Abstract

Scattering of ophthalmic devices is a complex phenomenon involving both surface and bulk light-material interactions. In this work, light scattering of nanocellulose reinforced PVA hydrogels contact lenses for ophthalmic applications was investigated. Optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used for ultrastructure characterization. Further, 3D angle resolved light scattering measurements in the visible spectral range were performed using a BTDF (bidirectional transmittance distribution function) sensor to quantify the scattered light. Surface and bulk scattering properties were discerned using white light interferometry. Total scatter levels ranging from 3% to 40% were observed depending on the hydrogel composition. The most critical factor affecting the light scattering properties in nanocellulose-reinforced PVA hydrogels was related to the state of hydration of the hydrogels, which is critical to maintain visual acuity of ophthalmic devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. K. Tummala, R. Rojas, and A. Mihranyan, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels Reinforced with Nanocellulose for Ophthalmic Applications: General Characteristics and Optical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(51), 13094–13101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

S. Schröder, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Standardization of light scattering measurements,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 361–375 (2015).

N. M. Farandos, A. K. Yetisen, M. J. Monteiro, C. R. Lowe, and S. H. Yun, “Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 4(6), 792–810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

Ş. Ţălu and S. Stach, “Multifractal characterization of unworn hydrogel contact lens surfaces,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 54(5), 1066–1080 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Light scattering of interference coatings from the IR to the EUV spectral regions,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 113–120 (2014).

2013 (2)

A. Mihranyan, “Viscoelastic properties of cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol and surface-oxidized cellulose whisker hydrogels,” Cellulose 20(3), 1369–1376 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Abitbol, A. Palermo, J. M. Moran-Mirabal, and E. D. Cranston, “Fluorescent labeling and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals with varying charge contents,” Biomacromolecules 14(9), 3278–3284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

I. G. Cox and R. H. Lee, “Understanding Lens Shape Dynamics During Off-Eye Dehydration of Contact Lens Materials with Varying Water Content,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 6104 (2012).

2011 (2)

J. Nichols and H. Chandler, “UV protection with contact lenses,” Optometry Today 51, 8–37 (2011).

W. H. Ridder, A. Tomlinson, J.-F. Huang, and J. Li, “Impaired visual performance in patients with dry eye,” Ocul. Surf. 9(1), 42–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and D. Madrid-Costa, “The tear film and the optical quality of the eye,” Ocul. Surf. 8(4), 185–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Giraldez, C. García-Resúa, M. Lira, M. E. Real Oliveira, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “White light interferometry to characterize the hydrogel contact lens surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(3), 289–297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. M. Oelker and M. W. Grinstaff, “Ophthalmic adhesives: a materials chemistry perspective,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(22), 2521–2536 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. E. Swindle and N. Ravi, “Recent advances in polymeric vitreous substitutes,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(2), 255–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. M. González-Méijome, M. Lira, A. López-Alemany, J. B. Almeida, M. A. Parafita, and M. F. Refojo, “Refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(1), 57–64 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, M. Kamprath, A. Duparré, A. Tünnermann, B. Kühn, and U. Klett, “Bulk scattering properties of synthetic fused silica at 193 nm,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10537–10549 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, N. Yamakawa, and M. Usui, “Cell adhesion to acrylic intraocular lens associated with lens surface properties,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1648–1651 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Katsikogianni and Y. F. Missirlis, “Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials and of techniques used in estimating bacteria-material interactions,” Eur. Cell. Mater. 8, 37–57 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

N. Yamakawa, T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, M. Hamano, and M. Usui, “Surface roughness of intraocular lenses and inflammatory cell adhesion to lens surfaces,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(2), 367–370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

P. C. Nicolson and J. Vogt, “Soft contact lens polymers: an evolution,” Biomaterials 22(24), 3273–3283 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, C. Albarrán, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Characterization of the visual performance with soft daily wear disposable contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18(1), 40–48 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Zignani, C. Tabatabay, and R. Gurny, “Topical semi-solid drug delivery: kinetics and tolerance of ophthalmic hydrogels,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 16(1), 51–60 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Rieger, “The importance of the precorneal tear film for the quality of optical imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 76(3), 157–158 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

S.-Y. Kim, Y. Honda, N. Nao-i, E. Sakaue, and M. Nambu, “A new polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a scleral buckling material,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100(2), 328–330 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

M. G. Harris and M. D. Chamberlain, “Light transmission of hydrogel contact lenses,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55(2), 93–96 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abetz, L.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abitbol, T.

T. Abitbol, A. Palermo, J. M. Moran-Mirabal, and E. D. Cranston, “Fluorescent labeling and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals with varying charge contents,” Biomacromolecules 14(9), 3278–3284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albarrán, C.

A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, C. Albarrán, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Characterization of the visual performance with soft daily wear disposable contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18(1), 40–48 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, J. B.

J. M. González-Méijome, M. Lira, A. López-Alemany, J. B. Almeida, M. A. Parafita, and M. F. Refojo, “Refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(1), 57–64 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artigas, J. M.

A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, C. Albarrán, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Characterization of the visual performance with soft daily wear disposable contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18(1), 40–48 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Begley, C. G.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, J. M.

Bertera, J. H.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buznyk, O.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caffery, B. A.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerviño, A.

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and D. Madrid-Costa, “The tear film and the optical quality of the eye,” Ocul. Surf. 8(4), 185–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalmers, R. L.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, M. D.

M. G. Harris and M. D. Chamberlain, “Light transmission of hydrogel contact lenses,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55(2), 93–96 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandler, H.

J. Nichols and H. Chandler, “UV protection with contact lenses,” Optometry Today 51, 8–37 (2011).

Cox, I. G.

I. G. Cox and R. H. Lee, “Understanding Lens Shape Dynamics During Off-Eye Dehydration of Contact Lens Materials with Varying Water Content,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 6104 (2012).

Cranston, E. D.

T. Abitbol, A. Palermo, J. M. Moran-Mirabal, and E. D. Cranston, “Fluorescent labeling and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals with varying charge contents,” Biomacromolecules 14(9), 3278–3284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dana, R.

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doane, M. G.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duparré, A.

S. Schröder, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Standardization of light scattering measurements,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 361–375 (2015).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Light scattering of interference coatings from the IR to the EUV spectral regions,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 113–120 (2014).

S. Schröder, M. Kamprath, A. Duparré, A. Tünnermann, B. Kühn, and U. Klett, “Bulk scattering properties of synthetic fused silica at 193 nm,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10537–10549 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41(1), 154–171 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edrington, T.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farandos, N. M.

N. M. Farandos, A. K. Yetisen, M. J. Monteiro, C. R. Lowe, and S. H. Yun, “Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 4(6), 792–810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferraz, N.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Ferrer-Blasco, T.

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and D. Madrid-Costa, “The tear film and the optical quality of the eye,” Ocul. Surf. 8(4), 185–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F.

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Lázaro, S.

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and D. Madrid-Costa, “The tear film and the optical quality of the eye,” Ocul. Surf. 8(4), 185–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Resúa, C.

M. J. Giraldez, C. García-Resúa, M. Lira, M. E. Real Oliveira, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “White light interferometry to characterize the hydrogel contact lens surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(3), 289–297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giraldez, M. J.

M. J. Giraldez, C. García-Resúa, M. Lira, M. E. Real Oliveira, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “White light interferometry to characterize the hydrogel contact lens surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(3), 289–297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gliech, S.

González-Méijome, J. M.

J. M. González-Méijome, M. Lira, A. López-Alemany, J. B. Almeida, M. A. Parafita, and M. F. Refojo, “Refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(1), 57–64 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffith, M.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grinstaff, M. W.

A. M. Oelker and M. W. Grinstaff, “Ophthalmic adhesives: a materials chemistry perspective,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(22), 2521–2536 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gurny, R.

M. Zignani, C. Tabatabay, and R. Gurny, “Topical semi-solid drug delivery: kinetics and tolerance of ophthalmic hydrogels,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 16(1), 51–60 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hamano, M.

N. Yamakawa, T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, M. Hamano, and M. Usui, “Surface roughness of intraocular lenses and inflammatory cell adhesion to lens surfaces,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(2), 367–370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, M. G.

M. G. Harris and M. D. Chamberlain, “Light transmission of hydrogel contact lenses,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55(2), 93–96 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herffurth, T.

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Light scattering of interference coatings from the IR to the EUV spectral regions,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 113–120 (2014).

Honda, Y.

S.-Y. Kim, Y. Honda, N. Nao-i, E. Sakaue, and M. Nambu, “A new polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a scleral buckling material,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100(2), 328–330 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.-F.

W. H. Ridder, A. Tomlinson, J.-F. Huang, and J. Li, “Impaired visual performance in patients with dry eye,” Ocul. Surf. 9(1), 42–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joffre, T.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kamprath, M.

Katsikogianni, M.

M. Katsikogianni and Y. F. Missirlis, “Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials and of techniques used in estimating bacteria-material interactions,” Eur. Cell. Mater. 8, 37–57 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Kim, Y. Honda, N. Nao-i, E. Sakaue, and M. Nambu, “A new polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a scleral buckling material,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100(2), 328–330 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klett, U.

Kühn, B.

Lee, R. H.

I. G. Cox and R. H. Lee, “Understanding Lens Shape Dynamics During Off-Eye Dehydration of Contact Lens Materials with Varying Water Content,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 6104 (2012).

Li, J.

W. H. Ridder, A. Tomlinson, J.-F. Huang, and J. Li, “Impaired visual performance in patients with dry eye,” Ocul. Surf. 9(1), 42–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lira, M.

M. J. Giraldez, C. García-Resúa, M. Lira, M. E. Real Oliveira, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “White light interferometry to characterize the hydrogel contact lens surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(3), 289–297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. González-Méijome, M. Lira, A. López-Alemany, J. B. Almeida, M. A. Parafita, and M. F. Refojo, “Refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(1), 57–64 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liszka, A.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lohmann, C. P.

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopes, V. R.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

López-Alemany, A.

J. M. González-Méijome, M. Lira, A. López-Alemany, J. B. Almeida, M. A. Parafita, and M. F. Refojo, “Refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(1), 57–64 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorente, A.

A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, C. Albarrán, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Characterization of the visual performance with soft daily wear disposable contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18(1), 40–48 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lowe, C. R.

N. M. Farandos, A. K. Yetisen, M. J. Monteiro, C. R. Lowe, and S. H. Yun, “Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 4(6), 792–810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madrid-Costa, D.

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and D. Madrid-Costa, “The tear film and the optical quality of the eye,” Ocul. Surf. 8(4), 185–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mertzanis, P.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihranyan, A.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. K. Tummala, R. Rojas, and A. Mihranyan, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels Reinforced with Nanocellulose for Ophthalmic Applications: General Characteristics and Optical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(51), 13094–13101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mihranyan, “Viscoelastic properties of cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol and surface-oxidized cellulose whisker hydrogels,” Cellulose 20(3), 1369–1376 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miljanovic, B.

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Missirlis, Y. F.

M. Katsikogianni and Y. F. Missirlis, “Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials and of techniques used in estimating bacteria-material interactions,” Eur. Cell. Mater. 8, 37–57 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monteiro, M. J.

N. M. Farandos, A. K. Yetisen, M. J. Monteiro, C. R. Lowe, and S. H. Yun, “Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 4(6), 792–810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montés, R.

A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, C. Albarrán, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Characterization of the visual performance with soft daily wear disposable contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18(1), 40–48 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montés-Micó, R.

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, and D. Madrid-Costa, “The tear film and the optical quality of the eye,” Ocul. Surf. 8(4), 185–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moran-Mirabal, J. M.

T. Abitbol, A. Palermo, J. M. Moran-Mirabal, and E. D. Cranston, “Fluorescent labeling and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals with varying charge contents,” Biomacromolecules 14(9), 3278–3284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muir, M. K.

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nambu, M.

S.-Y. Kim, Y. Honda, N. Nao-i, E. Sakaue, and M. Nambu, “A new polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a scleral buckling material,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100(2), 328–330 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nao-i, N.

S.-Y. Kim, Y. Honda, N. Nao-i, E. Sakaue, and M. Nambu, “A new polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a scleral buckling material,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100(2), 328–330 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, D.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, J.

J. Nichols and H. Chandler, “UV protection with contact lenses,” Optometry Today 51, 8–37 (2011).

Nicolson, P. C.

P. C. Nicolson and J. Vogt, “Soft contact lens polymers: an evolution,” Biomaterials 22(24), 3273–3283 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Notni, G.

O’Brart, D.

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oelker, A. M.

A. M. Oelker and M. W. Grinstaff, “Ophthalmic adhesives: a materials chemistry perspective,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(22), 2521–2536 (2008).
[Crossref]

Palermo, A.

T. Abitbol, A. Palermo, J. M. Moran-Mirabal, and E. D. Cranston, “Fluorescent labeling and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals with varying charge contents,” Biomacromolecules 14(9), 3278–3284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parafita, M. A.

J. M. González-Méijome, M. Lira, A. López-Alemany, J. B. Almeida, M. A. Parafita, and M. F. Refojo, “Refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(1), 57–64 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persson, C.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pons, A. M.

A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, C. Albarrán, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Characterization of the visual performance with soft daily wear disposable contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18(1), 40–48 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravi, N.

K. E. Swindle and N. Ravi, “Recent advances in polymeric vitreous substitutes,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(2), 255–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Real Oliveira, M. E.

M. J. Giraldez, C. García-Resúa, M. Lira, M. E. Real Oliveira, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “White light interferometry to characterize the hydrogel contact lens surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(3), 289–297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Refojo, M. F.

J. M. González-Méijome, M. Lira, A. López-Alemany, J. B. Almeida, M. A. Parafita, and M. F. Refojo, “Refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(1), 57–64 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridder, W. H.

W. H. Ridder, A. Tomlinson, J.-F. Huang, and J. Li, “Impaired visual performance in patients with dry eye,” Ocul. Surf. 9(1), 42–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Thai, A. Tomlinson, and W. H. Ridder, “Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 381–388 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieger, G.

G. Rieger, “The importance of the precorneal tear film for the quality of optical imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 76(3), 157–158 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rojas, R.

G. K. Tummala, R. Rojas, and A. Mihranyan, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels Reinforced with Nanocellulose for Ophthalmic Applications: General Characteristics and Optical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(51), 13094–13101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakaue, E.

S.-Y. Kim, Y. Honda, N. Nao-i, E. Sakaue, and M. Nambu, “A new polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a scleral buckling material,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100(2), 328–330 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaumberg, D. A.

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schröder, S.

S. Schröder, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Standardization of light scattering measurements,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 361–375 (2015).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Light scattering of interference coatings from the IR to the EUV spectral regions,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 113–120 (2014).

S. Schröder, M. Kamprath, A. Duparré, A. Tünnermann, B. Kühn, and U. Klett, “Bulk scattering properties of synthetic fused silica at 193 nm,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10537–10549 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shigeta, M.

T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, N. Yamakawa, and M. Usui, “Cell adhesion to acrylic intraocular lens associated with lens surface properties,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1648–1651 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamakawa, T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, M. Hamano, and M. Usui, “Surface roughness of intraocular lenses and inflammatory cell adhesion to lens surfaces,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(2), 367–370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, T.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snyder, C.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stach, S.

Ş. Ţălu and S. Stach, “Multifractal characterization of unworn hydrogel contact lens surfaces,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 54(5), 1066–1080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steinert, J.

Sullivan, D. A.

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swindle, K. E.

K. E. Swindle and N. Ravi, “Recent advances in polymeric vitreous substitutes,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(2), 255–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tabatabay, C.

M. Zignani, C. Tabatabay, and R. Gurny, “Topical semi-solid drug delivery: kinetics and tolerance of ophthalmic hydrogels,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 16(1), 51–60 (1995).
[Crossref]

Talu, S.

Ş. Ţălu and S. Stach, “Multifractal characterization of unworn hydrogel contact lens surfaces,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 54(5), 1066–1080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, N. Yamakawa, and M. Usui, “Cell adhesion to acrylic intraocular lens associated with lens surface properties,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1648–1651 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamakawa, T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, M. Hamano, and M. Usui, “Surface roughness of intraocular lenses and inflammatory cell adhesion to lens surfaces,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(2), 367–370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thai, L. C.

L. C. Thai, A. Tomlinson, and W. H. Ridder, “Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 381–388 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timberlake, G.

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timberlake, G. T.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

W. H. Ridder, A. Tomlinson, J.-F. Huang, and J. Li, “Impaired visual performance in patients with dry eye,” Ocul. Surf. 9(1), 42–55 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Thai, A. Tomlinson, and W. H. Ridder, “Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 381–388 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trost, M.

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Light scattering of interference coatings from the IR to the EUV spectral regions,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 113–120 (2014).

Tummala, G. K.

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. K. Tummala, R. Rojas, and A. Mihranyan, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels Reinforced with Nanocellulose for Ophthalmic Applications: General Characteristics and Optical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 120(51), 13094–13101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

Usui, M.

T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, N. Yamakawa, and M. Usui, “Cell adhesion to acrylic intraocular lens associated with lens surface properties,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1648–1651 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamakawa, T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, M. Hamano, and M. Usui, “Surface roughness of intraocular lenses and inflammatory cell adhesion to lens surfaces,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(2), 367–370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, K.

C. G. Begley, R. L. Chalmers, L. Abetz, K. Venkataraman, P. Mertzanis, B. A. Caffery, C. Snyder, T. Edrington, D. Nelson, and T. Simpson, “The relationship between habitual patient-reported symptoms and clinical signs among patients with dry eye of varying severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4753–4761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, J.

P. C. Nicolson and J. Vogt, “Soft contact lens polymers: an evolution,” Biomaterials 22(24), 3273–3283 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Finck, A.

S. Schröder, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Standardization of light scattering measurements,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 361–375 (2015).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Light scattering of interference coatings from the IR to the EUV spectral regions,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 113–120 (2014).

Yamakawa, N.

T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, N. Yamakawa, and M. Usui, “Cell adhesion to acrylic intraocular lens associated with lens surface properties,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(8), 1648–1651 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yamakawa, T. Tanaka, M. Shigeta, M. Hamano, and M. Usui, “Surface roughness of intraocular lenses and inflammatory cell adhesion to lens surfaces,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29(2), 367–370 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yebra-Pimentel, E.

M. J. Giraldez, C. García-Resúa, M. Lira, M. E. Real Oliveira, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “White light interferometry to characterize the hydrogel contact lens surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(3), 289–297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yetisen, A. K.

N. M. Farandos, A. K. Yetisen, M. J. Monteiro, C. R. Lowe, and S. H. Yun, “Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 4(6), 792–810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

N. M. Farandos, A. K. Yetisen, M. J. Monteiro, C. R. Lowe, and S. H. Yun, “Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 4(6), 792–810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zignani, M.

M. Zignani, C. Tabatabay, and R. Gurny, “Topical semi-solid drug delivery: kinetics and tolerance of ophthalmic hydrogels,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 16(1), 51–60 (1995).
[Crossref]

ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering (1)

G. K. Tummala, T. Joffre, V. R. Lopes, A. Liszka, O. Buznyk, N. Ferraz, C. Persson, M. Griffith, and A. Mihranyan, “Hyperelastic Nanocellulose-Reinforced Hydrogel of High Water Content for Ophthalmic Applications,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2(11), 2072–2079 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

M. Zignani, C. Tabatabay, and R. Gurny, “Topical semi-solid drug delivery: kinetics and tolerance of ophthalmic hydrogels,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 16(1), 51–60 (1995).
[Crossref]

Adv. Healthc. Mater. (1)

N. M. Farandos, A. K. Yetisen, M. J. Monteiro, C. R. Lowe, and S. H. Yun, “Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 4(6), 792–810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (2)

S. Schröder, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Standardization of light scattering measurements,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 361–375 (2015).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Light scattering of interference coatings from the IR to the EUV spectral regions,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 113–120 (2014).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

B. Miljanović, R. Dana, D. A. Sullivan, and D. A. Schaumberg, “Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 143(3), 409–415 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Lohmann, F. Fitzke, D. O’Brart, M. K. Muir, G. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, “Corneal light scattering and visual performance in myopic individuals with spectacles, contact lenses, or excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(4), 444–453 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Kim, Y. Honda, N. Nao-i, E. Sakaue, and M. Nambu, “A new polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a scleral buckling material,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100(2), 328–330 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical light micrographs of (a) pure PVA, (b) PVA-CNC and (c) PVA-CNF hydrogels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescent micrographs of (a) pure PVA, (b) PVA-CNC and (c) PVA-CNF hydrogels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM topography images of (a) pure PVA, (b) PVA-CNC and (c) PVA-CNF hydrogels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 3D ARS and WLI measurements and (b) 1D ARS for thin PVA-CNC sample at different drying states.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1D ARS data by azimuthal averaging of the 3D ARS data for pure PVA, PVA-CNC and PVA-CNF samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) WLI images (698x523 µm2) of thick hydrogels in wet condition and after 20 min drying time (surface smoothing by liquid film in wet condition) and (b) power spectral density (PSD) functions after 20 min drying time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

3D ARS data and TS levels for pure PVA, PVA-CNC and PVA-CNF (upper row: thin samples of 0.3 mm; lower row: thick samples of 5 mm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Estimation of bulk scattering coefficients for pure PVA, PVA-CNC and PVA-CNF samples.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Setup for light scattering measurements of hydrogel samples using the BTDF sensor.

Equations (4)

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σ 2 = fmin fmax PSD(f)fdf .
ARS( θ s ) = QPSD( f ).
f = ( sin θ s )/λ.
ARS( θ s ) = ( Δ P s ( θ s ) )/( Δ Ω s P i )

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