Abstract

Plasmonic nanoantennas have been recently proposed to boost nonlinear optical processes. In a metal dipole nanoantenna with a dielectric nanoparticle placed in the gap, the linear field enhancement can be exploited to enhance third harmonic emission. Since both metals and dielectrics exhibit nonlinearity, the nonlinear far-field contains contributions from each, and the difficulty of measuring these contributions separately has led to seemingly contradictory interpretations about the origin of the nonlinear emission. We determine that the origin of the third harmonic from metal-dielectric dipole nanoantennas depends on nanoantenna design, and in particular, the width. We find that the emission from gold dominates in thin threadlike nanoantennas, whereas the emission from the gap material dominates in wider nanoantennas. We also find that the nonlinear emission from gold in dipole nanoantennas is lower than monopoles of comparable dimensions, but that placing a highly nonlinear material in their gaps makes the nonlinear emission from the gap material dominate over gold.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (4)

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, and M. Scalora, “On the origin of third harmonic light from hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantennas,” J. Opt. 18, 115002 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wolf, T. Schumacher, and M. Lippitz, “Shaping the nonlinear near field,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metasurface nanomixer and nanocavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1000–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Calà Lesina, A. Vaccari, P. Berini, and L. Ramunno, “On the convergence and accuracy of the FDTD method for nanoplasmonics,” Opt. Express 23, 10481 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Calà Lesina, L. Ramunno, and P. Berini, “Dual-polarization plasmonic metasurface for nonlinear optics,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2874 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and I. De Leon, “The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of gold,” Opt. Commun. 326, 74–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Aouani, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cía, and S. A. Maier, “Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 290–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

C. Ciracì, E. Poutrina, M. Scalora, and D. R. Smith, “Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201403 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Quantitative modeling of the third harmonic emission spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 3778–3782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express 20, 18044 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11, 1280–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vial, T. Laroche, M. Dridi, and L. Le Cunff, “A new model of dispersion for metals leading to a more accurate modeling of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 849–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. L. Humphrey and D. Kuciauskas, “Optical susceptibilities of supported indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113123 (2006).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Akozbek, N.

Alù, A.

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metasurface nanomixer and nanocavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1000–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cía, and S. A. Maier, “Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 290–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyropoulos, C.

B. Jin and C. Argyropoulos, “Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28746 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metasurface nanomixer and nanocavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1000–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloemer, M. J.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and I. De Leon, “The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of gold,” Opt. Commun. 326, 74–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bratschitsch, R.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calà Lesina, A.

Campione, S.

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cesar, J.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheah, K. W.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metasurface nanomixer and nanocavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1000–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chilkoti, A.

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciracì, C.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ciracì, E. Poutrina, M. Scalora, and D. R. Smith, “Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201403 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Aguanno, G.

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metasurface nanomixer and nanocavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1000–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Ceglia, D.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Nested plasmonic resonances: extraordinary enhancement of linear and nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 25, 3980–3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, and M. Scalora, “On the origin of third harmonic light from hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantennas,” J. Opt. 18, 115002 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and I. De Leon, “The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of gold,” Opt. Commun. 326, 74–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dridi, M.

A. Vial, T. Laroche, M. Dridi, and L. Le Cunff, “A new model of dispersion for metals leading to a more accurate modeling of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 849–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Förstner, J.

H. Linnenbank, Y. Grynko, J. Förstner, and S. Linden, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on hybrid plasmonic/dielectric nanoantennas,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

Gatzogiannis, E.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Quantitative modeling of the third harmonic emission spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 3778–3782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grynko, Y.

H. Linnenbank, Y. Grynko, J. Förstner, and S. Linden, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on hybrid plasmonic/dielectric nanoantennas,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hanke, T.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Quantitative modeling of the third harmonic emission spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 3778–3782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, R. T.

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoang, T. B.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hohenester, U.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humphrey, J. L.

J. L. Humphrey and D. Kuciauskas, “Optical susceptibilities of supported indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

Jiang, S.

Jin, B.

B. Jin and C. Argyropoulos, “Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28746 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kante, B.

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keeler, G. A.

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knabe, B.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knittel, V.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuciauskas, D.

J. L. Humphrey and D. Kuciauskas, “Optical susceptibilities of supported indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Laroche, T.

A. Vial, T. Laroche, M. Dridi, and L. Le Cunff, “A new model of dispersion for metals leading to a more accurate modeling of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 849–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Larouche, S.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lassiter, J. B.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Le Cunff, L.

A. Vial, T. Laroche, M. Dridi, and L. Le Cunff, “A new model of dispersion for metals leading to a more accurate modeling of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 849–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Linden, S.

H. Linnenbank, Y. Grynko, J. Förstner, and S. Linden, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on hybrid plasmonic/dielectric nanoantennas,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Linnenbank, H.

H. Linnenbank, Y. Grynko, J. Förstner, and S. Linden, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on hybrid plasmonic/dielectric nanoantennas,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lippitz, M.

D. Wolf, T. Schumacher, and M. Lippitz, “Shaping the nonlinear near field,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Quantitative modeling of the third harmonic emission spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 3778–3782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

H. Aouani, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cía, and S. A. Maier, “Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 290–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malitson, I. H.

Man, B.

McNamara, D.

Metzger, B.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikkelsen, M. H.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mousavi, S. S.

Murray, C. B.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navarro-Cía, M.

H. Aouani, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cía, and S. A. Maier, “Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 290–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ning, T.

Nordlander, P.

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11, 1280–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, K.

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paul, T.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pholchai, N.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poutrina, E.

C. Ciracì, E. Poutrina, M. Scalora, and D. R. Smith, “Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prasankumar, R. P.

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y. B.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahmani, M.

H. Aouani, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cía, and S. A. Maier, “Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 290–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramunno, L.

Reineke, B.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, J.

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salandrino, A.

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scalora, M.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Nested plasmonic resonances: extraordinary enhancement of linear and nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 25, 3980–3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, and M. Scalora, “On the origin of third harmonic light from hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantennas,” J. Opt. 18, 115002 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Ciracì, E. Poutrina, M. Scalora, and D. R. Smith, “Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, T.

D. Wolf, T. Schumacher, and M. Lippitz, “Shaping the nonlinear near field,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and I. De Leon, “The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of gold,” Opt. Commun. 326, 74–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, M. B.

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ciracì, E. Poutrina, M. Scalora, and D. R. Smith, “Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201403 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suchowski, H.

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trügler, A.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y.

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Utikal, T.

M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Quantitative modeling of the third harmonic emission spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 3778–3782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaccari, A.

Vial, A.

A. Vial, T. Laroche, M. Dridi, and L. Le Cunff, “A new model of dispersion for metals leading to a more accurate modeling of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 849–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vincenti, M. A.

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Nested plasmonic resonances: extraordinary enhancement of linear and nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 25, 3980–3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, and M. Scalora, “On the origin of third harmonic light from hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantennas,” J. Opt. 18, 115002 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolf, D.

D. Wolf, T. Schumacher, and M. Lippitz, “Shaping the nonlinear near field,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, P. W. H.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Ye, X.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zuloaga, J.

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11, 1280–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (2)

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metasurface nanomixer and nanocavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1000–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

A. Vial, T. Laroche, M. Dridi, and L. Le Cunff, “A new model of dispersion for metals leading to a more accurate modeling of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method,” Appl. Phys. A 103, 849–853 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. S. Luk, D. de Ceglia, S. Liu, G. A. Keeler, R. P. Prasankumar, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, M. B. Sinclair, and S. Campione, “Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 151103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. L. Humphrey and D. Kuciauskas, “Optical susceptibilities of supported indium tin oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113123 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, and M. Scalora, “On the origin of third harmonic light from hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantennas,” J. Opt. 18, 115002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

H. Linnenbank, Y. Grynko, J. Förstner, and S. Linden, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on hybrid plasmonic/dielectric nanoantennas,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11, 1280–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Quantitative modeling of the third harmonic emission spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 3778–3782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Wolf, T. Schumacher, and M. Lippitz, “Shaping the nonlinear near field,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

H. Aouani, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cía, and S. A. Maier, “Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 290–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. W. Boyd, Z. Shi, and I. De Leon, “The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of gold,” Opt. Commun. 326, 74–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Ciracì, E. Poutrina, M. Scalora, and D. R. Smith, “Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Jin and C. Argyropoulos, “Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28746 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

C. Ciracì, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science 337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (687 KB)      THG emission from gap material only in dipole nanoantenna
» Visualization 2: MOV (819 KB)      THG emission from gold only in dipole nanoantenna
» Visualization 3: MOV (998 KB)      THG emission from gap material and gold in dipole nanoantenna
» Visualization 4: MOV (1019 KB)      THG emission from gold in monopole nanoantenna

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Sketch of dipole and monopole nanoantennas. (b) ηTHG for a dipole nanoantenna (w = 30 nm, g = 10 nm). (c) ηTHG for the nine dipole nanoantennas (•, ▪) and the three monopole nanoantennas (dashed lines): w = 30 nm (red), w = 50 nm (green), and w = 70 nm (blue), g = 10 nm (dark shade), g = 20 nm (medium shade), g = 30 nm (light shade).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absolute value (top) and phase (bottom) of Ez(3ω0): emission from (a) gap only ( Visualization 1), (b) gold only ( Visualization 2), (c) gap material and gold ( Visualization 3) in a dipole nanoantenna; (d) gold in a monopole nanoantenna ( Visualization 4).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Radiation pattern at 3ω0: emission from (a) gap material only, (b) gold only, and (c) gap material and gold in a dipole nanoantenna; (d) gold in a monopole nanoantenna.

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