Abstract

A conjugated polymer consisting of tri-EDOT and azine groups was synthesized and explored for a programmable dual electrochromic device. Electrochemical doping (oxidation) and de-doping (reduction) resulted in the two distinct redox pairs, depending on the applied potential range. In situ spectroelectrochemical analyses revealed that the stepwise redox process of two units was associated with dual electrochromic responses: tri-EDOT unit for purple electrochromism followed by azine unit for blue electrochromism. Dual electrochromism of purple and blue was attainable at below 1.0 V which could induce the color transition upon the potential application of around ± 1 V. Maximum coloration efficiency of 393 cm2/C with a response time of 1 s was obtained.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Kim and E. Kim, “Electrochromic properties of nanochromic windows assembled by the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6, e202–e205 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. J. Mortimer, D. R. Rosseinsky, and P. M. S. Monk, Electrochromic Materials and Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2015).
  5. K. Nishio, Y. Watanabe, and T. Tsuchiya, “Preparation and properties of electrochromic iridium oxide thin film by sol-gel process,” Thin Solid Films 350(1-2), 96–100 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. C.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, S.-H. Huh, and E.-K. Kim, “WO3 thin film coating from H2O-controlled peroxotungstic acid and its electrochromic properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53(2), 176–183 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Lee, and K.-C. Ho, “Spectroelectrochemical studies of manganese phthalocyanine thin films for applications in electrochromic devices,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 524–525, 81–89 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic Diffraction from Nanopatterned Poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Baek, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Growth and Electrochromic Properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Layer on TiO2 Nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4851–4855 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. Yamada, K. Seya, and G. Kimura, “Electrochromism of poly(pyrrole) film on Au nano-brush electrode,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 188–193 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Kim and Y. Kim, “Layer-by-Layer Assembled Electrochromic Film Based on an Alkylsulfonated Polyaniline,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 447, 491–497 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. Gunbas and L. Toppare, “Electrochromic conjugated polyheterocycles and derivatives--highlights from the last decade towards realization of long lived aspirations,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(8), 1083–1101 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

G. Gunbas and L. Toppare, “Electrochromic conjugated polyheterocycles and derivatives--highlights from the last decade towards realization of long lived aspirations,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(8), 1083–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, S.-H. Huh, and E.-K. Kim, “WO3 thin film coating from H2O-controlled peroxotungstic acid and its electrochromic properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53(2), 176–183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic Diffraction from Nanopatterned Poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. Yamada, K. Seya, and G. Kimura, “Electrochromism of poly(pyrrole) film on Au nano-brush electrode,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 188–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baek, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Growth and Electrochromic Properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Layer on TiO2 Nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4851–4855 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Y. Kim and E. Kim, “Electrochromic properties of nanochromic windows assembled by the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6, e202–e205 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Lee, and K.-C. Ho, “Spectroelectrochemical studies of manganese phthalocyanine thin films for applications in electrochromic devices,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 524–525, 81–89 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Nishio, Y. Watanabe, and T. Tsuchiya, “Preparation and properties of electrochromic iridium oxide thin film by sol-gel process,” Thin Solid Films 350(1-2), 96–100 (1999).
[Crossref]

Aldenkortt, S.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Arrechea-Marcos, I.

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.

J. Baek, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Growth and Electrochromic Properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Layer on TiO2 Nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4851–4855 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bäuerle, P.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beaujuge, P. M.

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhuvana, T.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bijak, K.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Briehn, A. C.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cabañero, G.

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmen Ruiz Delgado, M.

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ellinger, S.

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filapek, M.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grande, H. J.

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grucela-Zajac, M.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gunbas, G.

G. Gunbas and L. Toppare, “Electrochromic conjugated polyheterocycles and derivatives--highlights from the last decade towards realization of long lived aspirations,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(8), 1083–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M.

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ho, K.-C.

C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Lee, and K.-C. Ho, “Spectroelectrochemical studies of manganese phthalocyanine thin films for applications in electrochromic devices,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 524–525, 81–89 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huh, S.-H.

C.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, S.-H. Huh, and E.-K. Kim, “WO3 thin film coating from H2O-controlled peroxotungstic acid and its electrochromic properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53(2), 176–183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hünig, S.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Janeczek, H.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, S.-H. Huh, and E.-K. Kim, “WO3 thin film coating from H2O-controlled peroxotungstic acid and its electrochromic properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53(2), 176–183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic Diffraction from Nanopatterned Poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baek, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Growth and Electrochromic Properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Layer on TiO2 Nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4851–4855 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim and E. Kim, “Electrochromic properties of nanochromic windows assembled by the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6, e202–e205 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.-K.

C.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, S.-H. Huh, and E.-K. Kim, “WO3 thin film coating from H2O-controlled peroxotungstic acid and its electrochromic properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53(2), 176–183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic Diffraction from Nanopatterned Poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-H.

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic Diffraction from Nanopatterned Poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic Diffraction from Nanopatterned Poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baek, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Growth and Electrochromic Properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Layer on TiO2 Nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4851–4855 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim and E. Kim, “Electrochromic properties of nanochromic windows assembled by the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6, e202–e205 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kimura, G.

K. Yamada, K. Seya, and G. Kimura, “Electrochromism of poly(pyrrole) film on Au nano-brush electrode,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 188–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-C.

C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Lee, and K.-C. Ho, “Spectroelectrochemical studies of manganese phthalocyanine thin films for applications in electrochromic devices,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 524–525, 81–89 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

C.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, S.-H. Huh, and E.-K. Kim, “WO3 thin film coating from H2O-controlled peroxotungstic acid and its electrochromic properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53(2), 176–183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Lee, and K.-C. Ho, “Spectroelectrochemical studies of manganese phthalocyanine thin films for applications in electrochromic devices,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 524–525, 81–89 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lin, K.

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez Navarrete, J. T.

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, B.

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ming, S.

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Na, J.

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nishio, K.

K. Nishio, Y. Watanabe, and T. Tsuchiya, “Preparation and properties of electrochromic iridium oxide thin film by sol-gel process,” Thin Solid Films 350(1-2), 96–100 (1999).
[Crossref]

Odriozola, I.

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortiz, R. P.

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Palenzuela, J.

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C.

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, T.

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perepichka, I. F.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Poduval, M. K.

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, J. R.

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruiz, V.

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarwade, B. D.

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schab-Balcerzak, E.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schäferling, M.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sek, D.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seo, S.

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seya, K.

K. Yamada, K. Seya, and G. Kimura, “Electrochromism of poly(pyrrole) film on Au nano-brush electrode,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 188–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shin, H.

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siwy, M.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Skorka, L.

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stalke, D.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Toppare, L.

G. Gunbas and L. Toppare, “Electrochromic conjugated polyheterocycles and derivatives--highlights from the last decade towards realization of long lived aspirations,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(8), 1083–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, T.

K. Nishio, Y. Watanabe, and T. Tsuchiya, “Preparation and properties of electrochromic iridium oxide thin film by sol-gel process,” Thin Solid Films 350(1-2), 96–100 (1999).
[Crossref]

Viñuales, A.

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walfort, B.

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

K. Nishio, Y. Watanabe, and T. Tsuchiya, “Preparation and properties of electrochromic iridium oxide thin film by sol-gel process,” Thin Solid Films 350(1-2), 96–100 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, K. Seya, and G. Kimura, “Electrochromism of poly(pyrrole) film on Au nano-brush electrode,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 188–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, J.

J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhen, S.

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

J. Palenzuela, A. Viñuales, I. Odriozola, G. Cabañero, H. J. Grande, and V. Ruiz, “Flexible viologen electrochromic devices with low operational voltages using reduced graphene oxide electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 14562–14567 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ming, S. Zhen, K. Lin, L. Zhao, J. Xu, and B. Lu, “Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(21), 11089–11098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Kim, and E. Kim, “Electrochromic Diffraction from Nanopatterned Poly(3-hexylthiophene),” ACS Nano 4(9), 5277–5284 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Kim, J. You, B. Kim, T. Park, and E. Kim, “Solution processable and patternable poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene)s for large-area electrochromic films,” Adv. Mater. 23(36), 4168–4173 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible Full-Color Generation with Patterned Yellow Electrochromic Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

G. Gunbas and L. Toppare, “Electrochromic conjugated polyheterocycles and derivatives--highlights from the last decade towards realization of long lived aspirations,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(8), 1083–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Sci. (Camb.) (1)

C. Park, S. Seo, H. Shin, B. D. Sarwade, J. Na, and E. Kim, “Switchable silver mirrors with long memory effects,” Chem. Sci. (Camb.) 6(1), 596–602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kim and E. Kim, “Electrochromic properties of nanochromic windows assembled by the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6, e202–e205 (2006).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

H. Shin, S. Seo, C. Park, J. Na, M. Han, and E. Kim, “Energy saving electrochromic windows from bistable low-HOMO level conjugated polymers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(1), 117–122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Org. Chem. (1)

S. Hünig, S. Aldenkortt, P. Bäuerle, A. C. Briehn, M. Schäferling, I. F. Perepichka, D. Stalke, and B. Walfort, “Electrochromics by Intramolecular Redox Switching of Single Bonds,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002(10), 1603–1613 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

C.-L. Lin, C.-C. Lee, and K.-C. Ho, “Spectroelectrochemical studies of manganese phthalocyanine thin films for applications in electrochromic devices,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 524–525, 81–89 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Baek, Y. Kim, and E. Kim, “Growth and Electrochromic Properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Layer on TiO2 Nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4851–4855 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

C.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, S.-H. Huh, and E.-K. Kim, “WO3 thin film coating from H2O-controlled peroxotungstic acid and its electrochromic properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53(2), 176–183 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RSC Advances (1)

M. K. Poduval, I. Arrechea-Marcos, M. Carmen Ruiz Delgado, T. Park, J. T. Lopez Navarrete, R. P. Ortiz, and T.-H. Kim, “Stereoisomers of an azine-linked donor-acceptor conjugated polymer: the impact of molecular conformation on electrical performance,” RSC Advances 6(50), 44272–44278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Synth. Met. (2)

D. Sek, K. Bijak, M. Grucela-Zajac, M. Filapek, L. Skorka, M. Siwy, H. Janeczek, and E. Schab-Balcerzak, “Synthesis and study on the light absorbing, emitting, redox and electrochromic properties of azines and polyazines with thiophene units,” Synth. Met. 162(17-18), 1623–1635 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Yamada, K. Seya, and G. Kimura, “Electrochromism of poly(pyrrole) film on Au nano-brush electrode,” Synth. Met. 159(3-4), 188–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. Nishio, Y. Watanabe, and T. Tsuchiya, “Preparation and properties of electrochromic iridium oxide thin film by sol-gel process,” Thin Solid Films 350(1-2), 96–100 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. J. Mortimer, D. R. Rosseinsky, and P. M. S. Monk, Electrochromic Materials and Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2015).

E. Kim and Y. Kim, “Layer-by-Layer Assembled Electrochromic Film Based on an Alkylsulfonated Polyaniline,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 447, 491–497 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Synthesis of azine monomers and PEDAZ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cyclic voltammogram of PEDAZ film coated on ITO glass vs. Ag/AgCl at the scan rate of 50 mV/s. The first scan of each range is featured in red.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV−vis−NIR spectral change upon series of applied potentials: (a) upon the first oxidation from 0 V to 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 V (solid line), followed by second oxidation from 0.3 to 1.2 V (dashed line), (b) reduction of the film of Fig. 3(a), oxidized fully at 1.2 V, from −0.3 to −1.2 V, (c) oxidation of the film at Fig. 3(b) from 0 V and 1.2 V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A schematic representation of doping induced rearrangement of PEDAZ. (a). At the potential range 0 V to 0.6 V: a redox reaction of tri-EDOT unit (benzoid-quninoid) was responsible for the purple electrochromism. At the potential range 0.6V to 1.2V: further oxidation produces more charged and stabilized species (6d) consequently resulting in transparent blue electrochromism. (b). At the potential range 1.2 V to 0 V: a redox reaction was responsible for the blue electrochromism of the rearranged structure (6d). At the potential 0 V to −1.0 V: further reduction recovered 6a invoking purple electrochromism

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual electrochromism observed at below 1.0 V, and the transition between purple and blue electrochromic switching by inducing fully dedoped (−1 V, reduction) or highly doped (1.2 V, oxidation) states.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical responses of electrochromic device based on PEDAZ film containing liquid electrolyte at 0 V and 0.6 V with a switching interval of 10 s, 5 s, 3 s, and 1 s per step monitored at 550 nm (a and c) and 750 nm (b and d): (a and b) switching between deep purple and transparent purple, (c and d) switching between deep blue and transparent blue (applied 1.2 V for 30 s to induce blue switching mode).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrochromic properties of PEDAZ film

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