Abstract

Size and pump-fluence dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics of CdSeTe QDs are investigated using femtosecond pump-probe techniques operating at two different repetition rates: 1 kHz (low-repetition rate), and 76 MHz (high-repetition rate). With a low-repetition rate laser and 3.1 eV excitation photon energy, multiple exciton generation (MEG) is observed and the optical responses of alloyed QDs clearly show three components: a fast decay ascribed to carrier recombination, an intermediate component associated with MEG decay, and a slow decay associated with radiative Auger recombination. With a high-repetition rate laser and excitation photon energy resonant with band-edge energy, obvious coherent phonon oscillations are observed in 4 nm CdSeTe QDs due to impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. Open-aperture Z-scan measurement is used to clarify the size and pump-fluence dependence of optical nonlinearity under femtosecond laser excitation. With increasing laser power, an evolution from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption in CdSeTe QDs is observed. The transition process is analyzed using a phenomenological model based on nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity. These results indicate that CdSeTe QDs in a glass matrix are a class of materials for potential application in all-optical switching devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. P. Singh and K. S. Bindra, “Saturation and reverse saturable absorption in semiconductor doped glass and its application to parallel logic gates,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47(10), 3313–3321 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

B. T. Spann and X. F. Xu, “Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1-xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Ouyang, H. L. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. J. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(31), 6319–6325 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Z. J. Chai, W. Z. Wu, D. G. Kong, Y. C. Gao, and Q. Chang, “Size-dependent electronic decays and coherent phonon of CdSeTe quantum dots in glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 382, 121–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. G. Li, F. Li, and Z. C. He, “Large off-resonant and intensity-dependent third-order optical nonlinearities of CdSeS quantum dots/polystyrene composite film,” Mater. Lett. 93, 366–369 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. T. Spann, L. Chen, X. Ruan, and X. Xu, “Energy relaxation in CdSe nanocrystals: the effects of morphology and film preparation,” Opt. Express 21(101), A15–A22 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Schmidt, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “Pulse accumulation, radial heat conduction, and anisotropic thermal conductivity in pump-probe transient thermoreflectance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells: semiconductor nanocrystals as light harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(48), 18737–18753 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. J. Zhang, L. M. Zhang, and R. O. Claus, “Nonlinear differential ultrafast laser absorption spectroscopy observation of charge carrier dynamics of CdSxSe1-x nanocrystal doped glasses,” Smart Mater. Struct. 16(2), 243–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Santhi and F. Trojanek, “Investigation of nonlinear properties of CdS-doped glasses,” Physica E 27(1–2), 38–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. A. Padilha, A. A. R. Neves, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Recombination processes in CdTe quantum-dot-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3256–3258 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

T. W. Roberti, N. J. Cherepy, and J. Z. Zhang, “Nature of the power-dependent ultrafast relaxation process of photoexcited charge carriers in II-VI semiconductor quantum dots: Effects of particle size, surface, and electronic structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(5), 2143–2151 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Perna, V. Capozzi, and M. Ambrico, “Structural properties and photoluminescence study of CdSe/Si epilayers deposited by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3337–3344 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. I. Klimov, “Carrier transfer and thermal escape in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4028–4031 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and B. Speit, “Neutron scattering investigation of the structure of semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(11), 6925–6935 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Time-resolved thermal lens measurement of thermal diffusivity of soda-lime glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197(3), 255–258 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Müller, and H. Weller, “Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168(6), 543–550 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Hase, H. Weller, and A. Henglein, “Photochemistry of colloidal semiconductors. Photoelectron emission from cadmium sulfide particles and related chemical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 92(16), 4706–4712 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, “Interferometric measurement of the nonlinear index of refraction, n2, of CdSx Se1-x doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(18), 1184 (1986).
[Crossref]

Aku-Leh, C.

A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ambrico, M.

G. Perna, V. Capozzi, and M. Ambrico, “Structural properties and photoluminescence study of CdSe/Si epilayers deposited by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3337–3344 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bae, W. K.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baesso, M. L.

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Time-resolved thermal lens measurement of thermal diffusivity of soda-lime glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197(3), 255–258 (1992).
[Crossref]

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and B. Speit, “Neutron scattering investigation of the structure of semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(11), 6925–6935 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, L. C.

L. A. Padilha, A. A. R. Neves, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Recombination processes in CdTe quantum-dot-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3256–3258 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bindra, K. S.

C. P. Singh and K. S. Bindra, “Saturation and reverse saturable absorption in semiconductor doped glass and its application to parallel logic gates,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47(10), 3313–3321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bragas, A. V.

A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brooks, E.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brovelli, S.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bubb, D. M.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Camellini, A.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capozzi, V.

G. Perna, V. Capozzi, and M. Ambrico, “Structural properties and photoluminescence study of CdSe/Si epilayers deposited by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3337–3344 (1998).
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L. A. Padilha, A. A. R. Neves, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Recombination processes in CdTe quantum-dot-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3256–3258 (2004).
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Z. J. Chai, W. Z. Wu, D. G. Kong, Y. C. Gao, and Q. Chang, “Size-dependent electronic decays and coherent phonon of CdSeTe quantum dots in glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 382, 121–124 (2013).
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Chang, Q.

Z. J. Chai, W. Z. Wu, D. G. Kong, Y. C. Gao, and Q. Chang, “Size-dependent electronic decays and coherent phonon of CdSeTe quantum dots in glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 382, 121–124 (2013).
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Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
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A. J. Schmidt, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “Pulse accumulation, radial heat conduction, and anisotropic thermal conductivity in pump-probe transient thermoreflectance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114902 (2008).
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Chen, X.

A. J. Schmidt, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “Pulse accumulation, radial heat conduction, and anisotropic thermal conductivity in pump-probe transient thermoreflectance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114902 (2008).
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Chen, Y.

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
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Chen, Y. J.

Q. Y. Ouyang, H. L. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. J. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(31), 6319–6325 (2014).
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T. W. Roberti, N. J. Cherepy, and J. Z. Zhang, “Nature of the power-dependent ultrafast relaxation process of photoexcited charge carriers in II-VI semiconductor quantum dots: Effects of particle size, surface, and electronic structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(5), 2143–2151 (1998).
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V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
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Claus, R. O.

F. J. Zhang, L. M. Zhang, and R. O. Claus, “Nonlinear differential ultrafast laser absorption spectroscopy observation of charge carrier dynamics of CdSxSe1-x nanocrystal doped glasses,” Smart Mater. Struct. 16(2), 243–248 (2007).
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A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
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Crooker, S. A.

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruz, C. H. B.

L. A. Padilha, A. A. R. Neves, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Recombination processes in CdTe quantum-dot-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3256–3258 (2004).
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De Donato, F.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
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G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998).
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G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and B. Speit, “Neutron scattering investigation of the structure of semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(11), 6925–6935 (1993).
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Eisler, H.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellingson, R. J.

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
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Ernsting, N. P.

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Müller, and H. Weller, “Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168(6), 543–550 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gammon, D.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y. C.

Z. J. Chai, W. Z. Wu, D. G. Kong, Y. C. Gao, and Q. Chang, “Size-dependent electronic decays and coherent phonon of CdSeTe quantum dots in glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 382, 121–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

García-Santamaría, F.

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurudas, U.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Han, D. A.

Hase, M.

M. Hase, H. Weller, and A. Henglein, “Photochemistry of colloidal semiconductors. Photoelectron emission from cadmium sulfide particles and related chemical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 92(16), 4706–4712 (1988).
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He, Z. C.

X. G. Li, F. Li, and Z. C. He, “Large off-resonant and intensity-dependent third-order optical nonlinearities of CdSeS quantum dots/polystyrene composite film,” Mater. Lett. 93, 366–369 (2013).
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Heiroth, S.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
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Henglein, A.

M. Hase, H. Weller, and A. Henglein, “Photochemistry of colloidal semiconductors. Photoelectron emission from cadmium sulfide particles and related chemical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 92(16), 4706–4712 (1988).
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Hollingsworth, J. A.

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Htoon, H.

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikezawa, M.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingale, A.

A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
[Crossref]

Izuishi, T.

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiao, W. Y.

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, Q. H.

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Jing, P.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, J. C.

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells: semiconductor nanocrystals as light harvesters,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(48), 18737–18753 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaschke, M.

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Müller, and H. Weller, “Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168(6), 543–550 (1990).
[Crossref]

Katzer, D. S.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, “Carrier transfer and thermal escape in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4028–4031 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kong, D. G.

Z. J. Chai, W. Z. Wu, D. G. Kong, Y. C. Gao, and Q. Chang, “Size-dependent electronic decays and coherent phonon of CdSeTe quantum dots in glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 382, 121–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Law, M.

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leng, J. Y.

Li, F.

X. G. Li, F. Li, and Z. C. He, “Large off-resonant and intensity-dependent third-order optical nonlinearities of CdSeS quantum dots/polystyrene composite film,” Mater. Lett. 93, 366–369 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. G.

X. G. Li, F. Li, and Z. C. He, “Large off-resonant and intensity-dependent third-order optical nonlinearities of CdSeS quantum dots/polystyrene composite film,” Mater. Lett. 93, 366–369 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. L.

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liang, X. J.

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lippert, T.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. F.

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. L.

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Luo, L.

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luther, J. M.

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malko, A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manna, L.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masumoto, Y.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinardi, F.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merlin, R.

A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreels, I.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, U.

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Müller, and H. Weller, “Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168(6), 543–550 (1990).
[Crossref]

Neves, A. A. R.

L. A. Padilha, A. A. R. Neves, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Recombination processes in CdTe quantum-dot-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3256–3258 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nozik, A. J.

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 3–11 (2008).
[Crossref]

Olbright, G. R.

G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, “Interferometric measurement of the nonlinear index of refraction, n2, of CdSx Se1-x doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(18), 1184 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Ouyang, H. L. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. J. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(31), 6319–6325 (2014).
[Crossref]

Padilha, L. A.

L. A. Padilha, A. A. R. Neves, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Recombination processes in CdTe quantum-dot-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3256–3258 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, D.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perna, G.

G. Perna, V. Capozzi, and M. Ambrico, “Structural properties and photoluminescence study of CdSe/Si epilayers deposited by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3337–3344 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. R. Olbright and N. Peyghambarian, “Interferometric measurement of the nonlinear index of refraction, n2, of CdSx Se1-x doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(18), 1184 (1986).
[Crossref]

Piermarocchi, C.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinchetti, V.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, S.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ricard, D.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998).
[Crossref]

Roberti, T. W.

T. W. Roberti, N. J. Cherepy, and J. Z. Zhang, “Nature of the power-dependent ultrafast relaxation process of photoexcited charge carriers in II-VI semiconductor quantum dots: Effects of particle size, surface, and electronic structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(5), 2143–2151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ruan, X.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Santhi, S.

S. Santhi and F. Trojanek, “Investigation of nonlinear properties of CdS-doped glasses,” Physica E 27(1–2), 38–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schaller, R. D.

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
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A. J. Schmidt, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “Pulse accumulation, radial heat conduction, and anisotropic thermal conductivity in pump-probe transient thermoreflectance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114902 (2008).
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Sham, L. J.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shen, J.

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Time-resolved thermal lens measurement of thermal diffusivity of soda-lime glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197(3), 255–258 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
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Singh, C. P.

C. P. Singh and K. S. Bindra, “Saturation and reverse saturable absorption in semiconductor doped glass and its application to parallel logic gates,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47(10), 3313–3321 (2015).
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Sirigu, G.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snook, R. D.

M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Time-resolved thermal lens measurement of thermal diffusivity of soda-lime glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 197(3), 255–258 (1992).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. L.

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spann, B. T.

B. T. Spann and X. F. Xu, “Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1-xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083111 (2014).
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B. T. Spann, L. Chen, X. Ruan, and X. Xu, “Energy relaxation in CdSe nanocrystals: the effects of morphology and film preparation,” Opt. Express 21(101), A15–A22 (2013).
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G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and B. Speit, “Neutron scattering investigation of the structure of semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(11), 6925–6935 (1993).
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Steel, D.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stievater, T. H.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, W. H.

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Trojanek, F.

S. Santhi and F. Trojanek, “Investigation of nonlinear properties of CdS-doped glasses,” Physica E 27(1–2), 38–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vanstryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vela, J.

F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viswanatha, R.

F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Wang, Y. H.

Wang, Y. X.

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Weller, H.

M. Kaschke, N. P. Ernsting, U. Müller, and H. Weller, “Ultrafast electron ejection and trapping in semiconductor colloids after multiple photon absorption,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168(6), 543–550 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Hase, H. Weller, and A. Henglein, “Photochemistry of colloidal semiconductors. Photoelectron emission from cadmium sulfide particles and related chemical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 92(16), 4706–4712 (1988).
[Crossref]

Wokaun, A.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
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Wu, W. Z.

Z. J. Chai, W. Z. Wu, D. G. Kong, Y. C. Gao, and Q. Chang, “Size-dependent electronic decays and coherent phonon of CdSeTe quantum dots in glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 382, 121–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Wu, Y.

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, W. D.

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, C. P.

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, R.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
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Xu, X.

Xu, X. F.

B. T. Spann and X. F. Xu, “Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1-xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y. X.

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Yang, H.

Yang, J. W.

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. Q.

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Yu, H. L.

Q. Y. Ouyang, H. L. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. J. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(31), 6319–6325 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F. J.

F. J. Zhang, L. M. Zhang, and R. O. Claus, “Nonlinear differential ultrafast laser absorption spectroscopy observation of charge carrier dynamics of CdSxSe1-x nanocrystal doped glasses,” Smart Mater. Struct. 16(2), 243–248 (2007).
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Zhang, J. P.

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Zhang, J. Z.

T. W. Roberti, N. J. Cherepy, and J. Z. Zhang, “Nature of the power-dependent ultrafast relaxation process of photoexcited charge carriers in II-VI semiconductor quantum dots: Effects of particle size, surface, and electronic structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(5), 2143–2151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Q. Y. Ouyang, H. L. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. J. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(31), 6319–6325 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. M.

F. J. Zhang, L. M. Zhang, and R. O. Claus, “Nonlinear differential ultrafast laser absorption spectroscopy observation of charge carrier dynamics of CdSxSe1-x nanocrystal doped glasses,” Smart Mater. Struct. 16(2), 243–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. R.

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
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A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
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Zhao, K.

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C. T.

Zheng, Z. R.

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Zhong, J. S.

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, X. H.

J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

P. Jing, W. Ji, X. Yuan, S. Qu, R. Xie, M. Ikezawa, J. Zhao, H. Li, and Y. Masumoto, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and hot electron extraction in tetrapod-shaped CdSe nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7938–7944 (2015).
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ACS Nano (1)

V. Pinchetti, F. Meinardi, A. Camellini, G. Sirigu, S. Christodoulou, W. K. Bae, F. De Donato, L. Manna, M. Zavelani-Rossi, I. Moreels, V. I. Klimov, and S. Brovelli, “Effect of core/shell interface on carrier dynamics and optical gain properties of dual-color emitting CdSe/CdS nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6877–6887 (2016).
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Adv. Phys. (1)

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998).
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B. T. Spann and X. F. Xu, “Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1-xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083111 (2014).
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A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1-3), 3–11 (2008).
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A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 73107–73114 (2008).
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G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and B. Speit, “Neutron scattering investigation of the structure of semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(11), 6925–6935 (1993).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. W. Roberti, N. J. Cherepy, and J. Z. Zhang, “Nature of the power-dependent ultrafast relaxation process of photoexcited charge carriers in II-VI semiconductor quantum dots: Effects of particle size, surface, and electronic structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(5), 2143–2151 (1998).
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J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (2)

W. D. Xiang, X. J. Liang, J. S. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Luo, and C. P. Xie, “Direct synthesis of highly luminescent Cu-Zn-In-S quaternary nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence spectra and decay times,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(10), 2014–2020 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Ouyang, H. L. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. J. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(31), 6319–6325 (2014).
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J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

Z. J. Chai, W. Z. Wu, D. G. Kong, Y. C. Gao, and Q. Chang, “Size-dependent electronic decays and coherent phonon of CdSeTe quantum dots in glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 382, 121–124 (2013).
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M. Hase, H. Weller, and A. Henglein, “Photochemistry of colloidal semiconductors. Photoelectron emission from cadmium sulfide particles and related chemical effects,” J. Phys. Chem. 92(16), 4706–4712 (1988).
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J. W. Yang, J. Wang, K. Zhao, T. Izuishi, Y. Li, Q. Shen, and X. H. Zhong, “CdSeTe/CdS type-I core/Shell quantum dot sensitized solar cells with efficiency over 9%,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(52), 28800–28808 (2015).
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X. G. Li, F. Li, and Z. C. He, “Large off-resonant and intensity-dependent third-order optical nonlinearities of CdSeS quantum dots/polystyrene composite film,” Mater. Lett. 93, 366–369 (2013).
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F. García-Santamaría, S. Brovelli, R. Viswanatha, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Breakdown of volume scaling in Auger recombination in CdSe/CdS heteronanocrystals: the role of the core-shell interface,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 687–693 (2011).
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F. García-Santamaría, Y. Chen, J. Vela, R. D. Schaller, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, “Suppressed auger recombination in “Giant” nanocrystals boosts optical gain performance,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3482–3488 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. C. Gao, X. R. Zhang, Y. L. Li, H. F. Liu, Y. X. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Y. Jiao, and Y. L. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. P. Singh and K. S. Bindra, “Saturation and reverse saturable absorption in semiconductor doped glass and its application to parallel logic gates,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47(10), 3313–3321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. V. Bragas, C. Aku-Leh, S. Costantino, A. Ingale, J. Zhao, and R. Merlin, “Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205306 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. I. Klimov, “Carrier transfer and thermal escape in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4028–4031 (1998).
[Crossref]

Physica E (1)

S. Santhi and F. Trojanek, “Investigation of nonlinear properties of CdS-doped glasses,” Physica E 27(1–2), 38–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. J. Schmidt, X. Chen, and G. Chen, “Pulse accumulation, radial heat conduction, and anisotropic thermal conductivity in pump-probe transient thermoreflectance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(11), 114902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, Y. Wu, D. Steel, D. Gammon, T. H. Stievater, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “An all-optical quantum gate in a semiconductor quantum dot,” Science 301(5634), 809–811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

F. J. Zhang, L. M. Zhang, and R. O. Claus, “Nonlinear differential ultrafast laser absorption spectroscopy observation of charge carrier dynamics of CdSxSe1-x nanocrystal doped glasses,” Smart Mater. Struct. 16(2), 243–248 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wuli Xuebao (1)

W. Z. Wu, Z. R. Zheng, Q. H. Jin, Y. X. Yan, W. L. Liu, J. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Yang, and W. H. Su, “The property of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of water soluble CdTe quantum dots,” Wuli Xuebao 57(2), 1177–1182 (2008).

Other (1)

Y. N. Gao, C. S. S. Sandeep, J. M. Schins, A. J. Houtepen, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “Disorder strongly enhances Auger recombination in conductive quantum-dot solids,” Nature Commun. 4, 2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Absorption spectra of 4 nm, 5 nm, 11 nm filter near the absorption edge. The absorption peak can be determined by taking the derivative of absorption spectra. (b) Raman spectra of 4 nm, 5 nm, 11 nm QD samples using 514 nm laser excitation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Signals of 4 nm, 5 nm and 11 nm samples under low-repetition rate excitation at different pump fluences. The solid lines are fittings with multiexponential fitting and double damped harmonic oscillation. (b) Signals of 4 nm, 5 nm and 11 nm samples under high-repetition rate excitation at different pump fluences. The solid lines are fittings with triple exponential fittings with convolution. (c) and (d) Corresponding pump fluence-dependent lifetime τ1, τ2, τ3 of QDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Coherent phonon vibrations and fitting in 4 nm sample under pump fluence of 44 μJ/cm2. (b) Fast Fourier Transformation of coherent phonon signals as a function of the pump fluence. c) and d) Change of amplitude and lifetime of coherent phonons under different pump fluences.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The open-aperture (S = 1) Z-scan curves for CdSeTe QDs (4 nm, 5 nm, and 11 nm) at 1.55 eV femtosecond excitation. The solid lines are the theoretical fitting curves.

Tables (1)

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Tab. 1 Absorption coefficient index with the pump power excitation in Fig. 4

Equations (4)

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ΔA A (t)=[ i a i e (t t 0 ) i + l β l e (t t 0 )/ γ l cos( ω l t+ ϕ l ) ]H(t)
N abs =J(0)(1 e αL )/cL
α(I)= α 0 1 1+I/ I s +βI= α SA (I)+ α RSA (I)
T(z)= m=0 ( α(I) I 0 L eff I(1+ z 2 / z 0 2 ) ) m (1+m) 3/2

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