Abstract

In this work we detail the fabrication method of a hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantenna with a single nanocrystal quantum dot positioned in its center. We have recently shown in [Nano Lett. 16, 2527 (2016)] that this device efficiently directs photons from the nanocrystal emission into a small divergence angle perpendicular to the nanoantenna surface. The fabrication method presented here is robust and can be fine-tuned by only a few parameters to achieve high yield of such nanostructures.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  22. X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric Hybrid Antennas for Ultrastrong Enhancement of Spontaneous Emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact Metallo-Dielectric Optical Antenna for Ultra Directional and Enhanced Radiative Emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I.-C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 161101 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

N. Livneh, M. G. Harats, D. Istrati, H. S. Eisenberg, and R. Rapaport, “Highly Directional Room-Temperature Single Photon Device,” Nano Lett. 16, 2527–2532 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

T. Galfsky, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, W. Newman, E. E. Narimanov, Z. Jacob, and V. M. Menon, “Active hyperbolic metamaterials: enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction,” Optica 2, 62–65 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Fulmes, R. Jäger, A. Bräuer, C. Schäfer, S. Jäger, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, E. Nadler, T. Chassé, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Self-aligned placement and detection of quantum dots on the tips of individual conical plasmonic nanostructures,” Nanoscale 7, 14691–14696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Olson, K. P. Seshadreesan, K. R. Motes, P. P. Rohde, and J. P. Dowling, “Sampling arbitrary photon-added or photon-subtracted squeezed states is in the same complexity class as boson sampling,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 022317 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Livneh, M. G. Harats, S. Yochelis, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Efficient Collection of Light from Colloidal Quantum Dots with a Hybrid Metal–Dielectric Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 2, 1669–1674 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient Photon Collection from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Circular Bullseye Grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. G. Harats, N. Livneh, G. Zaiats, S. Yochelis, Y. Paltiel, E. Lifshitz, and R. Rapaport, “Full Spectral and Angular Characterization of Highly Directional Emission from Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Positioned on Circular Plasmonic Lenses,” Nano Lett. 14, 5766–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Berthelot, S. S. Aćimović, M. L. Juan, M. P. Kreuzer, J. Renger, and R. Quidant, “Three-dimensional manipulation with scanning near-field optical nanotweezers,” Nature Nanotechnology 9, 295–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, and N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar Interference for Directed Light Emission,” Nano Letters 14, 166–171 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, and J.-J. Greffet, “Design of highly efficient metallo-dielectric patch antennas for single-photon emission,” Opt. Express 22, 2337–2347 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, “Controlling Spontaneous Emission with Plasmonic Optical Patch Antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Park, Y. Ghosh, Y. Chen, A. Piryatinski, P. Xu, N. H. Mack, H.-L. Wang, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, and H. Htoon, “Super-Poissonian Statistics of Photon Emission from Single CdSe-CdS Core-Shell Nanocrystals Coupled to Metal Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 117401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. LeBlanc, M. R. McClanahan, M. Jones, and P. J. Moyer, “Enhancement of Multiphoton Emission from Single CdSe Quantum Dots Coupled to Gold Films,” Nano Lett. 13, 1662–1669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I.-C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric Hybrid Antennas for Ultrastrong Enhancement of Spontaneous Emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Heindel, C. A. Kessler, M. Rau, C. Schneider, M. Fürst, F. Hargart, W.-M. Schulz, M. Eichfelder, R. Roßbach, S. Nauerth, M. Lermer, H. Weier, M. Jetter, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, P. Michler, H. Weinfurter, and A. Forchel, “Quantum key distribution using quantum dot single-photon emitting diodes in the red and near infrared spectral range,” New Journal of Physics 14, 083001 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S.-H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” Advanced Materials 24, 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Fiber-Integrated Diamond-Based Single Photon Source,” Nano Lett. 11, 198–202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nature Communications 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “A circular dielectric grating for vertical extraction of single quantum dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 041102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact Metallo-Dielectric Optical Antenna for Ultra Directional and Enhanced Radiative Emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. v. Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. P. Dowling, “Quantum optical metrology – the lowdown on high-N00n states,” Contemporary Physics 49, 125–143 (2008).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Junno, K. Deppert, L. Montelius, and L. Samuelson, “Controlled manipulation of nanoparticles with an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3627–3629 (1995).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of Metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185–187 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. America 55, 1205 (1965).
[Crossref]

Acimovic, S. S.

J. Berthelot, S. S. Aćimović, M. L. Juan, M. P. Kreuzer, J. Renger, and R. Quidant, “Three-dimensional manipulation with scanning near-field optical nanotweezers,” Nature Nanotechnology 9, 295–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agio, M.

X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric Hybrid Antennas for Ultrastrong Enhancement of Spontaneous Emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aichele, T.

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Fiber-Integrated Diamond-Based Single Photon Source,” Nano Lett. 11, 198–202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ambwani, P.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S.-H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” Advanced Materials 24, 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C.

A. K. Nowak, S. L. Portalupi, V. Giesz, O. Gazzano, C. Dal Savio, P.-F. Braun, K. Karrai, C. Arnold, L. Lanco, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Deterministic and electrically tunable bright single-photon source,” Nature Communications5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Badolato, A.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “A circular dielectric grating for vertical extraction of single quantum dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 041102 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sapienza, M. Davanço, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “Nanoscale optical positioning of single quantum dots for bright and pure single-photon emission,” Nature Communications6 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belacel, C.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, “Controlling Spontaneous Emission with Plasmonic Optical Patch Antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Fiber-Integrated Diamond-Based Single Photon Source,” Nano Lett. 11, 198–202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berthelot, J.

J. Berthelot, S. S. Aćimović, M. L. Juan, M. P. Kreuzer, J. Renger, and R. Quidant, “Three-dimensional manipulation with scanning near-field optical nanotweezers,” Nature Nanotechnology 9, 295–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigourdan, F.

F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, and J.-J. Greffet, “Design of highly efficient metallo-dielectric patch antennas for single-photon emission,” Opt. Express 22, 2337–2347 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, “Controlling Spontaneous Emission with Plasmonic Optical Patch Antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact Metallo-Dielectric Optical Antenna for Ultra Directional and Enhanced Radiative Emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bräuer, A.

J. Fulmes, R. Jäger, A. Bräuer, C. Schäfer, S. Jäger, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, E. Nadler, T. Chassé, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Self-aligned placement and detection of quantum dots on the tips of individual conical plasmonic nanostructures,” Nanoscale 7, 14691–14696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P.-F.

A. K. Nowak, S. L. Portalupi, V. Giesz, O. Gazzano, C. Dal Savio, P.-F. Braun, K. Karrai, C. Arnold, L. Lanco, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Deterministic and electrically tunable bright single-photon source,” Nature Communications5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nature Communications 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I.-C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castro-López, M.

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, and N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar Interference for Directed Light Emission,” Nano Letters 14, 166–171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chassé, T.

J. Fulmes, R. Jäger, A. Bräuer, C. Schäfer, S. Jäger, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, E. Nadler, T. Chassé, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Self-aligned placement and detection of quantum dots on the tips of individual conical plasmonic nanostructures,” Nanoscale 7, 14691–14696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, E. H.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient Photon Collection from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Circular Bullseye Grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.-W.

X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric Hybrid Antennas for Ultrastrong Enhancement of Spontaneous Emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y.-S. Park, Y. Ghosh, Y. Chen, A. Piryatinski, P. Xu, N. H. Mack, H.-L. Wang, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, and H. Htoon, “Super-Poissonian Statistics of Photon Emission from Single CdSe-CdS Core-Shell Nanocrystals Coupled to Metal Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 117401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, J. T.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I.-C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coolen, L.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, and A. Maitre, “Controlling Spontaneous Emission with Plasmonic Optical Patch Antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, and N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar Interference for Directed Light Emission,” Nano Letters 14, 166–171 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. v. Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dal Savio, C.

A. K. Nowak, S. L. Portalupi, V. Giesz, O. Gazzano, C. Dal Savio, P.-F. Braun, K. Karrai, C. Arnold, L. Lanco, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Deterministic and electrically tunable bright single-photon source,” Nature Communications5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Davanço, M.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “A circular dielectric grating for vertical extraction of single quantum dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 041102 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sapienza, M. Davanço, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “Nanoscale optical positioning of single quantum dots for bright and pure single-photon emission,” Nature Communications6 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deppert, K.

T. Junno, K. Deppert, L. Montelius, and L. Samuelson, “Controlled manipulation of nanoparticles with an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3627–3629 (1995).
[Crossref]

Devilez, A.

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact Metallo-Dielectric Optical Antenna for Ultra Directional and Enhanced Radiative Emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolde, F.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient Photon Collection from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Circular Bullseye Grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dowling, J. P.

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L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient Photon Collection from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Circular Bullseye Grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
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S. J. LeBlanc, M. R. McClanahan, M. Jones, and P. J. Moyer, “Enhancement of Multiphoton Emission from Single CdSe Quantum Dots Coupled to Gold Films,” Nano Lett. 13, 1662–1669 (2013).
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M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “A circular dielectric grating for vertical extraction of single quantum dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 041102 (2011).
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M. G. Harats, N. Livneh, G. Zaiats, S. Yochelis, Y. Paltiel, E. Lifshitz, and R. Rapaport, “Full Spectral and Angular Characterization of Highly Directional Emission from Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Positioned on Circular Plasmonic Lenses,” Nano Lett. 14, 5766–5771 (2014).
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J. P. Olson, K. P. Seshadreesan, K. R. Motes, P. P. Rohde, and J. P. Dowling, “Sampling arbitrary photon-added or photon-subtracted squeezed states is in the same complexity class as boson sampling,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 022317 (2015).
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T. Heindel, C. A. Kessler, M. Rau, C. Schneider, M. Fürst, F. Hargart, W.-M. Schulz, M. Eichfelder, R. Roßbach, S. Nauerth, M. Lermer, H. Weier, M. Jetter, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, P. Michler, H. Weinfurter, and A. Forchel, “Quantum key distribution using quantum dot single-photon emitting diodes in the red and near infrared spectral range,” New Journal of Physics 14, 083001 (2012).
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T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Fiber-Integrated Diamond-Based Single Photon Source,” Nano Lett. 11, 198–202 (2011).
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L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient Photon Collection from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Circular Bullseye Grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
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T. Schröder, A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Fiber-Integrated Diamond-Based Single Photon Source,” Nano Lett. 11, 198–202 (2011).
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M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “A circular dielectric grating for vertical extraction of single quantum dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 041102 (2011).
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A. K. Nowak, S. L. Portalupi, V. Giesz, O. Gazzano, C. Dal Savio, P.-F. Braun, K. Karrai, C. Arnold, L. Lanco, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Deterministic and electrically tunable bright single-photon source,” Nature Communications5 (2014).
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J. P. Olson, K. P. Seshadreesan, K. R. Motes, P. P. Rohde, and J. P. Dowling, “Sampling arbitrary photon-added or photon-subtracted squeezed states is in the same complexity class as boson sampling,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 022317 (2015).
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T. Zhang, G. Lu, H. Shen, K. Shi, Y. Jiang, D. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Photoluminescence of a single complex plasmonic nanoparticle,” Scientific Reports4 (2014).

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T. Zhang, G. Lu, H. Shen, K. Shi, Y. Jiang, D. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Photoluminescence of a single complex plasmonic nanoparticle,” Scientific Reports4 (2014).

Srinivasan, K.

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “A circular dielectric grating for vertical extraction of single quantum dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 041102 (2011).
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L. Sapienza, M. Davanço, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “Nanoscale optical positioning of single quantum dots for bright and pure single-photon emission,” Nature Communications6 (2015).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. v. Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient Photon Collection from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Circular Bullseye Grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
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Wang, H.-L.

Y.-S. Park, Y. Ghosh, Y. Chen, A. Piryatinski, P. Xu, N. H. Mack, H.-L. Wang, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, and H. Htoon, “Super-Poissonian Statistics of Photon Emission from Single CdSe-CdS Core-Shell Nanocrystals Coupled to Metal Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 117401 (2013).
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T. Heindel, C. A. Kessler, M. Rau, C. Schneider, M. Fürst, F. Hargart, W.-M. Schulz, M. Eichfelder, R. Roßbach, S. Nauerth, M. Lermer, H. Weier, M. Jetter, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, P. Michler, H. Weinfurter, and A. Forchel, “Quantum key distribution using quantum dot single-photon emitting diodes in the red and near infrared spectral range,” New Journal of Physics 14, 083001 (2012).
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Weinfurter, H.

T. Heindel, C. A. Kessler, M. Rau, C. Schneider, M. Fürst, F. Hargart, W.-M. Schulz, M. Eichfelder, R. Roßbach, S. Nauerth, M. Lermer, H. Weier, M. Jetter, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, P. Michler, H. Weinfurter, and A. Forchel, “Quantum key distribution using quantum dot single-photon emitting diodes in the red and near infrared spectral range,” New Journal of Physics 14, 083001 (2012).
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T. Zhang, G. Lu, H. Shen, K. Shi, Y. Jiang, D. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Photoluminescence of a single complex plasmonic nanoparticle,” Scientific Reports4 (2014).

Xu, P.

Y.-S. Park, Y. Ghosh, Y. Chen, A. Piryatinski, P. Xu, N. H. Mack, H.-L. Wang, V. I. Klimov, J. A. Hollingsworth, and H. Htoon, “Super-Poissonian Statistics of Photon Emission from Single CdSe-CdS Core-Shell Nanocrystals Coupled to Metal Nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 117401 (2013).
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N. Livneh, M. G. Harats, S. Yochelis, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Efficient Collection of Light from Colloidal Quantum Dots with a Hybrid Metal–Dielectric Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 2, 1669–1674 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. G. Harats, N. Livneh, G. Zaiats, S. Yochelis, Y. Paltiel, E. Lifshitz, and R. Rapaport, “Full Spectral and Angular Characterization of Highly Directional Emission from Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Positioned on Circular Plasmonic Lenses,” Nano Lett. 14, 5766–5771 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. G. Harats, N. Livneh, G. Zaiats, S. Yochelis, Y. Paltiel, E. Lifshitz, and R. Rapaport, “Full Spectral and Angular Characterization of Highly Directional Emission from Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Positioned on Circular Plasmonic Lenses,” Nano Lett. 14, 5766–5771 (2014).
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J. Fulmes, R. Jäger, A. Bräuer, C. Schäfer, S. Jäger, D. A. Gollmer, A. Horrer, E. Nadler, T. Chassé, D. Zhang, A. J. Meixner, D. P. Kern, and M. Fleischer, “Self-aligned placement and detection of quantum dots on the tips of individual conical plasmonic nanostructures,” Nanoscale 7, 14691–14696 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, G. Lu, H. Shen, K. Shi, Y. Jiang, D. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Photoluminescence of a single complex plasmonic nanoparticle,” Scientific Reports4 (2014).

Zheng, J.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient Photon Collection from a Nitrogen Vacancy Center in a Circular Bullseye Grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
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ACS Nano (1)

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact Metallo-Dielectric Optical Antenna for Ultra Directional and Enhanced Radiative Emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
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ACS Photonics (1)

N. Livneh, M. G. Harats, S. Yochelis, Y. Paltiel, and R. Rapaport, “Efficient Collection of Light from Colloidal Quantum Dots with a Hybrid Metal–Dielectric Nanoantenna,” ACS Photonics 2, 1669–1674 (2015).
[Crossref]

Advanced Materials (1)

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S.-H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” Advanced Materials 24, 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Davanço, M. T. Rakher, D. Schuh, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “A circular dielectric grating for vertical extraction of single quantum dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 041102 (2011).
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T. Junno, K. Deppert, L. Montelius, and L. Samuelson, “Controlled manipulation of nanoparticles with an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3627–3629 (1995).
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Applied Physics Letters (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. America (1)

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. America 55, 1205 (1965).
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Nano Lett. (6)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A cross section of the proposed hybrid nanoantenna with the relevant geometrical parameters (described in detail in the main text). The red arrows depict the physical operation mechanism of the nanoantenna–the single NQD emits photons into the waveguide mode which are scattered and diffracted constructively by the slits in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (b) The simulated angular emission pattern as a function of the polar angle θ of a single NQD located at a distance of d = 300nm from the surface of the metallic nanoantenna. This is the average distance for the NQDs embedded in the designed hybrid nanoantenna. The shaded areas correspond to collection into NA = 0.12 (pink area) and NA = 0.65 (blue area). (c) The simulated collection efficiency as a function of the distance d from the surface for NA = 0.12 (red curve) and NA = 0.65 (blue curve).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A schematic drawing of the Ag bulls-eye nanostructure fabricated by e-beam lithography and liftoff procedure. (b) The hybrid nanoantenna after deposition of 250nm SiO2 and spin-coating of 100nm thick PMMA+NQDs solution. (c) The hybrid nanoantenna after a second e-beam lithography using alignment marks. The cylinder of PMMA+single NQD is on top of the SiO2 layer. (d) The final device. After removing the SiO2 layer around the PMMA cylinder with BHF, the sample is spin-coated with an additional PMMA layer. The cylinder in the image is the remaining SiO2 cylinder that was protected by the PMMA cylinder in (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) An SEM image of the bulls-eye nanostructure (corresponds to Fig. 2(a)). (b) An AFM scan of the device after the second e-beam lithography step (corresponds to Fig. 2(c)) In this case a 5μm cylinder was created for better visibility. (c) A radial averaging of the AFM image of Fig. 3(b). The area of the cylinder (the edge is represented by the vertical black line) is higher by ∼ 50nm from the sample outside the cylinder. (d) An AFM scan of the final device. The surface is optically flat (roughness< λ/10). (e) A radial average of Fig. 3(d). The edge of the cylinder (which is 2μm in diameter) is marked by the black vertical line which shows that the difference in the height of the cylinder compared to the bulls-eye nanostructure is reduced from ∼ 250nm to ∼ 40nm. The red dashed line is the average of the surface roughness outside the cylinder and shows variations of only a few nm, having the grating period.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Time-trace of the emission from the hybrid nanoantenna device. The telegraphic blinking is a good evidence of a single NQD. (b) An angular emission measurement of a single NQD emitting from the center of the hybrid metal dielectric nanoantenna. (c) A 2nd order normalized intensity correlation g(2) measurement of the hybrid nanoantenna device. The measurement shows the normalized signal per pulse with a value of 0.37 (less than 0.5) around zero time delay which is another indication of a single NQD emission. (d) The normalized emission from the metallic bulls-eye structure (red curve) overlaps the emission spectrum of the NQDs (blue curve). The emission from the metal was taken from a hybrid nanoantenna without any NQDs.

Equations (1)

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2 π Λ = β ( λ , h )

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