Abstract

We report on the fabrication, µ-Raman characterization, and continuous-wave laser operation of a channel waveguide with a hexagonal optical-lattice-like cladding fabricated in monoclinic Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystal by femtosecond direct laser writing. µ-Raman spectroscopy indicates preservation of the crystalline quality in the core region and an anisotropic residual stress field. When pumped by a Ti:Sapphire laser at 802 nm, the Tm:KLu(WO4)2 buried channel waveguide laser generated 136 mW at 1843.7 nm with a slope efficiency of 34.2% and a threshold as low as 21 mW, which are the record characteristics for femtosecond-laser-written Tm crystalline waveguide lasers. The variation of the output coupling resulted in discrete wavelength tuning of the laser emission from 1785 to 1862 nm. The propagation losses in the waveguide are ~1.2 ± 0.3 dB/cm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (2)

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).

H.-D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. Martínez, F. Chen, M. Aguiló, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7777–7791 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric crystals for photonic waveguiding applications,” Proc. SPIE 9532, 95320M (2015).

2014 (4)

2012 (2)

2011 (6)

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic structures in Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151104 (2008).

O. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5022–5034 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (5)

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

O. Silvestre, M. C. M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “1.5 µm single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3190–3194 (2007).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).

Aguiló, M.

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[PubMed]

H.-D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. Martínez, F. Chen, M. Aguiló, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7777–7791 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
[PubMed]

O. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5022–5034 (2008).
[PubMed]

O. Silvestre, M. C. M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

Ams, M.

An, Q.

H. Liu, Q. An, F. Chen, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, and B. del Rosal Rabes, “Continuous-wave lasing at 1.06 µm in femtosecond laser written Nd:KGW waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 37, 93–96 (2014).

Aravazhi, S.

Bain, F. M.

Beecher, S.

Beecher, S. J.

Y. Y. Ren, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, A. Lancaster, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Q-switched mode-locking of a mid-infrared Tm:YAG waveguide laser with graphene film,” inConference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, P. ThA1–3 (IEEE, 2013).

Bookey, H. T.

Borca, C. N.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

Borowiec, M. T.

Borrelli, N. F.

Brown, C. T. A.

Brown, G.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped YAG,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3339–3341 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, A. Lancaster, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Q-switched mode-locking of a mid-infrared Tm:YAG waveguide laser with graphene film,” inConference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, P. ThA1–3 (IEEE, 2013).

Caird, J. A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).

Calmano, T.

Cerullo, G.

Chase, L. L.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).

Chen, F.

H.-D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. Martínez, F. Chen, M. Aguiló, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7777–7791 (2016).
[PubMed]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric crystals for photonic waveguiding applications,” Proc. SPIE 9532, 95320M (2015).

H. Liu, Q. An, F. Chen, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, and B. del Rosal Rabes, “Continuous-wave lasing at 1.06 µm in femtosecond laser written Nd:KGW waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 37, 93–96 (2014).

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped YAG,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3339–3341 (2012).
[PubMed]

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in the buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2(Nd:KGW) by femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Opt. 50(6), 930–934 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. Y. Ren, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, A. Lancaster, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Q-switched mode-locking of a mid-infrared Tm:YAG waveguide laser with graphene film,” inConference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, P. ThA1–3 (IEEE, 2013).

Chiodo, N.

Choi, S. Y.

Davis, K. M.

Dawson, M. D.

de Aldana, J. R.

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).

del Rosal Rabes, B.

H. Liu, Q. An, F. Chen, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, and B. del Rosal Rabes, “Continuous-wave lasing at 1.06 µm in femtosecond laser written Nd:KGW waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 37, 93–96 (2014).

Della Valle, G.

Diaz, F.

O. Silvestre, M. C. M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).

Díaz, F.

Dunina, E. B.

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Erbert, G.

Esterowitz, L.

Festa, A.

Fiebig, C.

Fuerbach, A.

Fusari, F.

García-Blanco, S. M.

Gardillou, F.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

Geskus, D.

Grau, J.

Griebner, U.

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
[PubMed]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

Grivas, C.

Gross, S.

Gu, M.

A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic structures in Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151104 (2008).

Güell, F.

O. Silvestre, M. C. M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).

Gutowska, M. U.

Heidepriem, H. E.

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd: YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).

Hirao, K.

Hopkins, J.-M.

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, A.-G. Paschke, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped high power operation of a femtosecond laser inscribed Yb:YAG waveguide laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 428–433 (2011).

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd: YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

Jaque, D.

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic structures in Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151104 (2008).

Jha, A.

Jose, G.

Kar, A. K.

Kifle, E.

Killi, A.

Kisel, V. E.

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

Kopf, D.

Kornienko, A. A.

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

Krupke, W. F.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).

Kuan, K.

Kuleshov, N.

Kuleshov, N. V.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lancaster, A.

Y. Y. Ren, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, A. Lancaster, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Q-switched mode-locking of a mid-infrared Tm:YAG waveguide laser with graphene film,” inConference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, P. ThA1–3 (IEEE, 2013).

Lancaster, D. G.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, M.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, Q. An, F. Chen, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, and B. del Rosal Rabes, “Continuous-wave lasing at 1.06 µm in femtosecond laser written Nd:KGW waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 37, 93–96 (2014).

Liu, J. H.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in the buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2(Nd:KGW) by femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Opt. 50(6), 930–934 (2011).
[PubMed]

Loiko, P.

Lu, Q.

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).

Martínez, J.

Massons, J.

Massot, M.

Mateos, X.

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Morgner, U.

Morris, J.

Nguyen, H.-D.

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

Osellame, R.

Paschke, A.-G.

Paschke, K.

Pavlyuk, A. A.

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

Payne, S. A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).

Petermann, K.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, A.-G. Paschke, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped high power operation of a femtosecond laser inscribed Yb:YAG waveguide laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 428–433 (2011).

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd: YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

Petrov, V.

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
[PubMed]

O. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5022–5034 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).

Pollnau, M.

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ∼80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4380–4383 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Efficient KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2:Tm3+ channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5277–5282 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

Psaila, N. D.

Pujol, M. C.

Qu, S.

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in the buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2(Nd:KGW) by femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Opt. 50(6), 930–934 (2011).
[PubMed]

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

Ramponi, A. J.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).

Ren, Y.

Ren, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Ren, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, A. Lancaster, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Q-switched mode-locking of a mid-infrared Tm:YAG waveguide laser with graphene film,” inConference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, P. ThA1–3 (IEEE, 2013).

Rico, M. C. M.

O. Silvestre, M. C. M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).

Rivier, S.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

Rodenas, A.

Ródenas, A.

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[PubMed]

H.-D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. Martínez, F. Chen, M. Aguiló, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7777–7791 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped YAG,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3339–3341 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic structures in Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151104 (2008).

Y. Y. Ren, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, A. Lancaster, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “Q-switched mode-locking of a mid-infrared Tm:YAG waveguide laser with graphene film,” inConference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, P. ThA1–3 (IEEE, 2013).

Romanyuk, Y. E.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007).

Rotermund, F.

Salazar, A.

Serres, J. M.

Sibbett, W.

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, A.-G. Paschke, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped high power operation of a femtosecond laser inscribed Yb:YAG waveguide laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 428–433 (2011).

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd: YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

Silvestre, O.

Silvestre, Ò.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

Solé, R. M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. H. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).

Staber, P. R.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).

Stevenson, N. K.

Stoneman, R. C.

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

Szewczyk, A.

Taccheo, S.

Tan, Y.

Thomson, R. R.

Troshin, A. E.

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

Valle, G. D.

van Dalfsen, K.

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

H. Liu, Q. An, F. Chen, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, and B. del Rosal Rabes, “Continuous-wave lasing at 1.06 µm in femtosecond laser written Nd:KGW waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 37, 93–96 (2014).

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

H.-D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. Martínez, F. Chen, M. Aguiló, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7777–7791 (2016).
[PubMed]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric crystals for photonic waveguiding applications,” Proc. SPIE 9532, 95320M (2015).

Withford, M. J.

Wörhoff, K.

Yasukevich, A. S.

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

Yumashev, K.

Zhang, C.

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).

Zhou, G.

A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic structures in Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151104 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (6)

X. Liu, S. Qu, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2 fabricated by low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 145–149 (2011).

O. Silvestre, M. C. M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).

A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd: YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic structures in Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151104 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a,b) Bright-field microscope images of the facet cross-section of the fs-DLW hexagonal cladding Tm:KLuW waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 3F43H6 luminescence of Tm3+ ions from the fs-DLW Tm:KLuW waveguide for light polarizations E || Nm and Np, λexc = 802 nm; the noise at 1.8-1.9 µm is due to the water absorption in air, and (b) polarized Raman spectra of the waveguide core region measured in backscattering geometry, λexc = 514 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Micro-Raman mapping of the facet cross-section of the fs-DLW hexagonal cladding Tm:KLuW waveguide at 907.6 cm−1: (a) peak intensity, (b) full width at half maximum (FWHM) and (c) phonon energy shift. Similar maps are given for the Raman band at 686.5 cm−1 in (d) peak intensity, (e) FWHM and (f) phonon energy shift.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variation of the Raman intensity (a) and Raman peak shift (b) along the cross-section of the fs-DLW hexagonal cladding Tm:KLuW waveguide, as shown in the inset of (a), for the 907.6 cm−1 and 686.5 cm−1 Raman bands. The Raman peak shift in (b) is calculated with respect to the bulk (non-damaged) material.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Scheme of the fs-DLW Tm:KLuW channel waveguide laser: PM – pump mirror, OC – output coupler, ND – neutral density filter, F – long-pass filter, CL – collimating lens; (b) top view of the pumped Tm:KLuW waveguide showing blue upconversion luminescence.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Input-output dependences of the fs-DLW hexagonal cladding Tm:KLuW channel waveguide laser: (a) TOC = 1.5%...30% at 1.8–2.1 μm, (b) TOC = 80% (“bandpass” OC) or 89% (without an OC), η – slope efficiency.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Typical emission spectra for the fs-DLW hexagonal cladding Tm:KLuW channel waveguide laser (measured at the maximum Pabs).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 fs-DLW hexagonal cladding Tm:KLuW channel waveguide laser: (a) modified Caird analysis for TOC = 1.5%...30% (circles – experimental data, line – their linear fit) (b) absorption saturation in the waveguide under non-lasing conditions: red circles – experimental data from the pump-transmission measurement, blue circle – small-signal absorption from the spectroscopic data, solid curve – rate-equation modelling.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spatial profile of the output laser mode from the fs-DLW hexagonal cladding Tm:KLuW channel waveguide laser (TOC = 30%, Pabs = 188 mW): (a) 2D profile measured in the far-field, E is the laser polarization; (b) spatial overlap of the waveguide cross-section and the reconstructed beam profile at the output facet of the waveguide; (c) the corresponding 1D profiles of the laser mode in the horizontal (|| Nm) and vertical (|| Np) directions.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Output Characteristics* of Femtosecond-Laser-Written Thulium Waveguide Lasers Reported So Far

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