Abstract

The mid-infrared wavelength regime 3.5 – 4.1μm, known as the astronomical L’ band is of special interest for exoplanet hunting. Mid-IR compatible photonic technologies are an enabling platform for a range of critical observational science using compact instruments on the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes. Pupil remapping interferometry is a technique in which subapertures of the telescope pupil (2D) are reformatted into a 1D linear array. This can be done efficiently using 3D photonics. One of the most important techniques to fabricate 3D photonic devices in glass is ultrafast laser inscription. However, common silicate glasses are opaque above 2–2.2 μm and therefore not useful for the fabrication of waveguides at mid-infrared wavelengths. Here we present a study of mid-infrared transparent materials that are compatible with the ultrafast laser inscription technique. This study will inform the development of mid-infrared photonic devices for future exoplanetary discovery.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

2015 (7)

2014 (6)

A. Arriola, S. Mukherjee, D. Choudhury, L. Labadie, and R. R. Thomson, “Ultrafast laser inscription of mid-IR directional couplers for stellar interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4823–4832 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Barnaby, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22, 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, W. Zhang, W. Zhao, R. Stoian, and G. Cheng, “Expanded-core waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in bulk optical glasses,” Opt. Express 22, 28771–28782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Fernandez, M. Hernandez, B. Sotillo, S. M. Eaton, G. Jose, R. Osellame, A. Jha, P. Fernandez, and J. Solis, “Role of ion migrations in ultrafast laser written tellurite glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 22, 15298–15304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Bérubé, S. H. Messaddeq, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, “Tailoring the refractive index of Ge-S based glass for 3D embedded waveguides operating in the mid-IR region,” Opt. Express 22, 26103–26116 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, G. Cheng, C. Mauclair, J. Troles, L. Calvez, V. Nazabal, C. Caillaud, G. Martin, B. Arezki, E. LeCoarer, P. Kern, and R. Stoian, “Large-mode-area infrared guiding in ultrafast laser written waveguides in Sulfur-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 22, 13091–13101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (7)

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 27503–27509 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write uberstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Messaddeq, J. Bérubé, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermal diffusion in chalcogenide glass irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20, 1–4 (2012).

B. McMillen, B. Zhang, K. P. Chen, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser fabrication of low-loss waveguides in chalcogenide glass with 0.65 dB/cm loss,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1418–1420 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared spectral broadening in an ultrafast laser inscribed gallium lanthanum sulphide waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 1545–1551 (2012).
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A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
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2011 (7)

P. Masselin, D. Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lépine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys. A 106, 697–702 (2011).
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M. Dussauze, X. Zheng, V. Rodriguez, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, and F. Smektala, “Photosensitivity and second harmonic generation in chalcogenide arsenic sulfide poled glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 45–54 (2011).
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D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42, 715–718 (2011).
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B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 725 (2011).

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. a. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
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N. Madhusudhan, A. Burrows, and T. Currie, “Model Atmospheres for Massive Gas Giants With Thick Clouds: Application To the Hr 8799 Planets and Predictions for Future Detections,” Astrophys. J. 737, 34 (2011).
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C. Hanot, B. Mennesson, S. Martin, K. Liewer, F. Loya, D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and E. Serabyn, “Improving interferometric null depth measurements using statistical distributions : theory and first results with the Palomar Fiber Nuller,” Astrophys. J. 729, 110 (2011).
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2010 (3)

K. Richardson, D. Krol, and K. Hirao, “Glasses for Photonic Applications,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1, 74–86 (2010).
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D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053106 (2010).
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L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Composition dependence and reversibility of photoinduced refractive index changes in chalcogenide glass,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 445401 (2010).
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2009 (4)

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, and R. Haynes, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17, 1060–1065 (2009).
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M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
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J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17, 1880–1884 (2009).
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L. Labadie and O. Wallner, “Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17, 1947–1962 (2009).
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2008 (2)

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-Induced Matrix Softening of Ge-As-Se Network Glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 177402 (2008).
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2007 (3)

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
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N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 15776–15781 (2007).
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R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21–27 (2007).
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2006 (2)

R. R. Thomson, R. J. Harris, T. A. Birks, and G. Brown, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription of a 121-Waveguide Fan-Out for Astrophotonics,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2331–2333 (2006).
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S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
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2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2001 (1)

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
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1999 (3)

K. Tanaka, “Spectral dependence of photoexpansion in As2S3 glass,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 79, 25–30 (1999).
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F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, and K. Rousselet-Perraut, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Supp. Series 145, 135 (1999).
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J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Supplement Series 139, 173–177 (1999).
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1998 (2)

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. Jain, “980 nm diode-pumped continuous wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2331–2333 (1998).
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K. Tanaka, “Photoexpansion in As2S3 glass,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 5163–5167 (1998).
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1997 (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
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T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, B. Samson, and D. Payne, “Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Lumin. 419, 72–74 (1997).

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

J. M. Parker, “Fluoride Glasses,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 19, 21–41 (1989).
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1977 (2)

D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703–718 (1977).
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K. Petermann, “Fundamental mode microbending loss in graded-index and W fibres,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 9, 167–175 (1977).
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Abouraddy, A. F.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 379–458 (2015).
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Absil, O.

C. Hanot, B. Mennesson, S. Martin, K. Liewer, F. Loya, D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and E. Serabyn, “Improving interferometric null depth measurements using statistical distributions : theory and first results with the Palomar Fiber Nuller,” Astrophys. J. 729, 110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-L.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-l. Ma, C. Boussard-Plèdel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, a.

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, a. Agarwal, J. Viens, J. Choi, L. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) pp. 1–2 (2007).

Aguiló, M.

Aitchison, J. S.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
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Amico, C. D.

R. Stoian, C. D. Amico, M. K. Bhuyan, and G. Cheng, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of large-mode-area waveguiding structures in bulk dielectrics,” Opt. and Laser Technol. 80, 98–103 (2016).
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Ams, M.

T. Gretzinger, S. Gross, M. Ams, A. Arriola, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in chalcogenide glass: thermal versus athermal fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2862–2877 (2015).
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S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write uberstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
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S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
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D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42, 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, a. Agarwal, J. Viens, J. Choi, L. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) pp. 1–2 (2007).

Andrianov, A.

E. Romanova, A. Konyukhov, S. Muraviov, and A. Andrianov, “Thermal diffusion in chalcogenide glass irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” 2010 12th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON pp. 26–29 (2010).

Anheier, N. C.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. a. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21–27 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arezki, B.

Argyros, A.

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns,” Nanophotonics 2, 429–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arriola, A.

Arslanyan, V.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Badding, J. V.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Barnaby, B.

Bartko, H.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Baumeister, H.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Bei, J.

Benayas, A.

Benech, P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Supplement Series 139, 173–177 (1999).
[Crossref]

Benisty, M.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berger, J. P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Supplement Series 139, 173–177 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, and K. Rousselet-Perraut, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Supp. Series 145, 135 (1999).
[Crossref]

Berger, J.-P.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Bernacki, B.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. a. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernier, M.

Bérubé, J.

Bérubé, J. P.

Bérubé, J.-P.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Bhuyan, M. K.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns,” Nanophotonics 2, 429–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17, 1880–1884 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boehm, A.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Bookey, H. T.

Boukenter, A.

Boussard-Plèdel, C.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-l. Ma, C. Boussard-Plèdel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brady, D.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C.-c. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. Petrovich, R. Simpson, C. Smith, and C. Sproat, “Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics Device Applications With contributions from,” Tech. rep., Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton(UK), Southampton (2008).

Brandner, W.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Brown, G.

Brueckner, H. J.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21–27 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brunéel, J.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bureau, B.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-l. Ma, C. Boussard-Plèdel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burns, K. J.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Burrows, A.

N. Madhusudhan, A. Burrows, and T. Currie, “Model Atmospheres for Massive Gas Giants With Thick Clouds: Application To the Hr 8799 Planets and Predictions for Future Detections,” Astrophys. J. 737, 34 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bychkov, E.

Caillaud, C.

Calvez, L.

C. D’Amico, C. Caillaud, P. K. Velpula, M. K. Bhuyan, M. Somayaji, J. Troles, L. Calvez, V. Nazabal, A. Boukenter, R. Stoian, L. H. Curien, U. M. R. Cnrs, U. D. Lyon, U. J. Monnet, and S. Etienne, “Ultrafast laser-induced refractive index changes in Ge15As15S70 chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 1914–1928 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. D’Amico, G. Cheng, C. Mauclair, J. Troles, L. Calvez, V. Nazabal, C. Caillaud, G. Martin, B. Arezki, E. LeCoarer, P. Kern, and R. Stoian, “Large-mode-area infrared guiding in ultrafast laser written waveguides in Sulfur-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 22, 13091–13101 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Masselin, D. Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lépine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys. A 106, 697–702 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Composition dependence and reversibility of photoinduced refractive index changes in chalcogenide glass,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 445401 (2010).
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L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-Induced Matrix Softening of Ge-As-Se Network Glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 177402 (2008).
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Cardinal, T.

M. Dussauze, X. Zheng, V. Rodriguez, E. Fargin, T. Cardinal, and F. Smektala, “Photosensitivity and second harmonic generation in chalcogenide arsenic sulfide poled glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 45–54 (2011).
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O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
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Carlie, N.

N. Carlie, N. C. Anheier, H. a. Qiao, B. Bernacki, M. C. Phillips, L. Petit, J. D. Musgraves, and K. Richardson, “Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053103 (2011).
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T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, a. Agarwal, J. Viens, J. Choi, L. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) pp. 1–2 (2007).

Cassaing, F.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Caulier, O.

Cerullo, G.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 15776–15781 (2007).
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R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 um wavelength by femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 41, 315–317 (2005).
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Chapron, F.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Charles, N.

Chen, K. P.

Chen, W.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G.

Chichkov, B. N.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21–27 (2007).
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Chiodo, N.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 15776–15781 (2007).
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R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 um wavelength by femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 41, 315–317 (2005).
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Choi, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053106 (2010).
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Choi, J.

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, a. Agarwal, J. Viens, J. Choi, L. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) pp. 1–2 (2007).

Choquet, E.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Choudhury, D.

Clénet, Y.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Cnrs, U. M. R.

Collin, C.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Coq, D.

P. Masselin, D. Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lépine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys. A 106, 697–702 (2011).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

Corkum, P. B.

Couzi, M.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
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Craig, C.

Curien, L. H.

Currie, T.

N. Madhusudhan, A. Burrows, and T. Currie, “Model Atmospheres for Massive Gas Giants With Thick Clouds: Application To the Hr 8799 Planets and Predictions for Future Detections,” Astrophys. J. 737, 34 (2011).
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Curry, R. J.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C.-c. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. Petrovich, R. Simpson, C. Smith, and C. Sproat, “Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics Device Applications With contributions from,” Tech. rep., Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton(UK), Southampton (2008).

Cvetojevic, N.

B. Barnaby, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22, 18335–18353 (2014).
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N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, and R. Haynes, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17, 1060–1065 (2009).
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A. Arriola, B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “First on-sky demonstration of a compact fully-integrated Photonic Waveguide Nulling Interferometer,” in “CLEO: Symposium on Advances and Opportunities in Astrophotonics II” (2016).

D’Amico, C.

Danto, S.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 379–458 (2015).
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Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42, 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Demetriou, G.

Díaz, F.

Dodds-Eden, K.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Dubov, M.

S. Gross, M. Dubov, and M. J. Withford, “On the use of the Type I and II scheme for classifying ultrafast laser direct-write photonics,” Opt. Express 23, 7767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21–27 (2007).
[Crossref]

Duchêne, G.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Dussauze, M.

Eaton, S. M.

T. T. Fernandez, M. Hernandez, B. Sotillo, S. M. Eaton, G. Jose, R. Osellame, A. Jha, P. Fernandez, and J. Solis, “Role of ion migrations in ultrafast laser written tellurite glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 22, 15298–15304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-Band Directional Coupler Written With Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Bei, T. M. Monro, A. Hemming, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Fabrication of extruded fluoroindate optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 318 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eckart, A.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Efimov, O.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
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Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 725 (2011).

Eisenhauer, F.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Elliott, G.

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C.-c. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. Petrovich, R. Simpson, C. Smith, and C. Sproat, “Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics Device Applications With contributions from,” Tech. rep., Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton(UK), Southampton (2008).

Ellis, S. C.

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, and R. Haynes, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17, 1060–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Etienne, S.

Fargin, E.

Fédou, P.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Fernandez, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21–27 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, P.

Fernandez, T.

Fernandez, T. T.

Fink, Y.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21, 2978–2986 (2013).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 27503–27509 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write uberstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42, 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” in “Proceedings of SPIE7739” (2010).
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Gates, E. L.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “Astrophysics FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys.A55 (2012).

Gendron, E.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Genzel, R.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Gillessen, S.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

Glebov, L.

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
[Crossref]

Graf, R.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21–27 (2007).
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F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

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R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 um wavelength by femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 41, 315–317 (2005).
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C. Lopez, K. Richardson, a. Zoubir, M. Richardson, a. Schulte, and a. Pope, “Photo-induced optical and physical property modifications in chalcogenide thin films by femtosecond irradiation,” (CLEO). Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, pp. 74–76, Vol. 1 (2005).

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Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29, 748–750 (2004).
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T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, a. Agarwal, J. Viens, J. Choi, L. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) pp. 1–2 (2007).

C. Lopez, K. Richardson, a. Zoubir, M. Richardson, a. Schulte, and a. Pope, “Photo-induced optical and physical property modifications in chalcogenide thin films by femtosecond irradiation,” (CLEO). Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, pp. 74–76, Vol. 1 (2005).

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F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, A. Richichi, S. Gillessen, J.-P. Berger, S. Hippler, A. Eckart, M. Schöller, S. Rabien, F. Cassaing, R. Lenzen, M. Thiel, Y. Clénet, J. R. Ramos, S. Kellner, P. Fédou, H. Baumeister, R. Hofmann, E. Gendron, A. Boehm, H. Bartko, X. Haubois, R. Klein, K. Dodds-Eden, K. Houairi, F. Hormuth, A. Gräter, L. Jocou, V. Naranjo, R. Genzel, P. Kervella, T. Henning, N. Hamaus, S. Lacour, U. Neumann, M. Haug, F. Malbet, W. Laun, J. Kolmeder, T. Paumard, R.-R. Rohloff, O. Pfuhl, K. Perraut, J. Ziegleder, D. Rouan, and G. Rousset, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*,” “SPIE: Optical and Infrared Interferometry,”  7013, 70132 (2008).

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[Crossref]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29, 748–750 (2004).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficient curve for the selection of potential MIR glasses compatible with the ultrafast laser inscription technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Investigated waveguide geometries depending on the sign and shape of the induced refractive index change.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bright-field microscope image, mode field diameter and estimated refractive index contrast of (left to right): As39S61, GLS and Ge25As10S65.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Some examples obtained for 3 fluoride materials (left to right): Pr : IZSBGC, CaF2 and IZSBGC. Bright-field microscope image, mode field diameter and estimated refractive index contrast.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bright-field microscope image, mode field diameter and estimated refractive index contrast of IRG2.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of glasses utilised for femtosecond laser fabrication of MIR waveguides. The table also shows the type of glass and their origin. The term IZSBGC represents a family of fluoride glasses with the following fundamental chemical composition: 32InF3-20ZnF2-SrF2-18BaF2-8GaF3-2CaF2.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive index value table for the selection of potential MIR glasses compatible with the ultrafast laser inscription technique..

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Table 3 Analysis of the different modification types obtained with a femtosecond laser including the shape of the modification and its sign. See Fig. 2 for a graphic representation of the suitable waveguide (wg) geometry.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Summary of the results obtained for each glass including the preferred waveguide geometry, the horizontal mode field diameter (MFD) and the refractive index contrast.

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