Abstract

We developed a label-free and positive-readout surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay using reverse-hairpin molecular beacons (RHBs) for the detection of RNA genetic markers associated with a high pathogenicity influenza (HPAI) virus. The structure of RHBs flexibly changed from a linear configuration (open state) to hairpin (closed state) upon targeting, such that the Raman label was closed on the SERS substrate and induced an increase of SERS intensity (OFF-to-ON). By improving sequence-specific RNA/DNA hybridization efficiency, we adjusted the stem-loop ratio of RHB, which was efficient at values of less than 1. The optimized RHBs exhibited dramatic changes in signal based on a fluorescence system in which the target was present. We demonstrated that the OFF-to-ON SERS system using RHB immobilized on silver-coated gold nanobowls permitted rapid hybridization. This proof-of-concept could provide a potential diagnostic tool for point-of-care influenza virus detection.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Retraction

This article has been retracted. Please see:
Jisun Ki, Jinyoung Kim, Seeungmin Han, Eunji Jang, Taeksu Lee, Jung-Sub Wi, Tae Geol Lee, Woonsung Na, Daesub Song, and Seungjoo Haam, "Optimal DNA structure of reverse-hairpin beacons for label-free and positive surface enhanced Raman scattering assays: retraction," Opt. Mater. Express 7, 3136-3136 (2017)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ome/abstract.cfm?uri=ome-7-9-3136

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References

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  1. E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. Ahn, K.-B. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, and Y.-M. Koo, “Quantitative analysis of the three main genera in effective microorganisms using qPCR,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. 31(5), 849–854 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. T.-H. Hsieh, P. J.-H. Pan, and A. P. Lee, “Rapid label-free DNA analysis in picoliter microfluidic droplets using FRET probes,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 6(3), 391–401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Cao, R. C. Qian, D. W. Li, and Y. T. Long, “Raman/fluorescence dual-sensing and imaging of intracellular pH distribution,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(99), 17584–17587 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. MacAskill, D. Crawford, D. Graham, and K. Faulds, “DNA sequence detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy in a homogeneous multiplexed assay,” Anal. Chem. 81(19), 8134–8140 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Nucleic acid helix stability: effects of salt concentration, cation valence and size, and chain length,” Biophys. J. 90(4), 1175–1190 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Salt dependence of nucleic acid hairpin stability,” Biophys. J. 95(2), 738–752 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. T. Eierhoff, S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt, “The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation,” Biol. Chem. 390(5-6), 509–515 (2009).
    [PubMed]

2016 (1)

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, R. C. Qian, D. W. Li, and Y. T. Long, “Raman/fluorescence dual-sensing and imaging of intracellular pH distribution,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(99), 17584–17587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ahn, K.-B. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, and Y.-M. Koo, “Quantitative analysis of the three main genera in effective microorganisms using qPCR,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. 31(5), 849–854 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. T.-H. Hsieh, P. J.-H. Pan, and A. P. Lee, “Rapid label-free DNA analysis in picoliter microfluidic droplets using FRET probes,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 6(3), 391–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Eierhoff, S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt, “The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation,” Biol. Chem. 390(5-6), 509–515 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. MacAskill, D. Crawford, D. Graham, and K. Faulds, “DNA sequence detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy in a homogeneous multiplexed assay,” Anal. Chem. 81(19), 8134–8140 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Salt dependence of nucleic acid hairpin stability,” Biophys. J. 95(2), 738–752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Nucleic acid helix stability: effects of salt concentration, cation valence and size, and chain length,” Biophys. J. 90(4), 1175–1190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abravaya, K.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, K.

K. Ahn, K.-B. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, and Y.-M. Koo, “Quantitative analysis of the three main genera in effective microorganisms using qPCR,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. 31(5), 849–854 (2014).
[Crossref]

Araújo, J. P.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baptista, P. V.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bellavia, M.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calleja, M.

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, R. C. Qian, D. W. Li, and Y. T. Long, “Raman/fluorescence dual-sensing and imaging of intracellular pH distribution,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(99), 17584–17587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvalho, P. A.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cha, M. G.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, H.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. J.

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Salt dependence of nucleic acid hairpin stability,” Biophys. J. 95(2), 738–752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Nucleic acid helix stability: effects of salt concentration, cation valence and size, and chain length,” Biophys. J. 90(4), 1175–1190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cloherty, G.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, D.

A. MacAskill, D. Crawford, D. Graham, and K. Faulds, “DNA sequence detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy in a homogeneous multiplexed assay,” Anal. Chem. 81(19), 8134–8140 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crew, E.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domínguez, C. M.

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dória, G.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ehrhardt, C.

T. Eierhoff, S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt, “The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation,” Biol. Chem. 390(5-6), 509–515 (2009).
[PubMed]

Eierhoff, T.

T. Eierhoff, S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt, “The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation,” Biol. Chem. 390(5-6), 509–515 (2009).
[PubMed]

Fales, A. M.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faulds, K.

A. MacAskill, D. Crawford, D. Graham, and K. Faulds, “DNA sequence detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy in a homogeneous multiplexed assay,” Anal. Chem. 81(19), 8134–8140 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franco, R.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gal, S.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodshaw, I.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, D.

A. MacAskill, D. Crawford, D. Graham, and K. Faulds, “DNA sequence detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy in a homogeneous multiplexed assay,” Anal. Chem. 81(19), 8134–8140 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffin, G. D.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hackett, J.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, A. T.-H.

A. T.-H. Hsieh, P. J.-H. Pan, and A. P. Lee, “Rapid label-free DNA analysis in picoliter microfluidic droplets using FRET probes,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 6(3), 391–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y. M.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D. W.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, E.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeong, D. H.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S. J.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joseph, P.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, B. H.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I. H.

B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, K. O.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, K. W.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, M.

B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, T.

T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B.

B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D.-J.

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-O.

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. I.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

K. Ahn, K.-B. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, and Y.-M. Koo, “Quantitative analysis of the three main genera in effective microorganisms using qPCR,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. 31(5), 849–854 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koo, Y.-M.

K. Ahn, K.-B. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, and Y.-M. Koo, “Quantitative analysis of the three main genera in effective microorganisms using qPCR,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. 31(5), 849–854 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kosaka, P. M.

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotlyar, T.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langer, J.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, A. P.

A. T.-H. Hsieh, P. J.-H. Pan, and A. P. Lee, “Rapid label-free DNA analysis in picoliter microfluidic droplets using FRET probes,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 6(3), 391–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-B.

K. Ahn, K.-B. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, and Y.-M. Koo, “Quantitative analysis of the three main genera in effective microorganisms using qPCR,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. 31(5), 849–854 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D. W.

Y. Cao, R. C. Qian, D. W. Li, and Y. T. Long, “Raman/fluorescence dual-sensing and imaging of intracellular pH distribution,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(99), 17584–17587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, E. K.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, E.-K.

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, L.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. H.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liz-Marzán, L. M.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Long, Y. T.

Y. Cao, R. C. Qian, D. W. Li, and Y. T. Long, “Raman/fluorescence dual-sensing and imaging of intracellular pH distribution,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(99), 17584–17587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludwig, S.

T. Eierhoff, S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt, “The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation,” Biol. Chem. 390(5-6), 509–515 (2009).
[PubMed]

Luk, K. C.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, J.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacAskill, A.

A. MacAskill, D. Crawford, D. Graham, and K. Faulds, “DNA sequence detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy in a homogeneous multiplexed assay,” Anal. Chem. 81(19), 8134–8140 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mak, W. B.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mingorance, J.

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ngo, H.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, S. J.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osório, I.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, P. J.-H.

A. T.-H. Hsieh, P. J.-H. Pan, and A. P. Lee, “Rapid label-free DNA analysis in picoliter microfluidic droplets using FRET probes,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 6(3), 391–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, K.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pastoriza-Santos, I.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pereira, A.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pereira, E.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, J.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, R. C.

Y. Cao, R. C. Qian, D. W. Li, and Y. T. Long, “Raman/fluorescence dual-sensing and imaging of intracellular pH distribution,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(99), 17584–17587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quaresma, P.

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Raja, B.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Register, J. K.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salituro, J.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Q. D.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, W. C.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, H. K.

B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skeete, Z.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, H. Y.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sotillo, A.

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strych, U.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J. S.

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, M. J.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, P.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamayo, J.

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Z. J.

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Salt dependence of nucleic acid hairpin stability,” Biophys. J. 95(2), 738–752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Nucleic acid helix stability: effects of salt concentration, cation valence and size, and chain length,” Biophys. J. 90(4), 1175–1190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, N.

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tchah, N.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. N.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willson, R. C.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, H. Y.

B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. M.

T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, I.

T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youn, H.

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J. C.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, J.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. Q.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, F.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, C. J.

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

C. M. Domínguez, P. M. Kosaka, A. Sotillo, J. Mingorance, J. Tamayo, and M. Calleja, “Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem. 87(3), 1494–1498 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. MacAskill, D. Crawford, D. Graham, and K. Faulds, “DNA sequence detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy in a homogeneous multiplexed assay,” Anal. Chem. 81(19), 8134–8140 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

E. Crew, H. Yan, L. Lin, J. Yin, Z. Skeete, T. Kotlyar, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, I. Goodshaw, P. Joseph, J. Luo, S. Gal, and C. J. Zhong, “DNA assembly and enzymatic cutting in solutions: a gold nanoparticle based SERS detection strategy,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(17), 4941–4949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biol. Chem. (1)

T. Eierhoff, S. Ludwig, and C. Ehrhardt, “The influenza A virus matrix protein as a marker to monitor initial virus internalisation,” Biol. Chem. 390(5-6), 509–515 (2009).
[PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

E. Jang, E. Kim, H. Y. Son, E. K. Lim, H. Lee, Y. Choi, K. Park, S. Han, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, and S. Haam, “Nanovesicle-mediated systemic delivery of microRNA-34a for CD44 overexpressing gastric cancer stem cell therapy,” Biomaterials 105, 12–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (2)

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Nucleic acid helix stability: effects of salt concentration, cation valence and size, and chain length,” Biophys. J. 90(4), 1175–1190 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Tan and S. J. Chen, “Salt dependence of nucleic acid hairpin stability,” Biophys. J. 95(2), 738–752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

Y. Cao, R. C. Qian, D. W. Li, and Y. T. Long, “Raman/fluorescence dual-sensing and imaging of intracellular pH distribution,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(99), 17584–17587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

B. Kim, I. H. Jung, M. Kang, H. K. Shim, and H. Y. Woo, “Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes-triggered conformational change of molecular beacon aptamer for highly sensitive and selective potassium ion detection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3133–3138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. (1)

E. Jang, E.-K. Lim, Y. Choi, E. Kim, H.-O. Kim, D.-J. Kim, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and S. Haam, “π-Hyaluronan nanocarriers for CD44-targeted and pH-boosted aromatic drug delivery,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 1(41), 5686–5693 (2013).
[Crossref]

Korean J. Chem. Eng. (1)

K. Ahn, K.-B. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, and Y.-M. Koo, “Quantitative analysis of the three main genera in effective microorganisms using qPCR,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. 31(5), 849–854 (2014).
[Crossref]

Microfluid. Nanofluidics (1)

A. T.-H. Hsieh, P. J.-H. Pan, and A. P. Lee, “Rapid label-free DNA analysis in picoliter microfluidic droplets using FRET probes,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 6(3), 391–401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

T. Kang, S. M. Yoo, I. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, and B. Kim, “Patterned multiplex pathogen DNA detection by Au particle-on-wire SERS sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1189–1193 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W. C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, J. Huang, M. J. Sun, J. C. Yu, Y. L. Chen, Y. Q. Zhang, S. J. Jiang, and Q. D. Shen, “A fluorescence-Raman dual-imaging platform based on complexes of conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucleic Acids Res. (1)

S. Huang, J. Salituro, N. Tang, K. C. Luk, J. Hackett, P. Swanson, G. Cloherty, W. B. Mak, J. Robinson, and K. Abravaya, “Thermodynamically modulated partially double-stranded linear DNA probe design for homogeneous real-time PCR,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(16), e101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RSC Advances (1)

P. Quaresma, I. Osório, G. Dória, P. A. Carvalho, A. Pereira, J. Langer, J. P. Araújo, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, R. Franco, P. V. Baptista, and E. Pereira, “Star-shaped magnetite@gold nanoparticles for protein magnetic separation and SERS detection,” RSC Advances 4(8), 3690–3698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Jeong, Y. I. Kim, H. Kang, G. Kim, M. G. Cha, H. Chang, K. O. Jung, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Jun, D. W. Hwang, Y. S. Lee, H. Youn, Y. S. Lee, K. W. Kang, D. S. Lee, and D. H. Jeong, “Fluorescence-Raman dual modal endoscopic system for multiplexed molecular diagnostics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, Y. Liu, A. M. Fales, H. Ngo, H. N. Wang, J. K. Register, H. Yuan, S. J. Norton, and G. D. Griffin, “SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters: golden opportunities in biomedical applications,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 7(1), 17–33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic representation of RHB-GNB@Ag detection mechanism. RHB in a reverse-hairpin configuration are immobilized on GNB@Ag substrates. (Left) No SERS signals are observed. (Right) RHB become hairpin configuration and rigid after hybridization with target molecules. (b) The design of the RHB sequence for Influenza A virus detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Table of RHB sequence information consisting of signal probe (SP) and flag probe (FP) complementary influenza A virus mRNA. (b) The stem-loop configuration of the SP with various stem-to-loop ratios.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structural flexibility of reverse hairpin beacons (RHBs) using different stem base lengths of 9, 10, and 11 bp. a) Fluorescence diagram of two phase RHBs: (i) reverse-hairpin state and (ii) hairpin state. b) Variations in the fluorescence intensity of RHBs over a target concentration profile. c) Electrophoresis images. Lane 1, 50-kb ladder; lane 2, S9 SP; lane 3, FP; lane 4, RHBs; lane 5, target; lane 6, FP + target; lane 7, RHBs + target.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fluorescence spectra of RHBs over a target virus RNA concentration profile for 1 h. The types of target virus RNA were influenza A, SARS, and PEDV. (b) Fluorescence graph of limit of detection of RHB. (c) Reusability of RHBs. (i), (iii), (v) Reverse-hairpin state; (ii), (iv) hairpin state.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) SEM image of a gold nanobowl (left) and silver-coated gold nanobowls (right) (SC). Scale bar: 200 nm. (b) SERS spectrum of GNB@Ag obtained from rhodamine 6G solution (c) SERS spectra after incubation of the RHB-GNB@Ag with the blank and or with complementary target synthetic ssDNA.

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