. Wang, E. Palleau, T. Amand, S. Tongay, X. Marie, and B. Urbaszek, “Polarization and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of excitons in MoSe2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 112101 (2015).
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Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
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M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3532–3536 (2012).
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H. Iliev, I. Buchvarov, S. Y. Choi, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and V. Petrov, “1.34 μm Nd:YVO4 laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE 8235, 82350I (2012)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the non linear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
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W. B. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2 microm using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11007–11012 (2009).
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A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008).
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Y. Jong Hyuk, C. Won Bae, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kihong, L. Hanjo, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161106 (2008).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
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S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
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Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mu m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
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S. Ulstrup, A. G. Čabo, J. A. Miwa, J. M. Riley, S. S. Grønborg, J. C. Johannsen, C. Cacho, O. Alexander, R. T. Chapman, E. Springate, M. Bianchi, M. Dendzik, J. V. Lauritsen, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast band structure control of a two-dimensional heterostructure,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6315–6322 (2016).
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Rotermund, F.

W. B. Cho, S. Y. Choi, C. Zhu, M. H. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. J. Park, D. H. Shin, M. Y. Jung, F. Wang, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr2+:ZnS laser with ~300 nm tuning range,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20774–20780 (2016).
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H. Iliev, I. Buchvarov, S. Y. Choi, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and V. Petrov, “1.34 μm Nd:YVO4 laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Proc. SPIE 8235, 82350I (2012)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the non linear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. B. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2 microm using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11007–11012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, D. Rytz, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Sub-100 fs single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber mode-locked Yb-laser operation near 1 microm,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20109–20116 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jong Hyuk, C. Won Bae, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kihong, L. Hanjo, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161106 (2008).
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Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mu m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
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Schmidt, A.

Schmidt, B.

Set, S. Y.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
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H. Bai, C. Li, and G. Shi, “Functional composite materials based on chemically converted graphene,” Adv. Mater. 23(9), 1089–1115 (2011).
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Shin, D. H.

Shivaraman, S.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sood, A. K.

S. Kumar, M. Anija, N. Kamaraju, K. S. Vasu, K. S. Subrahmanyam, A. K. Sood, and C. N. R. Rao, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics and saturable absorption in graphene suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spencer, M. G.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
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H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
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W. Zhao, Z. Xue, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Zhao, and T. Mu, “Large-scale, highly efficient, and green liquid-exfoliation of black phosphorus in ionic liquids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(50), 27608–27612 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
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Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mu m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
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Zhang, Y.

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photonics 3(8), 080802 (2018).
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Z. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Cheng, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “6.5 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers based on two-dimensional materials as saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11321–11330 (2018).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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W. Zhao, Z. Xue, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Zhao, and T. Mu, “Large-scale, highly efficient, and green liquid-exfoliation of black phosphorus in ionic liquids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(50), 27608–27612 (2015).
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Zhao, X.

W. Zhao, Z. Xue, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Zhao, and T. Mu, “Large-scale, highly efficient, and green liquid-exfoliation of black phosphorus in ionic liquids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(50), 27608–27612 (2015).
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Zhao, Y. P.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mu m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
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Zhu, C.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, S. Y. Choi, C. Zhu, M. H. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Kim, H. J. Park, D. H. Shin, M. Y. Jung, F. Wang, and F. Rotermund, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr2+:ZnS laser with ~300 nm tuning range,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20774–20780 (2016).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

W. Zhao, Z. Xue, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Zhao, and T. Mu, “Large-scale, highly efficient, and green liquid-exfoliation of black phosphorus in ionic liquids,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(50), 27608–27612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ulstrup, A. G. Čabo, J. A. Miwa, J. M. Riley, S. S. Grønborg, J. C. Johannsen, C. Cacho, O. Alexander, R. T. Chapman, E. Springate, M. Bianchi, M. Dendzik, J. V. Lauritsen, P. D. C. King, and P. Hofmann, “Ultrafast band structure control of a two-dimensional heterostructure,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6315–6322 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D. I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the non linear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Bai, C. Li, and G. Shi, “Functional composite materials based on chemically converted graphene,” Adv. Mater. 23(9), 1089–1115 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

APL Photonics (1)

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photonics 3(8), 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Intensity-dependent transmission curves of the fabricated samples measured at 1880 nm. From those graphs, the saturation intensity, modulation depth and non-saturable loss parameters can be extracted as highlighted in each graph. The materials are (a) graphene, (b) carbon nanotubes (CNTs), (c) topological insulators, bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), (d) transition metal dichalcogenides (TDMCs), (e) black phosphorus (BP) and (e) indium tin oxide (ITO).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Modulation depth of the fabricated saturable absorbers as function of their saturation intensity. SAs located in the top left corner feature a high modulation depth and low saturation intensity corresponding to a large nonlinear modulation coefficient η NLM .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the laser setup used to investigate the individual saturable absorbers. The diameter and length of the femtosecond laser inscribed waveguide (WG) was 50 μm and 12 mm, respectively. The focal lengths of lenses 1-3 were 40, 20 and 20 mm respectively. The distances d1, d2, d3 and d4 were 40, 120, 40 and 35 mm respectively. z: laser propagation direction, Brewster angle is in the (z-x) plane.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Laser performance of graphene saturable absorbers with 5, 10 and 15 spin coating layers. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Laser performance of the CNTs saturable absorber. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Laser performance of the Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers with 5, 10 and 15 spin coating layers. QML operation was not observed with the 5-layer sample. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Laser performance of the TDMC MoS2 saturable absorbers with 1, 2 and 5 spin coating layers. QML operation was only observed with the 2-layer sample. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Typical laser performance of the TDMC MoSe2 saturable absorbers with 1, 2 5 and 10 spin coating layers. QML operation was observed with the 5- and the 10-layer sample. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Laser performance of the TDMC WS2 saturable absorbers with 1 and 2 spin coating layers. QML operation was observed with the 1-layer sample whereas pure q-switched operation was observed with the 2-layer sample. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Laser performance of the TDMC WSe2 saturable absorbers with 1, 2, 5 and 10 spin coating layers. QML operation was only observed with the 10-layer sample. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Laser performance of the BP saturable absorbers with 1, 2, 5 and 10 layers. QML operation was achieved using the 5 and the 10-layer sample. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Laser performance of the ITO saturable absorber. (a) Output power as function of pump power. (b) Pulse train shown on different times scales. (c) Q-switched repetition rate and pulse duration as function of pump power. (d) RF spectrum at maximum pump power.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) modulation depth (ΔT), (b) saturation intensity (Is), (c) QML threshold pump (Pth-pump) power, (d) QML threshold output power (Pth), (e) slope efficiency (η), (f) maximum output power (Pmax) as a function of non-saturable losses. Linear fitting with 90% confidence.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the experimentally determined nonlinear transmission properties of all fabricated saturable absorbers. The saturation fluence FS was calculated based on their recovery time τr according to FS = IS τr. IS: saturation intensity, ∆T: total modulation depth of the absorber, ηNLM: nonlinear modulation coefficient, Lnon: non-saturable losses. The number of spin-coated layers for the individual SAs are shown in brackets. Minimum and maximum values are indicated for each property.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the laser parameters obtained with the various absorbers. The green cells show the absorbers that enabled QML operation. Only the 2-layer WS2 absorber resulted in pure q-switched behavior (shown in grey).

Equations (2)

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T(I)=exp[ ( α 0 L+ α 1  L 1+ I I s ) ] 
η NLM = ΔT I S  .

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