Abstract

We present inductively-coupled-plasma, reactive-ion-etching (ICP-RIE) techniques with 2 orders of magnitude difference in etch rates, for the AlxGa1-xAs material system. These precise etching processes are used to produce waveguides in a multi-guide vertical integration (MGVI) AlxGa1-xAs chip. The MGVI AlxGa1-xAs chip vertically integrates multiple guiding layers that usually have different material properties. The fabrication of these chips requires precise and anisotropic etching. The first etching recipe used BCl3 and achieved an etch rate of 0.25 nm/s while the second one used Cl2/N2 gases and achieved an etch rate of more than 20 nm/s. Simple AlxGa1-xAs nanowaveguides of 800 nm width were fabricated using these recipes. We measured a propagation loss of 6.7 dB/cm at the wavelength of 850 nm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  8. P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1096–1098 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Logvin, F. Wu, H. Deng, V. Tolstikhin, and C. Brooks, “On-chip wavelength-division (de)multiplexers for multi-guide vertical integration in InP,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2012, Burlingame, CA, 2012, pp. 907–908.
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. T. Brückl and H. Zull, “Actinometry of inductively coupled Cl2/N2 plasmas for dry etching of GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(2), 023307 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Dolgaleva, P. Sarrafi, P. Kultavewuti, K. M. Awan, N. Feher, J. S. Aitchison, L. Qian, M. Volatier, R. Arès, and V. Aimez, “Tuneable four-wave mixing in AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22477–22493 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, V. Pusino, P. Minzioni, M. Sorel, and I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear properties of AlGaAs waveguides in continuous wave operation regime,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5291–5298 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Porkolab, P. Apiratikul, B. Wang, S. H. Guo, and C. J. K. Richardson, “Low propagation loss AlGaAs waveguides fabricated with plasma-assisted photoresist reflow,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7733–7743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. A. Atlasov, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Effect of sidewall passivation in BCl3/N2 inductively coupled plasma etching of two-dimensional GaAs photonic crystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L21–L24 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Brückl and H. Zull, “Actinometry of inductively coupled Cl2/N2 plasmas for dry etching of GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(2), 023307 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1096–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. H. Marsh, “Quantum well intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 8(6), 1136–1155 (1993).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. Tamura and H. Kurihara, “GaAs and GaAlAs Reactive Ion Etching in BCl3-Cl2 Mixture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23(9), L731–L733 (1984).
[Crossref]

Abassi, A.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C.

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aimez, V.

Aitchison, J. S.

K. Dolgaleva, P. Sarrafi, P. Kultavewuti, K. M. Awan, N. Feher, J. S. Aitchison, L. Qian, M. Volatier, R. Arès, and V. Aimez, “Tuneable four-wave mixing in AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22477–22493 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
[Crossref]

Apiratikul, P.

Arès, R.

Atlasov, K. A.

K. A. Atlasov, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Effect of sidewall passivation in BCl3/N2 inductively coupled plasma etching of two-dimensional GaAs photonic crystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L21–L24 (2009).
[Crossref]

Awan, K. M.

Baek, I.

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barratt, C.

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bauwelinck, J.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beetz, J.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R.

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brooks, C.

Y. Logvin, F. Wu, H. Deng, V. Tolstikhin, and C. Brooks, “On-chip wavelength-division (de)multiplexers for multi-guide vertical integration in InP,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2012, Burlingame, CA, 2012, pp. 907–908.
[Crossref]

Brückl, T.

T. Brückl and H. Zull, “Actinometry of inductively coupled Cl2/N2 plasmas for dry etching of GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(2), 023307 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bryce, A. C.

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
[Crossref]

Button, C. B.

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cardile, P.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, G.

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cho, K.

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Constantine, C.

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cristiani, I.

Dave, U.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Groote, A.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Koninck, Y.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deng, H.

Y. Logvin, F. Wu, H. Deng, V. Tolstikhin, and C. Brooks, “On-chip wavelength-division (de)multiplexers for multi-guide vertical integration in InP,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2012, Burlingame, CA, 2012, pp. 907–908.
[Crossref]

Dhoore, S.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dolgaleva, K.

Dorenbos, S. N.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dwir, B.

K. A. Atlasov, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Effect of sidewall passivation in BCl3/N2 inductively coupled plasma etching of two-dimensional GaAs photonic crystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L21–L24 (2009).
[Crossref]

Engin, E.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feher, N.

Forrest, S. R.

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1096–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuller, C. T.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gallo, P.

K. A. Atlasov, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Effect of sidewall passivation in BCl3/N2 inductively coupled plasma etching of two-dimensional GaAs photonic crystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L21–L24 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gokhale, M. R.

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1096–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guo, S. H.

Hadfield, R. H.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hafich, M.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hattasan, N.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Höfling, S.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, P.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, P.

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kapon, E.

K. A. Atlasov, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Effect of sidewall passivation in BCl3/N2 inductively coupled plasma etching of two-dimensional GaAs photonic crystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L21–L24 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ke, M.-L.

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
[Crossref]

Keyvaninia, S.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kultavewuti, P.

Kumari, S.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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Kurihara, H.

H. Tamura and H. Kurihara, “GaAs and GaAlAs Reactive Ion Etching in BCl3-Cl2 Mixture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23(9), L731–L733 (1984).
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Kuyken, B.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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Lacava, C.

Lee, H.-K.

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lermer, M.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, W.

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.-F.

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
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Logvin, Y.

Y. Logvin, F. Wu, H. Deng, V. Tolstikhin, and C. Brooks, “On-chip wavelength-division (de)multiplexers for multi-guide vertical integration in InP,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2012, Burlingame, CA, 2012, pp. 907–908.
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Marsh, J. H.

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
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J. H. Marsh, “Quantum well intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 8(6), 1136–1155 (1993).
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McClellan, G.

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

McClellan, G. B.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mechet, P.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mileham, J. R.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Minzioni, P.

Morthier, G.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, C. M.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S.

W. Lim, I. Baek, P. Jung, J. Lee, G. Cho, J. Lee, K. Cho, and S. Pearton, “Investigation of GaAs dry etching in a planar inductively coupled BCl3 plasma,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(3), G163–G166 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Porkolab, G. A.

Pusino, V.

Qian, L.

Qiu, B.-C.

B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
[Crossref]

Richardson, C. J. K.

Rieger, D.

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rudra, A.

K. A. Atlasov, P. Gallo, A. Rudra, B. Dwir, and E. Kapon, “Effect of sidewall passivation in BCl3/N2 inductively coupled plasma etching of two-dimensional GaAs photonic crystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L21–L24 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, D.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Santamato, A.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sarrafi, P.

Shao, H.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shul, R.

R. Shul, G. McClellan, R. Briggs, D. Rieger, S. Pearton, C. Abernathy, J. Lee, C. Constantine, and C. Barratt, “High-density plasma etching of compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 633–637 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shul, R. J.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Silverstone, J. W.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Snipes, M. B.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

Spuesens, T.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stewart Aitchison, J.

Studenkov, P. V.

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient coupling in integrated twin-waveguide lasers using waveguide tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1096–1098 (1999).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, A. Z.

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, C. T.

C. Constantine, R. J. Shul, C. T. Sullivan, M. B. Snipes, G. B. McClellan, M. Hafich, C. T. Fuller, J. R. Mileham, and S. J. Pearton, “Etching of GaAs/AlGaAs rib waveguide structures using BCl3/Cl2/N2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(5), 2025–2030 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tamura, H.

H. Tamura and H. Kurihara, “GaAs and GaAlAs Reactive Ion Etching in BCl3-Cl2 Mixture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23(9), L731–L733 (1984).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

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J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
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Y. Logvin, F. Wu, H. Deng, V. Tolstikhin, and C. Brooks, “On-chip wavelength-division (de)multiplexers for multi-guide vertical integration in InP,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2012, Burlingame, CA, 2012, pp. 907–908.
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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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Y. Logvin, F. Wu, H. Deng, V. Tolstikhin, and C. Brooks, “On-chip wavelength-division (de)multiplexers for multi-guide vertical integration in InP,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2012, Burlingame, CA, 2012, pp. 907–908.
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G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
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B.-C. Qiu, X.-F. Liu, M.-L. Ke, H.-K. Lee, A. C. Bryce, J. S. Aitchison, J. H. Marsh, and C. B. Button, “Monolithic fabrication of 2 x 2 crosspoint switches in InGaAs/InAlGaAs multiple quantum wells using quantum well intermixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1292–1294 (2001).
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T. Brückl and H. Zull, “Actinometry of inductively coupled Cl2/N2 plasmas for dry etching of GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(2), 023307 (2005).
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H. Tamura and H. Kurihara, “GaAs and GaAlAs Reactive Ion Etching in BCl3-Cl2 Mixture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23(9), L731–L733 (1984).
[Crossref]

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J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Photonics (1)

G. Roelkens, A. Abassi, P. Cardile, U. Dave, A. de Groote, Y. de Koninck, S. Dhoore, X. Fu, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, Q. Huang, S. Kumari, S. Keyvaninia, B. Kuyken, L. Li, P. Mechet, M. Muneeb, D. Sanchez, H. Shao, T. Spuesens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Uvin, M. Tassaert, K. van Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, J. van Campenhout, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Morthier, R. Baets, and D. van Thourhout, “III-V-on-Silicon photonic devices for optical communication and sensing,” Photonics 2(3), 969–1004 (2015).
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Other (4)

Y. Logvin, F. Wu, H. Deng, V. Tolstikhin, and C. Brooks, “On-chip wavelength-division (de)multiplexers for multi-guide vertical integration in InP,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2012, Burlingame, CA, 2012, pp. 907–908.
[Crossref]

D. D. Cunningham, In Vivo Glucose Sensing, (Wiley, 2010).

P. Kultavewuti, Z. Liao, and J. S. Aitchison, “2D high-contrast AlGaAs waveguides for nonlinear applications,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2016, Waikoloa, HI, 2016, pp. 589–590.
[Crossref]

Z. Liao, M. Alam, and J. S. Aitchison, “Experimental demonstration of vertically integrated AlGaAs/GaAs waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Conference 2016, Waikoloa, HI, 2016, pp. 625–626.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Wafer schematic showing layer thicknesses and refractive indices. b) TE mode profile for a 800 nm wide waveguide in the high confinement upper layer. c) TE mode profile for a 4 μm wide waveguide in the lower layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Etch rate and DC bias voltage as a function of (a) rf power at 600 W ICP and (b) ICP power at 200 W rf, respectively, at 5 mTorr, 50 sccm BCl3 and 10 °C. Samples were etched for 2 mins. ma-N2410 was the mask.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrographs of samples etched using rf power (a) 50 W, (b) 100 W and (c) 200W at 5 mTorr, 600 W ICP, 50 sccm BCl3 and 10 °C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Etch rate as a function of BCl3 flow rate. (a) Two ICP power levels were examined at 5 mTorr, 200 W rf and 10 °C. 512 V and 500 V bias voltages were recorded for both ICP power levels. (b) Two temperatures were examined at 5 mTorr, 100 W rf and 300 W ICP. 350 V bias voltage was recorded for both temperatures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Etch rate as a function of temperature at 5 mTorr, 100 W rf, 300 W ICP and 20 sccm BCl3. 350 V bias voltage was recorded. (b) Etch rate as a function of ICP power at 5 mTorr, 100 W rf, 10 sccm BCl3 and 20 °C. 300 V bias voltage was recorded between 50 W and 200 W. 350 V bias voltage was recorded at 300 W ICP.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEMs of samples etched using (a) 10sccm and (b) 20sccm BCl3 at 5 mTorr, 100 W rf, 300 W ICP and 10 °C.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Etch rate as a function of Cl2 concentration at 5 mTorr, 50 W rf, 600 W ICP and 20°C. The total flow rate of (Cl2 + N2) was kept constant at 25 sccm. (b) SEMs of samples etched using 80% Cl2 concentration for 3 mins. The inset shows the 20 nm thick passivation layer. (c) SEMs of samples etched using 60% Cl2 concentration for 4 mins.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Etch rate and DC bias voltage as a function of ICP power at (a) 20% and (b) 80% Cl2 of total 25 sccm (Cl2 + N2) flow, 5 mTorr, 50 W rf and 20°C.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the high confinement waveguides with a width of 800 nm and a height of 3.175 μm. HSQ still remained on the sample. (b) Zoomed-in view of the bottom of the waveguides showing the sidewall and surface roughnesses. (c) Propagation loss of nanowaveguides.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Baseline recipes for fast and slow etch recipes.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fast, slow and intermediate etch recipes

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