Abstract

We show theoretically that an array of tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cones placed on top of a reflective substrate can absorb light at the wavelength range from 0.3 μm to 9 μm with an average absorption efficiency approaching 98%. It is found that the excitation of multiple orders of slow-light resonant modes is responsible for the efficient absorption at wavelengths longer than 2 μm, and the anti-reflection effect of tapered lossy material gives rise to the near perfect absorption at shorter wavelengths. The absorption spectrum suffers a small dip at around 4.2 μm where the first order and second order slow-light modes get overlapped, but we can get rid of this dip if the absorption band edge at a long wavelength range is reduced down to 5 μm. The parametrical study reflects that the absorption bandwidth is mainly determined by the filling ratio of tungsten as well as the bottom diameter of the nano-cones and the interaction between neighboring nano-cones is quite weak. Our proposal has some potential applications in the areas of solar energy harvesting and thermal emitters.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, D. Ji, B. Zhu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Gan, Z. Yu, and J. Zhu, “Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, J. Wang, W. Xu, Y. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Zhu, and J. Zhu, “3D self-assembly of aluminium nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced solar desalination,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 393–398 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Long, S. Yin, W. Wang, W. Li, J. Zhu, and J. Guan, “Broadening the absorption bandwidth of metamaterial absorbers by transverse magnetic harmonics of 210 mode,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21431 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, “Broadband light absorption by tapered metal-dielectric multilayered grating structures,” Opt. Commun. 365, 93–98 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Q. Han, Y. Fu, L. Jin, J. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Fang, J. Gao, and W. Yu, “Germanium nanopyramid arrays showing near-100% absorption in the visible regime,” Nano Res. 8(7), 2216–2222 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Da and Y. Xuan, “Perfect solar absorber based on nanocone structured surface for high-efficiency solar thermoelectric generators,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 58(1), 19–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. A. Weinstein, J. Loomis, B. Bhatia, D. M. Bierman, E. N. Wang, and G. Chen, “Concentrating Solar Power,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12797–12838 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband High-Efficiency Half-Wave Plate: A Supercell-Based Plasmonic Metasurface Approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin, “How to deal with the loss in plasmonics and metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 2–6 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Deng, Z. Li, L. Stan, D. Rosenmann, D. Czaplewski, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Broadband perfect absorber based on one ultrathin layer of refractory metal,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2592–2595 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (11)

W. Wang, Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Hao, Y. Lin, X. Tian, T. Ji, and S. He, “Efficient multiband absorber based on one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal with a reflective substrate,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 331–334 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lobet, M. Lard, M. Sarrazin, O. Deparis, and L. Henrard, “Plasmon hybridization in pyramidal metamaterials: a route towards ultra-broadband absorption,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12678–12690 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Optimum shape for metallic taper arrays to harvest light,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 045110 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Xu and H. J. Lezec, “Visible-frequency asymmetric transmission devices incorporating a hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4141 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, A. F. Kaplan, L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Experiment and Theory of the Broadband Absorption by a Tapered Hyperbolic Metamaterial Array,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 618–624 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ding, Y. Jin, B. Li, H. Cheng, L. Mo, and S. He, “Ultrabroadband strong light absorption based on thin multilayered metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 946–953 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. He, F. Ding, L. Mo, and F. Bao, “Light absorber with an ultra-broad flat band based on multi-sized slow-wave hyperbolic metamaterial thin-films,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 147, 69–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hu, H. Yang, X. Huang, and D. Liu, “Metamaterial-based frustum of cones array nanostructure for efficient absorber in the solar spectral band,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 117(3), 1375–1380 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

Q. Liang, T. Wang, Z. Lu, Q. Sun, Y. Fu, and W. Yu, “Metamaterial-Based Two Dimensional Plasmonic Subwavelength Structures Offer the Broadest Waveband Light Harvesting,” Advanced Optical Materials 1(1), 43–49 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, G. N. Parsons, G. S. Girolami, J. R. Abelson, S. Fan, and P. V. Braun, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Shah and M. C. Gupta, “Spectral selective surfaces for concentrated solar power receivers by laser sintering of tungsten micro and nano particles,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 489–493 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Ungaro, S. K. Gray, and M. C. Gupta, “Black tungsten for solar power generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071105 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The Dark Side of Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, and Q. Gan, “Rainbow trapping in hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1249 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Memarian and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Light concentration using hetero-junctions of anisotropic low permittivity metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(11), e114 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband Light Absorption by a Sawtooth Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. He, Y. He, and Y. Jin, “Revealing the truth about ‘trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 2, 583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. Li, G. Feng, B. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Zhou, and L. Zhao, “Strong infrared absorber: surface-microstructured Au film replicated from black silicon,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20462–20467 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered Arrays of Dual-Diameter Nanopillars for Maximized Optical Absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

E. Rephaeli and S. Fan, “Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211107 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-F. Li, Y.-R. Chen, J. Miao, P. Zhou, Y.-X. Zheng, L.-Y. Chen, and Y.-P. Lee, “High solar absorption of a multilayered thin film structure,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1907–1912 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Sai, H. Yugami, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Solar selective absorbers based on two-dimensional W surface gratings with submicron periods for high-temperature photothermal conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 79(1), 35–49 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abelson, J. R.

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, G. N. Parsons, G. S. Girolami, J. R. Abelson, S. Fan, and P. V. Braun, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altissimo, M.

D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The Dark Side of Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arpin, K. A.

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, G. N. Parsons, G. S. Girolami, J. R. Abelson, S. Fan, and P. V. Braun, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, F.

S. He, F. Ding, L. Mo, and F. Bao, “Light absorber with an ultra-broad flat band based on multi-sized slow-wave hyperbolic metamaterial thin-films,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 147, 69–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beermann, J.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatia, B.

L. A. Weinstein, J. Loomis, B. Bhatia, D. M. Bierman, E. N. Wang, and G. Chen, “Concentrating Solar Power,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12797–12838 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bierman, D. M.

L. A. Weinstein, J. Loomis, B. Bhatia, D. M. Bierman, E. N. Wang, and G. Chen, “Concentrating Solar Power,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12797–12838 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boardman, A. D.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

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Q. Liang, T. Wang, Z. Lu, Q. Sun, Y. Fu, and W. Yu, “Metamaterial-Based Two Dimensional Plasmonic Subwavelength Structures Offer the Broadest Waveband Light Harvesting,” Advanced Optical Materials 1(1), 43–49 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, D. Ji, B. Zhu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Gan, Z. Yu, and J. Zhu, “Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, G. N. Parsons, G. S. Girolami, J. R. Abelson, S. Fan, and P. V. Braun, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, J. Wang, W. Xu, Y. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Zhu, and J. Zhu, “3D self-assembly of aluminium nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced solar desalination,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 393–398 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Yugami, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Solar selective absorbers based on two-dimensional W surface gratings with submicron periods for high-temperature photothermal conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 79(1), 35–49 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yumura, M.

K. Mizuno, J. Ishii, H. Kishida, Y. Hayamizu, S. Yasuda, D. N. Futaba, M. Yumura, and K. Hata, “A Black Body Absorber From Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(15), 6044–6047 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, and Q. Gan, “Rainbow trapping in hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1249 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, D. Ji, B. Zhu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Gan, Z. Yu, and J. Zhu, “Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501227 (2016).
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Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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Zhao, J.

Q. Han, Y. Fu, L. Jin, J. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Fang, J. Gao, and W. Yu, “Germanium nanopyramid arrays showing near-100% absorption in the visible regime,” Nano Res. 8(7), 2216–2222 (2015).
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T. Jiang, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Stopping light by an air waveguide with anisotropic metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 17(1), 170–177 (2009).
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Zhao, L.

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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, A. F. Kaplan, L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Experiment and Theory of the Broadband Absorption by a Tapered Hyperbolic Metamaterial Array,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 618–624 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, D. Ji, B. Zhu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Gan, Z. Yu, and J. Zhu, “Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, J. Wang, W. Xu, Y. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Zhu, and J. Zhu, “3D self-assembly of aluminium nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced solar desalination,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 393–398 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Optimum shape for metallic taper arrays to harvest light,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 045110 (2014).
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J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
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Zhou, P.

Zhu, B.

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, D. Ji, B. Zhu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Gan, Z. Yu, and J. Zhu, “Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Optimum shape for metallic taper arrays to harvest light,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 045110 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. Li, G. Feng, B. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Zhou, and L. Zhao, “Strong infrared absorber: surface-microstructured Au film replicated from black silicon,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20462–20467 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, D. Ji, B. Zhu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Gan, Z. Yu, and J. Zhu, “Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501227 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, J. Wang, W. Xu, Y. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Zhu, and J. Zhu, “3D self-assembly of aluminium nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced solar desalination,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 393–398 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Long, S. Yin, W. Wang, W. Li, J. Zhu, and J. Guan, “Broadening the absorption bandwidth of metamaterial absorbers by transverse magnetic harmonics of 210 mode,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21431 (2016).
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J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, G. N. Parsons, G. S. Girolami, J. R. Abelson, S. Fan, and P. V. Braun, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, J. Wang, W. Xu, Y. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Zhu, and J. Zhu, “3D self-assembly of aluminium nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced solar desalination,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 393–398 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband High-Efficiency Half-Wave Plate: A Supercell-Based Plasmonic Metasurface Approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

J. Zhou, A. F. Kaplan, L. Chen, and L. J. Guo, “Experiment and Theory of the Broadband Absorption by a Tapered Hyperbolic Metamaterial Array,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 618–624 (2014).
[Crossref]

Advanced Optical Materials (1)

Q. Liang, T. Wang, Z. Lu, Q. Sun, Y. Fu, and W. Yu, “Metamaterial-Based Two Dimensional Plasmonic Subwavelength Structures Offer the Broadest Waveband Light Harvesting,” Advanced Optical Materials 1(1), 43–49 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
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S. Hu, H. Yang, X. Huang, and D. Liu, “Metamaterial-based frustum of cones array nanostructure for efficient absorber in the solar spectral band,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 117(3), 1375–1380 (2014).
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Chem. Rev. (1)

L. A. Weinstein, J. Loomis, B. Bhatia, D. M. Bierman, E. N. Wang, and G. Chen, “Concentrating Solar Power,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12797–12838 (2015).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

F. Ding, Y. Jin, B. Li, H. Cheng, L. Mo, and S. He, “Ultrabroadband strong light absorption based on thin multilayered metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(6), 946–953 (2014).
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Y. Cui, Y. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Ye, S. Zhong, Y. Lin, and S. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

M. Memarian and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Light concentration using hetero-junctions of anisotropic low permittivity metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(11), e114 (2013).
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Nano Lett. (3)

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband Light Absorption by a Sawtooth Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1443–1447 (2012).
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D. E. Gómez, Z. Q. Teo, M. Altissimo, T. J. Davis, S. Earl, and A. Roberts, “The Dark Side of Plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3722–3728 (2013).
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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered Arrays of Dual-Diameter Nanopillars for Maximized Optical Absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Res. (1)

Q. Han, Y. Fu, L. Jin, J. Zhao, Z. Xu, F. Fang, J. Gao, and W. Yu, “Germanium nanopyramid arrays showing near-100% absorption in the visible regime,” Nano Res. 8(7), 2216–2222 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

K. A. Arpin, M. D. Losego, A. N. Cloud, H. Ning, J. Mallek, N. P. Sergeant, L. Zhu, Z. Yu, B. Kalanyan, G. N. Parsons, G. S. Girolami, J. R. Abelson, S. Fan, and P. V. Braun, “Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2630 (2013).
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T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3, 969 (2012).
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T. Xu and H. J. Lezec, “Visible-frequency asymmetric transmission devices incorporating a hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4141 (2014).
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J. B. Khurgin, “How to deal with the loss in plasmonics and metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 2–6 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, J. Wang, W. Xu, Y. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Zhu, and J. Zhu, “3D self-assembly of aluminium nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced solar desalination,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 393–398 (2016).
[Crossref]

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B. Zhu, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Optimum shape for metallic taper arrays to harvest light,” Phys. Rev. B 90(4), 045110 (2014).
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K. Mizuno, J. Ishii, H. Kishida, Y. Hayamizu, S. Yasuda, D. N. Futaba, M. Yumura, and K. Hata, “A Black Body Absorber From Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(15), 6044–6047 (2009).
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Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

S. He, F. Ding, L. Mo, and F. Bao, “Light absorber with an ultra-broad flat band based on multi-sized slow-wave hyperbolic metamaterial thin-films,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 147, 69–79 (2014).
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Sci. Adv. (1)

L. Zhou, Y. Tan, D. Ji, B. Zhu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, Q. Gan, Z. Yu, and J. Zhu, “Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501227 (2016).
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Y. Da and Y. Xuan, “Perfect solar absorber based on nanocone structured surface for high-efficiency solar thermoelectric generators,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 58(1), 19–28 (2015).
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S. He, Y. He, and Y. Jin, “Revealing the truth about ‘trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 2, 583 (2012).
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H. Hu, D. Ji, X. Zeng, K. Liu, and Q. Gan, “Rainbow trapping in hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1249 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ji, H. Song, X. Zeng, H. Hu, K. Liu, N. Zhang, and Q. Gan, “Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Long, S. Yin, W. Wang, W. Li, J. Zhu, and J. Guan, “Broadening the absorption bandwidth of metamaterial absorbers by transverse magnetic harmonics of 210 mode,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21431 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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H. Sai, H. Yugami, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Solar selective absorbers based on two-dimensional W surface gratings with submicron periods for high-temperature photothermal conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 79(1), 35–49 (2003).
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A. A. Shah and M. C. Gupta, “Spectral selective surfaces for concentrated solar power receivers by laser sintering of tungsten micro and nano particles,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 489–493 (2013).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed ultrabroadband absorber comprising of anisotropic MM nano-cones on top of a reflective substrate. The top and bottom diameters of the nano-cones are W1 and W2, respectively, and their height is H. The nano-cones are periodically arrayed in the x-y plane with periodicity of P. The MM is made of alternating tungsten and germanium thin films with thicknesses of t1 and t2, respectively. The reflective substrate is made of gold which is sufficiently thick to block light.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption spectra of different structures. (a) W/Ge anisotropic nano-cone array on top of the reflective substrate. Solid line: the real structure. Symbolized line: the effective-medium structure. (b-c) Bulk W or Ge nano-cone array on top of the reflective substrate. (d) Au/Ge anisotropic nano-cone array with the substrate. The diagram of the structural unit in (a) is displayed in the inset. t1 = t2 = 35 nm, W1 = 200 nm, W2 = 1000 nm, H = 2100 nm, and P = 1000 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Angular dependent absorption spectra of the W/Ge anisotropic nano-cone array on top of the reflective substrate at TM (a) and TE (b) polarizations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a-b) The parallel component and the perpendicular component of the complex relative permittivities of the W/Ge alternating film (t1:t2 = 1:1). The inset of (a) shows the enlarged plot of the real part of the parallel component at wavelengths shorter than 3 μm. (c-d) Absorption spectra of W/Ge anisotropic film and sawteeth on top of the reflective substrate. The diagrams of the structural units are also displayed in the inset.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-c) 1st, 3rd, and 5th order dispersion curves of the 2D W/Ge anisotropic waveguide when the width of the waveguide core (W) is tuned. (d) The wavelengths at which the slow-ight is excited (i.e., the group velocity approaches zero, vg = 0) with tuned core width W for the different orders of waveguide modes. (e-j) Distributions of the normalized magnetic field in the x-z plane at y = 0 at the incident wavelengths of 9, 5, 4, 3, 2.5, and 2.1 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Absorption spectra of W/Ge anisotropic nano-cone array on top of the reflective substrate when W1 and W2 are equal to 100 nm and 600 nm, respectively. Other geometrical parameters are maintained the same as those of the real structure in Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Distributions of the normalized magnetic field in the x-z plane at y = 0 for tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cone (a-c) and tungsten nano-cone (d-f) array on top of the reflective substrate at λ = 1.5, 1, and 0.5 μm, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Absorption spectra of the tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cone array on top of the reflective substrate when the ratio of t1 over t2 (a), the bottom diameter of nano-cones (W2) (b), the top diameter of nano-cones (W1) (c), and the nano-cone periodicity (P) (d) are tuned.

Equations (2)

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ε = ε x = ε y = f ε 1 + ( 1 f ) ε 2 ε = ε z = ε 1 ε 2 f ε 1 + ( 1 f ) ε 2
exp [ i q 2 W ] + κ 1 i q 2 ε κ 1 + i q 2 ε = 0

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