Abstract

Tunable liquid crystal devices that can change terahertz wave polarization continuously have many potential applications in terahertz optical systems. We present a reflective liquid crystal terahertz waveplate with sub-wavelength metal grating and metal ground plane electrodes. The thickness of the liquid crystal layer can be reduced to ~10% of that needed for the same phase shift at a given frequency in a transmissive waveplate. We experimentally demonstrate the same tunability as in the transmissive type just using half the thickness. We discuss the dependence on the angle of incidence for phase shift tunability, which can achieve beam steering and polarization conversion simultaneously. The proposed design can be applied in terahertz imaging, sensing, and communications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospects of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Yang, T. T. Tang, P. H. Chen, R.-P. Pan, P. Yu, and C.-L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter with indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2511–2513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. Y. Chen, T. R. Tsai, C. L. Pan, and R. P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

Akiyama, H.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Andreone, A.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beccherelli, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boreman, G. D.

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, T. R. Tsai, C. L. Pan, and R. P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, H. L.

Chen, P.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. H.

Chen, W. C.

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chigrinov, V.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chikhi, N.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danilov, S. N.

Deyanov, R. Z.

Du, T.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ganichev, S. D.

Hangyo, M.

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospects of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. F.

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Isic, G.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, A. A.

Jin, B. B.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.-B.

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kaveev, A. K.

Kaveeva, E. G.

Kawara, T.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

Kopschinski, O.

Kozenkov, V.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kropotov, G. I.

Kwok, H.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

Liang, L. J.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, X. W.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.-W.

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. F.

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lisitskiy, M.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Lu, Y. N.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.-Q.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

Ming, Y.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murauski, A.

Niu, J.

Olbrich, P.

Padilla, W. J.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, C. L.

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, T. R. Tsai, C. L. Pan, and R. P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.-L.

Pan, R. P.

C. F. Hsieh, R. P. Pan, T. T. Tang, H. L. Chen, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter and quarter-wave plate,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1112–1114 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, T. R. Tsai, C. L. Pan, and R. P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pan, R.-P.

Papari, G.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prudnikova, E.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Qian, H.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.-Q.

Redlich, B.

Ruan, X.

Rubin, S.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santamato, E.

Savo, S.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shao, G. H.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y. J.

Shrekenhamer, D.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slussarenko, S.

Takada, H.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takatsu, H.

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tang, T. T.

Tkachenko, V.

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T. R.

C. Y. Chen, T. R. Tsai, C. L. Pan, and R. P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsygankova, E. V.

Tzibizov, I. A.

Vasic, B.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vieweg, N.

Wadsworth, S. L.

Wang, J.-G.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.-Y.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilk, R.

Wu, J.-B.

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. H.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Wu, Z.-J.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. S.

Yang, H.

Yang, K.-L.

Yu, P.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhdanov, A. I.

Zheng, Z. G.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.-G.

L. Wang, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, B.-B. Jin, Y.-Q. Qin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zoth, C.

Adv. Mater. (1)

B.-Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J.-G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Y. Chen, T. R. Tsai, C. L. Pan, and R. P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled birefringence in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4497–4499 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospects of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, H. Takatsu, V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, and H. Kwok, “Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells,” Liq. Cryst. 29(10), 1321–1327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, G. Isić, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals,” Nanotechnology 28(12), 124002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. C. Zografopoulos and R. Beccherelli, “Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chikhi, M. Lisitskiy, G. Papari, V. Tkachenko, and A. Andreone, “A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of a tunable reflective THz waveplate. The THz component with electric field parallel to the grating is reflected, while the component with perpendicular electric field propagates through the LC layer and is reflected by the gold mirror.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 THz LC waveplate characteristics for different THz wavelengths. (a) Phase difference versus LC layer thickness at n = 1.8. (b) Phase difference versus the LC refractive index at LC layer thickness h = 125 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Frequency- and polarization-dependent characteristics of the THz LC waveplate. (a) Reflectance of the subwavelength gold wire grid; the insets depict the photograph of the Au grating and the polarizations of the THz components. (b). Phase shift at different driving voltages.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electrically tunable characteristics of the THz LC waveplate. (a) Tunability of phase difference for different voltage ranges. (b) Polarization evolution (0–22 V) from linearly polarized to circularly polarized at 1.1 THz, to orthogonally linearly polarized at 2.2 THz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of phase difference on angle of incidence for the THz LC waveplate at two voltages of interest.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δϕ= 2π λ 2h( n ( sinθ ) 2 n ) cos( sin -1 ( sinθ n ) )
n eff 2 = n e 2 n o 2 n e 2 cos 2 α+ n o 2 sin 2 α

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