Abstract

The electro-optic coefficient (Pockels coefficient) is largest around the absorption resonance of a material. Here, we show that the overall losses, the power consumption and the footprint of plasmonic electro-optic modulators can be reduced when a device is operated in the vicinity of absorption resonances of an electro-optical material. This near-resonant operation in plasmonics is contrary to what is known from photonics where off-resonant operation is required to minimize the overall losses. The findings are supported by experiments demonstrating a reduction in voltage-length product by a factor of 3 and a reduction in loss by a factor 2 when operating a plasmonic modulator near resonance compared to off-resonant.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (3)

2016 (7)

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Mossman, R. Lytel, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits on the electro-optic device figure of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(12), E109–E120 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M.-M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, H. Nakamura, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Analysis of efficiently poled electro-optic polymer/Tio2 vertical slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Commun. 362, 77–80 (2016).

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A Monolithically-Integrated Chip-to-Chip Optical Link in Bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Kinsey, M. Ferrera, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Examining nanophotonics for integrated hybrid systems: a review of plasmonic interconnects and modulators using traditional and alternative materials [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(1), 121–142 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-Assisted Poling of Monolithic Bridge-Disubstituted Organic NLO Chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4839–4842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, Y. Hui, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid Electro-Optical Devices,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−Host Cooperativity in Organic Materials Greatly Enhances the Nonlinear Optical Response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–63 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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B. K. Canfield, M. G. Kuzyk, S. E. Hightower, and A. D. Q. Li, “Use of quadratic electroabsorption for measurement of the hyperpolarizability β of asymmetric molecules,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(4), 723–734 (2005).
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L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
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1999 (1)

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, “Polymeric Electro-optic Modulators: From Chromophore Design to Integration with Semiconductor Very Large Scale Integration Electronics and Silica Fiber Optics,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(1), 8–33 (1999).
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1984 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
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M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP)(2014), pp. 1–2.
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Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−Host Cooperativity in Organic Materials Greatly Enhances the Nonlinear Optical Response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, Y. Hui, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid Electro-Optical Devices,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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Anderson, S.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP)(2014), pp. 1–2.
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M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP)(2014), pp. 1–2.
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Atabaki, A. H.

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H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
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T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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Bafrali, R.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A Monolithically-Integrated Chip-to-Chip Optical Link in Bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
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D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” (2010).
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D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-Assisted Poling of Monolithic Bridge-Disubstituted Organic NLO Chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
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Bogaerts, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, Y. Hui, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid Electro-Optical Devices,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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Boltasseva, A.

Bolten, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, Y. Hui, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid Electro-Optical Devices,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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Bonjour, R.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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Bowers, J. E.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
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Burgos, S. P.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
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Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
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D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, R. A. Campbell, and D. Jose, “Avila, B.H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of Rigid Bridge-Protection Units, Quadrupolar Interactions, and Blending in Organic Electro-Optic Chromophores,” Chem. Mater. (2017).

Canfield, B. K.

Chander, K.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
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Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
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Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
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Chen, H.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” (2010).
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Chen, J.

L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, “Polymeric Electro-optic Modulators: From Chromophore Design to Integration with Semiconductor Very Large Scale Integration Electronics and Silica Fiber Optics,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(1), 8–33 (1999).
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Chen, Y. H.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A Monolithically-Integrated Chip-to-Chip Optical Link in Bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
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Chen, Y.-H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Cheng, B.

Chong, J.

C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A Monolithically-Integrated Chip-to-Chip Optical Link in Bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
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Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Cottier, R.

Cunningham, J.

Dalton, L.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
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L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, “Polymeric Electro-optic Modulators: From Chromophore Design to Integration with Semiconductor Very Large Scale Integration Electronics and Silica Fiber Optics,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(1), 8–33 (1999).
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Dalton, L. R.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-Assisted Poling of Monolithic Bridge-Disubstituted Organic NLO Chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
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Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−Host Cooperativity in Organic Materials Greatly Enhances the Nonlinear Optical Response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
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Dama, B.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP)(2014), pp. 1–2.
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Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
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Heni, W.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, R. A. Campbell, and D. Jose, “Avila, B.H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of Rigid Bridge-Protection Units, Quadrupolar Interactions, and Blending in Organic Electro-Optic Chromophores,” Chem. Mater. (2017).

Hettrich, H.

Hightower, S. E.

Hillerkuss, D.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Hirano, M.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s Transmission Using a 22 Core Homogeneous Single-Mode Multi-Core Fiber and Wideband Optical Comb,” in European Conference on Optical Communication 2015(Valencia, Spain, 2015).
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M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
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Hodge, D.

Hoessbacher, C.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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Y. Enami, H. Nakamura, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Analysis of efficiently poled electro-optic polymer/Tio2 vertical slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Commun. 362, 77–80 (2016).

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−Host Cooperativity in Organic Materials Greatly Enhances the Nonlinear Optical Response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
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M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
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Jens, H. S.

T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M.-M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
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John, E. B.

T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M.-M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
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Jose, D.

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, R. A. Campbell, and D. Jose, “Avila, B.H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of Rigid Bridge-Protection Units, Quadrupolar Interactions, and Blending in Organic Electro-Optic Chromophores,” Chem. Mater. (2017).

Josten, A.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with 170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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Juchli, L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, C.

Kaminsky, W.

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Keil, U.

Kinsey, N.

Klaus, W.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s Transmission Using a 22 Core Homogeneous Single-Mode Multi-Core Fiber and Wideband Optical Comb,” in European Conference on Optical Communication 2015(Valencia, Spain, 2015).
[Crossref]

Koch, U.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators: Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kohl, M.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, Y. Hui, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid Electro-Optical Devices,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

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T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M.-M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, “Polymeric Electro-optic Modulators: From Chromophore Design to Integration with Semiconductor Very Large Scale Integration Electronics and Silica Fiber Optics,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(1), 8–33 (1999).
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M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and CMOS drivers for optical transmitters,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP)(2014), pp. 1–2.
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B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s Transmission Using a 22 Core Homogeneous Single-Mode Multi-Core Fiber and Wideband Optical Comb,” in European Conference on Optical Communication 2015(Valencia, Spain, 2015).
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C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A Monolithically-Integrated Chip-to-Chip Optical Link in Bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, Y. Hui, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid Electro-Optical Devices,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
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M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
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C. Sun, M. Georgas, J. Orcutt, B. Moss, Y. H. Chen, J. Shainline, M. Wade, K. Mehta, K. Nammari, E. Timurdogan, D. Miller, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, J. Leu, J. Chong, R. Bafrali, G. Sandhu, M. Watts, R. Meade, M. Popović, R. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “A Monolithically-Integrated Chip-to-Chip Optical Link in Bulk CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 50(4), 828–844 (2015).
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E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
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D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure-function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic NLO chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
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J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
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D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” (2010).
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Yu, S.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct Conversion of Free Space Millimeter Waves to Optical Domain by Plasmonic Modulator Antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
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L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, “Polymeric Electro-optic Modulators: From Chromophore Design to Integration with Semiconductor Very Large Scale Integration Electronics and Silica Fiber Optics,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(1), 8–33 (1999).
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T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 081101 (2005).
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J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
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L. Dalton, A. Harper, A. Ren, F. Wang, G. Todorova, J. Chen, C. Zhang, and M. Lee, “Polymeric Electro-optic Modulators: From Chromophore Design to Integration with Semiconductor Very Large Scale Integration Electronics and Silica Fiber Optics,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(1), 8–33 (1999).
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E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Colorized SEM images showing the top view of a plasmonic organic hybrid (POH) phase shifter of length L. The phase shifter consists of a plasmonic metal-insulator-metal slot waveguide. Si waveguides are used to feed and extract light to and from the phase shifter. (b) An artist’s cross-section view of the phase shifter. The organic electro-optic material (HD-BB-OH/YLD124) fills the slot. A voltage applied to the electrodes changes the phase of SPPs propagating in the slot due to the Pockels effect. Image adapted from [35].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical properties of the OEO-material as a function of wavelength. (a) The measured real (blue) and imaginary (red) parts of the effective refractive index are plotted in the wavelength range from 0.5 μm to 1.65 μm, see Data File 1 for underlying values. The bluish area to the right of the absorption highlights the area where losses are low and the real part of the electro optic coefficient is high. This area is most promising for optimizing the efficiency of plasmonic modulators. (b) The electro-optic coefficient (r33), which is a measure of the strength of the material’s nonlinearity, is plotted versus wavelength. The nonlinearity enhances by up to a factor 3 upon approaching the absorption resonances. (c) The absorption coefficients versus wavelength for plasmonic (orange) and photonic (green) waveguides compared to the contribution from the OEO-material losses. It can be seen that the photonic waveguide losses are dominated by the losses of the OEO-material. In long photonic waveguides it thus is necessary to operate devices at long wavelengths. In contrast material losses hardly contribute to the overall losses of plasmonic waveguides and it thus is favorable to operate them at shorter wavelengths.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Wavelength-dependent contributors to the modulator efficiency for various slot widths. (a) Field energy interaction factor Γ, (b) slow-down factor nslow due to plasmonic dispersions and (c) relative change in the OEO-refractive index due to eoe material dispersion.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The normalized change of the effective refractive index’s real part (a), the effective refractive index’s imaginary part (b), and the change in the phase shifter’s efficiency η (c) are shown. The phase shifter efficiency η is the ratio of Δneff and keff. By getting closer to the resonance frequency the efficiency enhances up to two times before losses start to dominate.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The voltage-length product (UπL) (a), the propagation loss (b) and the loss-voltage-length product (αUπL) (c) as a function of wavelength for various slot widths of 200 nm (red), 150 nm (orange), 100 nm (green) and 50 nm (blue). The decrease in the voltage length product (a) overcompensates losses as long as the propagation losses (b) are not dominated by the absorption in the OEO-material (λ>1.2μm). This results in a maximal efficiency of the modulators in terms of αUπL between 1.2 μm and 1.25 μm. The optimal point of narrower slots are blue shifted resulting in a larger light-matter interaction. Further, the enhanced light matter interaction for narrower slots (25 Vμm for 50 nm compared to 114 Vμm for 200 nm) are overcompensating the increased losses caused by narrower slots. This results in αUπL of 25 dBV for a single phase shifter and 12.5 dBV for a push-pull Mach-Zehnder Modulator. Such a modulator can be switched with a driving voltage of 3 Vpp having insertion loss of 4 dB. In (b), the circles and crosses represent measured losses obtained from cut-back measurements [this work] and obtained from our previous work [35] using an OEO-material with a similar refractive index.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup used to characterize the wavelength-dependent plasmonic phase modulator (PPM) performance. Two tunable lasers are alternatively used as a light source, covering the wavelength range from 1260 nm to 1370 nm and from 1460 nm to 1630 nm. Light is coupled to the chip by edge coupling. A sinusoidal 40 GHz RF-signal is generated and amplified before being applied via RF probes to the PPM. Finally, the modulated optical signal is measured with an optical spectrum analyzer to obtain the ratio between optical carrier and modulation sidebands.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The measured voltage length (blue dots) product for two different plasmonic phase shifters of width 50 nm and 200 nm, respectively. The voltage length product drops by a factor of three over the investigated wavelength range.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured EO coefficients (blue dots) as a function of wavelength for two different phase modulators with slot widths of (a) 50 nm and (b) 200 nm. The red dashed line represents the expected evolution of the EO coefficient as function of wavelength according to the two state model.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The normalized loss-voltage-length product plotted as a function of the wavelength for two different phase shifters (normalized with respect to the wavelength at 1.65 μm to make comparisons easier). It can be seen that the performance improves by up to a factor two at shorter wavelengths.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 – In POH modulators demonstrated performance of organic electro-optic materials

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Table 2 – Refractive index of 75%HD-BB-OH/25%YLD124 measured by ellipsometry

Equations (9)

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η(λ)= Δ n eff ' (λ) n eff '' (λ) n OEO ' (λ) 3 r 33 (λ) ( n OEO '' (λ)+ n Metal '' (λ)) ,
Δ n eff =Γ(λ) n slow (λ)Δ n OEO,rel. (λ).
U π L= λ w slot Γ(λ) n slow (λ) n OEO '' 3 (λ) r 33 (λ) ,
α=10 log 10 ( exp( 4π λ n eff '' L ) ).
r 33,exp (λ)= U π,sim U π,exp r 33,exp (λ).
α total =10 log 10 ( exp( 4π λ n eff '' L ) )
π=ΔβL= 2π λ 0 Δ n eff ' L
η= Δ n eff ' n eff ''
η= Δ n eff ' n eff '' n OEO ' 3 r 33 ( n OEO '' + n Metal '' )

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