Abstract

A novel transparent 4.76 at.% Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 “mixed” sequioxide ceramic is synthesized by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1800 °C / 195 MPa in an Ar atmosphere. Its structure is studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The spectroscopic properties of the Tm3+ ion are described within the Judd-Ofelt theory, which resulted in intensity parameters of Ω2 = 2.429, Ω4 = 1.078 and Ω6 = 0.653 [10−20 cm2]. For the 3F43H6 transition, the maximum stimulated-emission cross-section σSE is 7.15 × 10−21 cm2 at 1951 nm. The radiative lifetime of the 3F4 state is 4.01 ms. Under diode-pumping at 802 nm, a microchip Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramic laser generated ~1 W at 2100 nm with a slope efficiency of 24%. The spectroscopic and laser properties of the Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramic are compared with those of a Tm:LuScO3 single crystal. The ceramic exhibits very broad and flat gain cross sections, which is promising for ultrashort pulse generation.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (2)

O. Antipov, A. Novikov, S. Larin, and I. Obronov, “Highly efficient 2 μm CW and Q-switched Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics lasers in-band pumped by a Raman-shifted erbium fiber laser at 1670 nm,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2298–2301 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).

2015 (1)

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

2013 (4)

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, M. Schäfer, P. Fuhrberg, and G. Huber, “Holmium-doped Lu2O3, Y2O3, and Sc2O3 for lasers above 2.1 μm,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3926–3931 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. J. Saarinen, E. Vasileva, O. Antipov, J.-P. Penttinen, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser intracavity-pumped by a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23844–23850 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011).

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

R. Peters, C. Krankel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high-purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7–9), 1934–1938 (2008).

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).

2001 (1)

L. Laversenne, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, M. T. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Optimization of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped refractory sesquioxides: cubic Y2O3, Lu2O3 and monoclinic Gd2O3,” Opt. Mater. 16(4), 475–483 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

1990 (1)

1982 (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).

Abrashev, M. V.

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

Aguiló, M.

Antipov, O.

Antipov, O. L.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

A. A. Lagatsky, O. L. Antipov, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic laser operating around 2070 nm,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19349–19354 (2012).
[PubMed]

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinov’ev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012).

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).

Baer, C. R. E.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

Basun, S. A.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

Beil, K.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

Boulon, G.

L. Laversenne, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, M. T. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Optimization of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped refractory sesquioxides: cubic Y2O3, Lu2O3 and monoclinic Gd2O3,” Opt. Mater. 16(4), 475–483 (2001).

Brown, C. T. A.

Chen, W.

Choi, S. Y.

Cohen-Adad, M. T.

L. Laversenne, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, M. T. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Optimization of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped refractory sesquioxides: cubic Y2O3, Lu2O3 and monoclinic Gd2O3,” Opt. Mater. 16(4), 475–483 (2001).

Deppe, B.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

Díaz, F.

Dimowa, L.

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

Dodson, C. M.

C. M. Dodson and R. Zia, “Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in the trivalent lanthanide series: Calculated emission rates and oscillator strengths,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 125102 (2012).

Esterowitz, L.

Faulques, E.

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

Fornasiero, L.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

Fuhrberg, P.

Golling, M.

Gorshkov, O. N.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

Goutaudier, C.

L. Laversenne, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, M. T. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Optimization of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped refractory sesquioxides: cubic Y2O3, Lu2O3 and monoclinic Gd2O3,” Opt. Mater. 16(4), 475–483 (2001).

Griebner, U.

Guyot, Y.

L. Laversenne, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, M. T. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Optimization of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped refractory sesquioxides: cubic Y2O3, Lu2O3 and monoclinic Gd2O3,” Opt. Mater. 16(4), 475–483 (2001).

Heckl, O. H.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hu, Z.

Huber, G.

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, M. Schäfer, P. Fuhrberg, and G. Huber, “Holmium-doped Lu2O3, Y2O3, and Sc2O3 for lasers above 2.1 μm,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3926–3931 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, P. Koopmann, P. Fuhrberg, G. Huber, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Passively mode locked femtosecond Tm:Sc2O3 laser at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 437–439 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Krankel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high-purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7–9), 1934–1938 (2008).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007).
[PubMed]

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).

Kadiyski, M.

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

Kaminskii, A. A.

Keller, U.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kisel’, V. E.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).

Koopmann, P.

Krankel, C.

R. Peters, C. Krankel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high-purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7–9), 1934–1938 (2008).

Kränkel, C.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kruglova, M. V.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

Kuch, S.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

Kuleshov, N. V.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).

Lagatskii, A. A.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lamrini, S.

Larin, S.

Laversenne, L.

L. Laversenne, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, M. T. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Optimization of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped refractory sesquioxides: cubic Y2O3, Lu2O3 and monoclinic Gd2O3,” Opt. Mater. 16(4), 475–483 (2001).

Leinonen, T.

Li, D.

Liebald, C.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

Lin, H.

Lin, Z.

Liu, P.

Loiko, P.

Loiko, P. A.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

Mandrik, A. V.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).

Marinova, V.

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

Marychev, M. O.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

Mateos, X.

Mix, E.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

Noriyuki, M.

Novikov, A.

Novikov, A. A.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinov’ev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012).

Obronov, I.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Peltz, M.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

Penttinen, J.-P.

Petermann, K.

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Krankel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high-purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7–9), 1934–1938 (2008).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007).
[PubMed]

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

Peters, R.

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Krankel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high-purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7–9), 1934–1938 (2008).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007).
[PubMed]

Peters, V.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

Petrov, V.

Pollnau, M.

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).

Rotermund, F.

Saarinen, E. J.

Sakharov, N. V.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

Saraceno, C. J.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schäfer, M.

Schmidt, A.

Schödel, R.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

Scholle, K.

Serres, J. M.

Shcherbitskii, V. G.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).

Shirakawa, A.

Sibbett, W.

Stoneman, R. C.

Südmeyer, T.

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010).
[PubMed]

Tavast, M.

Todorov, N. D.

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

Tokurakawa, M.

Ueda, K.

Vasileva, E.

Vilejshikova, E.

Wang, Y.

Xu, B.

Xu, J.

Xu, X.

Yagi, H.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

M. Tokurakawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, M. Noriyuki, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped ultrashort-pulse generation based on Yb3+:Sc2O3 and Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic multi-gain-media oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3353–3361 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yanagitani, T.

Yasyukevich, A. S.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).

Yeom, D.-I.

Yumashev, K.

Yumashev, K. V.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

Zakharov, N. G.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinov’ev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012).

Zhang, G.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zia, R.

C. M. Dodson and R. Zia, “Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in the trivalent lanthanide series: Calculated emission rates and oscillator strengths,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 125102 (2012).

Zinov’ev, A. P.

Zinoviev, A. P.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

Appl. Phys. B (3)

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011).

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, K. Beil, K. Petermann, G. Huber, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Thermal analysis and efficient high power continuous-wave and mode-locked thin disk laser operation of Yb-doped sesquioxides,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 509–514 (2011).

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, R. Schödel, M. Peltz, C. Liebald, X. Mateos, B. Deppe, and C. Kränkel, “Thermo-optic properties of Yb:Lu2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 601–607 (2015).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. Peters, C. Krankel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth by the heat exchanger method, spectroscopic characterization and laser operation of high-purity Yb:Lu2O3,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(7–9), 1934–1938 (2008).

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Kuch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 973–975 (2000).

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).

Opt. Express (8)

L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
[PubMed]

X. Xu, Z. Hu, D. Li, P. Liu, J. Zhang, B. Xu, and J. Xu, “First laser oscillation of diode-pumped Tm3+-doped LuScO3 mixed sesquioxide ceramic,” Opt. Express 25(13), 15322–15329 (2017).
[PubMed]

R. Peters, C. Kränkel, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable high-power Yb:Lu2O3 thin disk laser with 80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7075–7082 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. Tokurakawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, M. Noriyuki, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped ultrashort-pulse generation based on Yb3+:Sc2O3 and Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic multi-gain-media oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3353–3361 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, O. L. Antipov, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic laser operating around 2070 nm,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19349–19354 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, M. Schäfer, P. Fuhrberg, and G. Huber, “Holmium-doped Lu2O3, Y2O3, and Sc2O3 for lasers above 2.1 μm,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3926–3931 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. J. Saarinen, E. Vasileva, O. Antipov, J.-P. Penttinen, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser intracavity-pumped by a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23844–23850 (2013).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Laversenne, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, M. T. Cohen-Adad, and G. Boulon, “Optimization of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped refractory sesquioxides: cubic Y2O3, Lu2O3 and monoclinic Gd2O3,” Opt. Mater. 16(4), 475–483 (2001).

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

N. D. Todorov, M. V. Abrashev, V. Marinova, M. Kadiyski, L. Dimowa, and E. Faulques, “Raman spectroscopy and lattice dynamical calculations of Sc2O3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 87(10), 104301 (2013).

C. M. Dodson and R. Zia, “Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in the trivalent lanthanide series: Calculated emission rates and oscillator strengths,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 125102 (2012).

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, A. P. Zinoviev, H. Yagi, N. V. Sakharov, M. V. Kruglova, M. O. Marychev, O. N. Gorshkov, and A. A. Lagatskii, “Efficient 2.1-μm lasers based on Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics pumped by 800-nm laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 10(6), 969–973 (2013).

Other (4)

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Laser operation and spectroscopic investigations of Tm:LuScO3,” in CLEO/Europe - EQEC 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2011), P. CA1_4.

A. A. Lagatsky, P. Koopmann, O. L. Antipov, C. T. A. Brown, G. Huber, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse generation with Tm-doped sesquioxides,” in CLEO/Europe - EQEC 2011 (Optical Society of America, 2013), P. CA_6_3.

P. Koopmann, “Thulium- and holmium-doped sesquioxides for 2 μm lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 2012.

C. Kränkel, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioixides for diode-pumped high-power lasers in the 1-, 2-, and 3-µm spectral range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 1602013 (2015).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Some of the fabricated 4.76 at.% Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramics (laser-grade-polished ceramic disks) (a); X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern (in blue) compared to the standard pattern of ScLuO3 (in red) (b); Raman spectrum, excitation wavelength: 514 nm (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of a polished (a) and a fracture (b) surface of the 4.76 at.% Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramic. The scale bar in (a,b) is 20 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-f) Room-temperature (at 293 K, in red) and low-temperature (at 6 K, in blue, not in scale) absorption spectra of the 4.76 at.% Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectroscopy of Tm3+-doped (Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramic: (a) absorption, σabs, and stimulated-emission, σSE, cross-sections for the 3H63F4 transition; (b) gain cross-sections, σg = βσSE – (1 – β)σabs, for the 3F43H6 transition. β = N(3F4)/NTm is the inversion ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramic microchip laser: (a) scheme of the laser, LD – laser diode, PM – pump mirror, OC – output coupler; (b) laser beam profile captured at Pabs = 5.05 W, corresponding to an output power of 1.01 W for TOC = 3%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 ceramic microchip laser: (a) input-output dependences, η – slope efficiency; (b) typical laser emission spectra measured at Pabs = 5.05 W (for TOC = 1.5% and 3%) and 2.40 W (TOC = 5%).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectroscopy of Tm3+ in a 4.76 at.% Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic and in a 1 at.% Tm:LuScO3 single-crystal: (a) σabs spectra for the 3H63H4 transition, (b) σSE spectra for the 3F43H6 transition. The noise of the black curve in (b) is due to water absorption affecting the measured luminescence spectrum.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Tm:LuScO3 single crystal microchip laser: (a) input-output dependences, η – slope efficiency; (b) typical laser emission spectra measured at Pabs = 1.41 W.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Experimental and Calculated Absorption Oscillator Strengths for 4.76 at.% Tm:(Lu,Sc)2O3 Ceramic

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Table 2 Calculated Emission Probabilities for Tm3+ in (Lu,Sc)2O3 Ceramic

Equations (6)

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f Σ exp (JJ')= m e c 2 π e 2 N Tm λ 2 Γ(JJ'),
f Σ calc (JJ')= 8 3h(2J'+1)λ ( n 2 +2) 2 9n S ED calc (JJ')+ f MD calc (JJ'),
S ED calc (JJ')= k=2,4,6 U (k) Ω k , where U (k) = (4 f n )SLJ|| U k ||(4 f n )S'L'J' 2 .
A Σ calc (JJ')= 64 π 4 e 2 3h(2J'+1) λ 3 n ( n 2 +2 3 ) 2 S ED calc (JJ')+ A MD calc (JJ').
τ rad = 1 A tot and B(JJ')= A Σ calc (JJ') A tot , where A tot = J' A Σ calc (JJ') .
σ SE (λ)= 1 8π n 2 τ rad c σ abs (λ) e hc/(kTλ) λ 4 σ abs (λ) e hc/(kTλ) dλ .