Abstract

Radiation trapping occurs in rare-earth-doped active media with strong spectral overlap of luminescence and ground-state absorption. It is demonstrated experimentally that a confocal measurement mitigates the influence of radiation trapping on the measured luminescence lifetime, hence allowing for direct extraction of the lifetime from the measured decay curves. The radiation trapping effect is largely suppressed by probing a small sample volume and rejecting the photons reemitted from the unpumped region. This non-destructive measurement method is applied to ytterbium (Yb3+) activated potassium double tungstate crystalline layers with Yb3+ concentrations ranging from 1.2 at.% up to 76 at.% (~8 × 1019 – 5 × 1021 cm−3). The measured lifetime values are comparable to the results reported for Yb3+-doped potassium double tungstate powder diluted in liquid.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 486 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, “Model for the calculation of radiation trapping and description of the pinhole method,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1908–1910 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Guy, “Modelization of lifetime measurement in the presence of radiation trapping in solid-state materials,” Phys. Rev. B 73(14), 144101 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, N. A. Tolstik, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy and continuous-wave diode-pumped laser action of Yb3+:YVO4.,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2491–2493 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D.-L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, “Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystals and waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1339–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, “Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 103–109 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, “The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

K. P. Ghiggino, M. R. Harris, and P. G. Spizzirri, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements using a novel fiber-optic laser scanning confocal microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(5), 2999–3002 (1992).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[Crossref]

1921 (1)

R. Ladenburg, “Die quantentheoretische Deutung der Zahl der Dispersionselektronen,” Z. Phys. 4(4), 468–471 (1921).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aravazhi, S.

Y. S. Yong, S. Aravazhi, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, J. J. Carjaval, F. Díaz, J. L. Herek, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Temperature-dependent absorption and emission of potassium double tungstates with high ytterbium content,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26825–26837 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, “Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 103–109 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, “The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ay, F.

Baldacchini, G.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, “Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 103–109 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, “The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bernhagen, M.

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bernhardi, E. H.

Bonfigli, F.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, “The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boulon, G.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, “Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 103–109 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brunner, F.

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bursukova, M. A.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carjaval, J. J.

Danailov, M. B.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Demidovich, A. A.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dexter, D. L.

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[Crossref]

Díaz, F.

Y. S. Yong, S. Aravazhi, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, J. J. Carjaval, F. Díaz, J. L. Herek, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Temperature-dependent absorption and emission of potassium double tungstates with high ytterbium content,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26825–26837 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dijkstra, M.

Eichhorn, M.

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 486 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fagundes-Peters, D.

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fan, T. Y.

Fowler, W. B.

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[Crossref]

Fredrich, S. T.

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

Gagliari, S.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, “The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

García-Blanco, S. M.

Y. S. Yong, S. Aravazhi, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, J. J. Carjaval, F. Díaz, J. L. Herek, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Temperature-dependent absorption and emission of potassium double tungstates with high ytterbium content,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26825–26837 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, M. Dijkstra, E. H. Bernhardi, F. Ay, K. Wörhoff, J. L. Herek, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped spiral amplifiers with 20 dB of net gain on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25993–26004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gavaldà, J.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Geskus, D.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghiggino, K. P.

K. P. Ghiggino, M. R. Harris, and P. G. Spizzirri, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements using a novel fiber-optic laser scanning confocal microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(5), 2999–3002 (1992).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grigoriev, S. V.

Grivas, C.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Güell, F.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guy, S.

S. Guy, “Modelization of lifetime measurement in the presence of radiation trapping in solid-state materials,” Phys. Rev. B 73(14), 144101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harris, M. R.

K. P. Ghiggino, M. R. Harris, and P. G. Spizzirri, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements using a novel fiber-optic laser scanning confocal microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(5), 2999–3002 (1992).
[Crossref]

Herek, J. L.

Huber, G.

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, and G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2.,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1317–1319 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johannsen, J.

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kisel, V. E.

Klopp, P.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

H. Kühn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, C. Kränkel, R. Peters, and K. Petermann, “Model for the calculation of radiation trapping and description of the pinhole method,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1908–1910 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kühn, H.

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kupchenko, M. I.

Kurilchik, S. V.

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ladenburg, R.

R. Ladenburg, “Die quantentheoretische Deutung der Zahl der Dispersionselektronen,” Z. Phys. 4(4), 468–471 (1921).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Laversenne, L.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, “Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 103–109 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Massons, J.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mateos, X.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Matrosov, V. N.

Matrosova, T. A.

Mikhailov, V. P.

Mond, M.

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morier-Genoud, F.

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pavlyuk, A. A.

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

Peters, R.

Petrov, V.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Podlipensky, A. V.

Pollnau, M.

Y. S. Yong, S. Aravazhi, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, J. J. Carjaval, F. Díaz, J. L. Herek, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Temperature-dependent absorption and emission of potassium double tungstates with high ytterbium content,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26825–26837 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 486 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, M. Dijkstra, E. H. Bernhardi, F. Ay, K. Wörhoff, J. L. Herek, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped spiral amplifiers with 20 dB of net gain on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25993–26004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pujol, M. C.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y. B.

D.-L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, “Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystals and waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1339–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rivier, S.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ryabtsev, G. I.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shcherbitskii, V. G.

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

Silvestre, Ò.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, S. A.

Solé, R.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Solé, R. M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Spizzirri, P. G.

K. P. Ghiggino, M. R. Harris, and P. G. Spizzirri, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements using a novel fiber-optic laser scanning confocal microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(5), 2999–3002 (1992).
[Crossref]

Strek, W.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sumida, D. S.

Titov, A. N.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tolstik, N. A.

Troshin, A. E.

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, N. A. Tolstik, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy and continuous-wave diode-pumped laser action of Yb3+:YVO4.,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2491–2493 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uecker, R.

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Dalfsen, K.

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vázquez-Córdova, S. A.

Wörhoff, K.

Yasukevich, A. S.

Yong, Y. S.

Zhang, D.-L.

D.-L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, “Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystals and waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1339–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped microstructure,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP19–OP22 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. van Dalfsen, S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, C. Grivas, U. Griebner, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Engineering lattice matching, doping level, and optical properties of KY(WO4)2:Gd, Lu, Yb layers for a cladding-side-pumped channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 433–446 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Kränkel, D. Fagundes-Peters, S. T. Fredrich, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, G. Huber, M. Bernhagen, and R. Uecker, “Continuous wave laser operation of Yb3+:YVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 543–546 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Eichhorn and M. Pollnau, “Spectroscopic foundations of lasers: spontaneous emission into a resonator mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 486 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb:KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D.-L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, “Accurate measurement of 1.5 μm lifetime of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystals and waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 1339–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, “The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, “Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 103–109 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. B. Fowler and D. L. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev. 128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Guy, “Modelization of lifetime measurement in the presence of radiation trapping in solid-state materials,” Phys. Rev. B 73(14), 144101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. E. Kisel, A. E. Troshin, V. G. Shcherbitskii, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. Brunner, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Quantum Electron. 36(4), 319–323 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. P. Ghiggino, M. R. Harris, and P. G. Spizzirri, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements using a novel fiber-optic laser scanning confocal microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(5), 2999–3002 (1992).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. (1)

R. Ladenburg, “Die quantentheoretische Deutung der Zahl der Dispersionselektronen,” Z. Phys. 4(4), 468–471 (1921).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. Brynolfsson, “Accurate lifetime measurements using confocal microscopy,” Master thesis (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden, 2007).

C. Füchtbauer, G. Joos, and O. Dinkelacker, “Über Intensität, Verbreiterung und Druckverschiebung von Spektrallinien, insbesondere der Absorptionslinie 2537 des Quecksilbers,” Ann. Phys.-Leipzig, Band 376 - Vierte Folge 71, 204–226 (1923).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the setup used for confocal luminescence lifetime measurements. The blue dashed foci in front of the two microscope objectives illustrate the discrimination of undesirable luminescence reemitted from the unpumped region of the sample from the detection system by use of a pinhole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (blue) and fitted (yellow) luminescent decay curves of samples with (a) 1.2 at.%, (b) 57 at.%, and (c) 76 at.% of Yb3+.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Luminescence lifetimes measured without (black triangles) and with (blue inverted triangles) confocal feature. Lifetime values measured using either powdered bulk crystals of KY(WO4)2:Yb3+ [13] and KYb(WO4)2 [22] (red circles), the pinhole method on KLu(WO4)2:Yb3+ thin films [16] (green squares), and the modified pinhole method before (dotted line) and after (dashed line) correction of radiation trapping [20] are shown for comparison. The blue line is the fitted curve based on Eq. (2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material composition and layer thickness of the Yb3+-doped potassium rare-earth double tungstate epitaxial films.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I( t )= I 0 exp( t/τ )+ I base ,
τ( N )= τ 0 1+( 9/ 2π ) ( N/ N 0 ) 2 ,

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