Abstract

We demonstrate low-loss guidance of small-core exposed core fibers, fabricated through a drilling technique in fused silica glass. By modifying the design and fabrication procedure a more practical fiber can be realized, with a small core enabling a high evanescent overlap for prospective sensing applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, “Current status of micro-and nano-structured optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 209–221 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Wang and O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2015).
    [PubMed]
  3. S. Afshar, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17891–17901 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1974–1976 (2004).
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  10. S. C. Warren-Smith and T. M. Monro, “Exposed core microstructured optical fiber Bragg gratings: refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1480–1489 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. François, T. Reynolds, and T. M. Monro, “A fiber-tip label-free biological sensing platform: a practical approach toward in-vivo sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(1), 1168–1181 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. M. Cordeiro, M. A. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006).
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  15. S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18533–18542 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  18. R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V, G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Novel polymer functionalization method for exposed-core optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1515–1525 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. C. Warren-Smith, G. Nie, E. P. Schartner, L. A. Salamonsen, and T. M. Monro, “Enzyme activity assays within microstructured optical fibers enabled by automated alignment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3304–3313 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Predicting the drawing conditions for microstructured optical fiber fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 29–40 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. C. Warren-Smith, J. Wie, M. Chemnitz, R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. A. Schmidt, “Third harmonic generation in exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17860–17867 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. Spierings, “Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(23), 6261–6273 (1993).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

X. Wang and O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. François, T. Reynolds, and T. M. Monro, “A fiber-tip label-free biological sensing platform: a practical approach toward in-vivo sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(1), 1168–1181 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. Spierings, “Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(23), 6261–6273 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abell, A. D.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afshar, S.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Afshar, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17891–17901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afshar V, S.

Barretto, E. C.

Bjarklev, A.

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Carlsen, A.

Chemnitz, M.

Chesini, G.

Cordeiro, C. M.

Cox, F. M.

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davis, C.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

S. C. Warren-Smith, J. Wie, M. Chemnitz, R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. A. Schmidt, “Third harmonic generation in exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17860–17867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Predicting the drawing conditions for microstructured optical fiber fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 29–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V, G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Novel polymer functionalization method for exposed-core optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1515–1525 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C. Davis, G. McAdam, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Silica exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1538–1547 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18533–18542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Foo, T. C.

Franco, M. A.

François, A.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. François, T. Reynolds, and T. M. Monro, “A fiber-tip label-free biological sensing platform: a practical approach toward in-vivo sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(1), 1168–1181 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hansen, T. P.

Heng, S.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hoiby, P. E.

Jensen, J. B.

Jin, D.

E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

Klantsataya, E.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kostecki, R.

S. C. Warren-Smith, J. Wie, M. Chemnitz, R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. A. Schmidt, “Third harmonic generation in exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17860–17867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V, G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Novel polymer functionalization method for exposed-core optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1515–1525 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Predicting the drawing conditions for microstructured optical fiber fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 29–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C. Davis, G. McAdam, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Silica exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1538–1547 (2012).
[Crossref]

Large, M. C.

Lee, B.

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, “Current status of micro-and nano-structured optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 209–221 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lwin, R.

McAdam, G.

Monro, T. M.

S. C. Warren-Smith, J. Wie, M. Chemnitz, R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. A. Schmidt, “Third harmonic generation in exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17860–17867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. François, T. Reynolds, and T. M. Monro, “A fiber-tip label-free biological sensing platform: a practical approach toward in-vivo sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(1), 1168–1181 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V, G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Novel polymer functionalization method for exposed-core optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1515–1525 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith and T. M. Monro, “Exposed core microstructured optical fiber Bragg gratings: refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Predicting the drawing conditions for microstructured optical fiber fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 29–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C. Davis, G. McAdam, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Silica exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1538–1547 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, G. Nie, E. P. Schartner, L. A. Salamonsen, and T. M. Monro, “Enzyme activity assays within microstructured optical fibers enabled by automated alignment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3304–3313 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18533–18542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17891–17901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, R.

Nguyen, L. V.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, G.

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Park, J.

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, “Current status of micro-and nano-structured optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 209–221 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, L. H.

Piper, J. A.

E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynolds, T.

A. François, T. Reynolds, and T. M. Monro, “A fiber-tip label-free biological sensing platform: a practical approach toward in-vivo sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(1), 1168–1181 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Riishede, J.

Roh, S.

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, “Current status of micro-and nano-structured optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 209–221 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rowland, K. J.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Salamonsen, L. A.

Schartner, E. P.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, G. Nie, E. P. Schartner, L. A. Salamonsen, and T. M. Monro, “Enzyme activity assays within microstructured optical fibers enabled by automated alignment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3304–3313 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. A.

Spierings, G.

G. Spierings, “Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(23), 6261–6273 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsiminis, G.

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang and O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2015).
[PubMed]

Warren-Smith, S.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Warren-Smith, S. C.

S. C. Warren-Smith, J. Wie, M. Chemnitz, R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. A. Schmidt, “Third harmonic generation in exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17860–17867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith and T. M. Monro, “Exposed core microstructured optical fiber Bragg gratings: refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Predicting the drawing conditions for microstructured optical fiber fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 29–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, G. Nie, E. P. Schartner, L. A. Salamonsen, and T. M. Monro, “Enzyme activity assays within microstructured optical fibers enabled by automated alignment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3304–3313 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, C. Davis, G. McAdam, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Silica exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1538–1547 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18533–18542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17891–17901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wie, J.

Wolfbeis, O. S.

X. Wang and O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2015).
[PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

X. Wang and O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2015).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

E. P. Schartner, G. Tsiminis, A. François, R. Kostecki, S. C. Warren-Smith, L. V. Nguyen, S. Heng, T. Reynolds, E. Klantsataya, K. J. Rowland, A. D. Abell, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, “Taming the light in microstructured optical fibers for sensing,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 6(3), 229–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. Spierings, “Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(23), 6261–6273 (1993).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. D. Abell, and T. M. Monro, “Fluorescence-based aluminum ion sensing using a surface-functionalized microstructured optical fiber,” Langmuir 27(9), 5680–5685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

E. P. Schartner, D. Jin, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. A. Piper, Z. Lu, and T. M. Monro, “Lanthanide upconversion within microstructured optical fibers: improved detection limits for sensing and the demonstration of a new tool for nanocrystal characterization,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7448–7451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Afshar, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17891–17901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith and T. M. Monro, “Exposed core microstructured optical fiber Bragg gratings: refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1480–1489 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, R. Kostecki, L. V. Nguyen, and T. M. Monro, “Fabrication, splicing, Bragg grating writing, and polyelectrolyte functionalization of exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29493–29504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cordeiro, M. A. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. Large, “Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13056–13066 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18533–18542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. Large, and C. M. Cordeiro, “Opening up optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11843–11848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, J. Wie, M. Chemnitz, R. Kostecki, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. A. Schmidt, “Third harmonic generation in exposed-core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17860–17867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, “Current status of micro-and nano-structured optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 209–221 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar, “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 343–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (3)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

G. Stewart, W. Jin, and B. Culshaw, “Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the near-infrared,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 38(1-3), 42–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

A. François, T. Reynolds, and T. M. Monro, “A fiber-tip label-free biological sensing platform: a practical approach toward in-vivo sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(1), 1168–1181 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication method for small core ECF a) The preform is drilled on an ultrasonic mill (b) A slot is cut along the length of the preform (c,d) The preform is caned, and inserted into a jacket tube (e) Jacket/cane is drawn to fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Small core ECFs, showing (a) Fiber #1, with thin struts and larger holes (b) Fiber #2, with thicker struts and thus more robust geometry. Main scale bars – a) 100 µm b) 50 µm and 5 µm for insets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Physical damage to Fiber #1, showing damage to thin struts and core structures. Scale bars show 40 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fiber 3, showing (a) 2.35 µm and (b) 1.65 µm core diameters, and (inset) magnified view of the core structure. The scale bars show 50 µm and 3 µm on the main and insets respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Loss measurements of Fiber 3, for (a) 2.08 µm and (b) 1.65 µm core fibers. Red lines show loss results, blue lines show the error in the fit for each wavelength point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

– (left) Theoretical confinement loss for varied strut thicknesses, core diameter 1.65 µm at 1550 nm, and (right) modeled fiber geometry. Grey line shows 0.1 dB/m, as below this value confinement loss will not have a large contribution to sensor performance.

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