Abstract

To improve the coupling efficiency between a single-mode fiber and the waveguide on lithium niobate thin film (LNOI), a fiber-to-chip grating coupler with a metal bottom reflector was designed, fabricated, and characterized. A maximum coupling efficiency of −9.1 dB and −6.9 dB for a grating coupler on LNOI without and with a metal bottom reflector was measured, respectively. Fabrication error sensitivity of etch depth was experimentally investigated and the discrepancy between the simulation and experiment was discussed.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (4)

2015 (6)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).

2011 (1)

Y. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, W. G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

2004 (2)

V. Ta’eed, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, “Higher order mode conversion via focused ion beam milled Bragg gratings in Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5274–5284 (2004).
[PubMed]

P. Rabiei and P. Günter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).

2003 (1)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(11), 2274–2283 (2003).

1998 (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

1986 (1)

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 845–867 (1986).

1985 (1)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).

1977 (1)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14, 235–254 (1977).

Andrade, N.

Andreani, L. C.

Atikian, H. A.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

Bakhru, H.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

Barclay, P. E.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(11), 2274–2283 (2003).

Baron, A.

Bencheikh, K.

Bernal, M. P.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

Bo, F.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

Bozzola, A.

Burek, M. J.

Burr, G. W.

Cai, L.

Cai, L. T.

Cargill, G. S.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

Carroll, L.

Chang, W. K.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. H.

Cheng, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cristiani, I.

Cross, L. E.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

Ding, Y.

Diziain, S.

Eggleton, B.

Fang, W.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Fang, Z.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Fasold, S.

Freeman, D.

Füßel, D.

Gao, F.

Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).

Geiss, R.

Gerace, D.

Ghosh, S.

M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–2.

Grinberg, P.

Günter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).

P. Rabiei and P. Günter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).

Guo, G. C.

Hamel, P.

Han, H.

Han, H. P.

Hu, H.

Huang, I. C.

Janz, S.

Jiang, H.

Jiang, W. C.

Jiang, Y.

Jiang, Y. P.

Kumar, A.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

Lalanne, P.

Lee, S. S.

Y. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, W. G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).

Lee, W. G.

Y. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, W. G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).

Lee, Y. S.

Y. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, W. G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).

Levenson, J. A.

Levy, M.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

Li, J.

Li, S.

Li, W.

Liang, H.

Lin, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Lin, Z.

Liu, J. R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

Loncar, M.

Luo, R.

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Mahmoud, M.

M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–2.

Moss, D.

Nisar, M. S.

M. S. Nisar, X. J. Zhao, A. Pan, S. Yuan, and J. S. Xia, “Grating Coupler for an On-Chip Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 6600208 (2017).

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 845–867 (1986).

Osgood, R. M.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

Ou, H.

Painter, O.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(11), 2274–2283 (2003).

Pan, A.

M. S. Nisar, X. J. Zhao, A. Pan, S. Yuan, and J. S. Xia, “Grating Coupler for an On-Chip Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 6600208 (2017).

Peng, S. T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14, 235–254 (1977).

Pertsch, T.

Peucheret, C.

Piazza, G.

M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–2.

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).

Qiao, L.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and P. Günter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).

Raineri, F.

Ren, X. F.

Ricken, R.

Sagnes, I.

Samoc, M.

Sauvan, C.

Schmidt, C.

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009).
[PubMed]

Song, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(11), 2274–2283 (2003).

Stark, P.

Steier, W. H.

Y. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, W. G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).

Steinert, M.

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 845–867 (1986).

Sun, X.

Ta’eed, V.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14, 235–254 (1977).

Thourhout, D. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8R), 6071 (2006).

Venkataraman, V.

Wan, S.

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Wang, M.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, N.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).

Xia, J. S.

M. S. Nisar, X. J. Zhao, A. Pan, S. Yuan, and J. S. Xia, “Grating Coupler for an On-Chip Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 6600208 (2017).

Xiang, B. X.

Xiong, X.

Xu, D.

Xu, J.

Xu, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yacomotti, A. M.

Yuan, S.

M. S. Nisar, X. J. Zhao, A. Pan, S. Yuan, and J. S. Xia, “Grating Coupler for an On-Chip Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 6600208 (2017).

Yvind, K.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X. C.

Zhao, X. J.

M. S. Nisar, X. J. Zhao, A. Pan, S. Yuan, and J. S. Xia, “Grating Coupler for an On-Chip Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 6600208 (2017).

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14, 235–254 (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Rabiei and P. Günter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, J. R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structure of the proposed grating coupler.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 E Field plot of the LNOI grating coupler (a) without and (b) with a metal bottom reflector in Z-cut LNOI for TE polarization. H = 480 nm, D = 2.23 μm, period = 960 nm, etch depth = 285 nm, filling factor = 0.5.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication procedure (a) and paragraph (b) of a 3-inch LNOI wafer with a metal bottom reflector.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Grating coupler in Z-cut LNOI for TE polarization. (a) Fabrication procedure (b) top view of coupler fabricated by FIB (c) the enlarged figure of the dotted box region in (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical setup for the transmission measurement of the grating couplers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured and simulated coupling efficiencies for different etch depths in Z-cut LNOI for TE polarization. For gratings in LNOI with a metal bottom reflector, parameters are: H = 480 nm, D = 2.23 μm, period = 960 nm, etch depth = 285 nm, filling factor = 0.5; For grating in LNOI without a metal bottom reflector, parameters are: H = 480 nm, D = 1.96 μm, period = 960 nm, etch depth = 285 nm, filling factor = 0.5.

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