Abstract

We report an unusual thermal quenching of the micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) intensity for a sandwiched single-layer (SL) MoS2. For this study, MoS2 layers were chemical vapor deposited on molecular beam epitaxial grown In0.15Al0.85N lattice matched templates. Later, to accomplish air-stable sandwiched SL-MoS2, a thin In0.15Al0.85N cap layer was deposited on the MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N heterostructure. We confirm that the sandwiched MoS2 is a single layer from optical and structural analyses using µ-Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, respectively. By using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, no structural phase transition of MoS2 is noticed. The recombination processes of bound and free excitons were analyzed by the power-dependent µ-PL studies at 77 K and room temperature (RT). The temperature-dependent micro photoluminescence (TDPL) measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 77 – 400 K. As temperature increases, a significant red-shift is observed for the free-exciton PL peak, revealing the delocalization of carriers. Further, we observe unconventional negative thermal quenching behavior, the enhancement of the µ-PL intensity with increasing temperatures up to 300K, which is explained by carrier hopping transitions that take place between shallow localized states to the band-edges. Thus, this study renders a fundamental insight into understanding the anomalous thermal quenching of µ-PL intensity of sandwiched SL-MoS2.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. W. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (3)

P. Mishra, M. Tangi, T. K. Ng, M. N. Hedhili, D. H. Anjum, M. S. Alias, C.-C. Tseng, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Impact of N-plasma and Ga-irradiation on MoS2 layer in molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 012101 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, B. Wang, R. I. Made, S.-F. Yoon, and J. Michel, “Direct bandgap photoluminescence from n-type indirect GaInP alloys,” Photonics Res. 5(3), 239 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, M.-Y. Li, M. K. Shakfa, D. H. Anjum, M. N. Hedhili, T. K. Ng, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Type-I band alignment at MoS2 /In 0.15 Al 0.85 N lattice matched heterojunction and realization of MoS2 quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092104 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

P. Gupta, A. A. Rahman, S. Subramanian, S. Gupta, A. Thamizhavel, T. Orlova, S. Rouvimov, S. Vishwanath, V. Protasenko, M. R. Laskar, H. G. Xing, D. Jena, and A. Bhattacharya, “Layered transition metal dichalcogenides: promising near-lattice-matched substrates for GaN growth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23708 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, D. H. Anjum, A. Prabaswara, Y. Yang, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Bandgap measurements and the peculiar splitting of E2H phonon modes of InxAl1-xN nanowires grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(4), 045701 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pandey, F. A. Rasmussen, K. Kuhar, T. Olsen, K. W. Jacobsen, and K. S. Thygesen, “Defect-Tolerant Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2234–2239 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, T. K. Ng, M. N. Hedhili, B. Janjua, M. S. Alias, D. H. Anjum, C.-C. Tseng, Y. Shi, H. J. Joyce, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS2 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(3), 032104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M.-Y. Li, Y. Shi, C.-C. Cheng, L.-S. Lu, Y.-C. Lin, H.-L. Tang, M.-L. Tsai, C.-W. Chu, K.-H. Wei, J.-H. He, W.-H. Chang, K. Suenaga, and L.-J. Li, “Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface,” Science 349(6247), 524–528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, J. Li, H. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Wu, N. Pan, and X. Wang, “Negative thermal quenching of photoluminescence in annealed ZnO-Al2O3 core-shell nanorods,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(7), 5360–5365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Huang, L. Yang, D. Liu, J. Chen, Q. Fu, Y. Xiong, F. Lin, and B. Xiang, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer WSe2 on a SiO2/Si substrate and its device applications,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4193–4198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

H. Nan, Z. Wang, W. Wang, Z. Liang, Y. Lu, Q. Chen, D. He, P. Tan, F. Miao, X. Wang, J. Wang, and Z. Ni, “Strong photoluminescence enhancement of MoS2 through defect engineering and oxygen bonding,” ACS Nano 8(6), 5738–5745 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, A. Johnson, C. L. Hsu, L. J. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Direct imaging of band profile in single layer MoS2 on graphite: Quasiparticle energy gap, metallic edge states, and edge band bending,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2443–2447 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

B. W. H. Baugher, H. O. H. Churchill, Y. Yang, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Intrinsic Electronic Transport Properties of High-Quality Monolayer and Bilayer MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4212–4216 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Qiu, T. Xu, Z. Wang, W. Ren, H. Nan, Z. Ni, Q. Chen, S. Yuan, F. Miao, F. Song, G. Long, Y. Shi, L. Sun, J. Wang, and X. Wang, “Hopping transport through defect-induced localized states in molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2642 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tongay, J. Suh, C. Ataca, W. Fan, A. Luce, J. S. Kang, J. Liu, C. Ko, R. Raghunathanan, J. Zhou, F. Ogletree, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Defects activated photoluminescence in two-dimensional semiconductors: interplay between bound, charged, and free excitons,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, J. Z. Ou, S. Balendhran, A. F. Chrimes, M. Mortazavi, D. D. Yao, M. R. Field, K. Latham, V. Bansal, J. R. Friend, S. Zhuiykov, N. V. Medhekar, M. S. Strano, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Electrochemical control of photoluminescence in two-dimensional MoS2 nanoflakes,” ACS Nano 7(11), 10083–10093 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Huang, C. Zhang, C. B. Tay, T. Venkatesan, and S. J. Chua, “Green luminescence from Cu-doped ZnO nanorods: Role of Zn vacancies and negative thermal quenching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhou, X. Zou, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Kong, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, B. I. Yakobson, and J. C. Idrobo, “Intrinsic structural defects in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2615–2622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Jin, P. C. Yeh, N. Zaki, D. Zhang, J. T. Sadowski, A. Al-Mahboob, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, J. I. Dadap, I. P. Herman, P. Sutter, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Direct measurement of the thickness-dependent electronic band structure of MoS2 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 106801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. S. A. Butcher, P. P.-T. Chen, and J. E. Downes, “Low activation energy for the removal of excess nitrogen in nitrogen rich indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 11913 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. W. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tangi, J. Kuyyalil, and S. M. Shivaprasad, “Role of native defects in nitrogen flux dependent carrier concentration of InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073510 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2.,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 2–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Lee, H. Yan, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and S. Ryu, “Anomalous lattice vibrations of single- and few-layer MoS2.,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2695–2700 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. S. Fadley, “Atomic-level characterization of materials with core- and valence-level photoemission: basic phenomena and future directions,” Surf. Interface Anal. 40(13), 1579–1605 (2008).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

H. Shibata, “Negative Thermal Quenching Curves in Photoluminescence of Solids,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 550–553 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. J. Queisser and E. E. Haller, “Defects in semiconductors: some fatal, some vital,” Science 281(5379), 945–950 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, “The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. Schmidt, K. Lischka, and W. Zulehner, “Excitation-power dependence of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(16), 8989–8994 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

E. H. Bogardus and H. B. Bebb, “Bound-exciton, free-exciton, band-acceptor, donor-acceptor, and auger recombination in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. 176(3), 993–1002 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

F. E. Williams and H. Eyring, “The Mechanism of the Luminescence of Solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 15(5), 289–304 (1947).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

W. Zhou, X. Zou, S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Kong, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, B. I. Yakobson, and J. C. Idrobo, “Intrinsic structural defects in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2615–2622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albadri, A. M.

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, D. H. Anjum, A. Prabaswara, Y. Yang, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Bandgap measurements and the peculiar splitting of E2H phonon modes of InxAl1-xN nanowires grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(4), 045701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alias, M. S.

P. Mishra, M. Tangi, T. K. Ng, M. N. Hedhili, D. H. Anjum, M. S. Alias, C.-C. Tseng, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Impact of N-plasma and Ga-irradiation on MoS2 layer in molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 012101 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, T. K. Ng, M. N. Hedhili, B. Janjua, M. S. Alias, D. H. Anjum, C.-C. Tseng, Y. Shi, H. J. Joyce, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS2 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(3), 032104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Mahboob, A.

W. Jin, P. C. Yeh, N. Zaki, D. Zhang, J. T. Sadowski, A. Al-Mahboob, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, J. I. Dadap, I. P. Herman, P. Sutter, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Direct measurement of the thickness-dependent electronic band structure of MoS2 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 106801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alyamani, A. Y.

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, D. H. Anjum, A. Prabaswara, Y. Yang, A. M. Albadri, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Bandgap measurements and the peculiar splitting of E2H phonon modes of InxAl1-xN nanowires grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(4), 045701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anjum, D. H.

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, M.-Y. Li, M. K. Shakfa, D. H. Anjum, M. N. Hedhili, T. K. Ng, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Type-I band alignment at MoS2 /In 0.15 Al 0.85 N lattice matched heterojunction and realization of MoS2 quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092104 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Mishra, M. Tangi, T. K. Ng, M. N. Hedhili, D. H. Anjum, M. S. Alias, C.-C. Tseng, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Impact of N-plasma and Ga-irradiation on MoS2 layer in molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 012101 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Tangi, P. Mishra, T. K. Ng, M. N. Hedhili, B. Janjua, M. S. Alias, D. H. Anjum, C.-C. Tseng, Y. Shi, H. J. Joyce, L.-J. Li, and B. S. Ooi, “Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS2 heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(3), 032104 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) cross-sectional image of high-angle annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and 1(b) schematic model for the sandwiched SL-MoS2 sample by taking account of the van der Waals epitaxy. 1(c) STEM-EELS elemental color maps (Mo-blue, S-green, Al-red, and N-black). 1(d) µRaman spectrum collected using 473nm excitation line. 1(e) µRaman mapping of A1g phonon mode acquired on the sample.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The deconvolution of HRXPS (a) Mo 3d and (b) S 2p core-levels acquired on In0.15Al0.85N/SL-MoS2 hetero-junction samples. The peak positions of core-levels are shown in parentheses. The inset shows the typical STEM cross-section image of the sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized temperature-dependent µPL spectra of In0.15Al0.85N/MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N. (b) Varshni fit to the temperature-dependent µPL peak positions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Excitation power-dependent µ-PL spectra collected for sandwiched SL-MoS2 at (a) 77K and (b) RT, respectively. The respective insets depict the exponent dependence (I ~Pα) of the integrated µ-PL intensity on excitation power.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Temperature-dependent integrated µ-PL spectra for sandwiched SL-MoS2 and (b) Shibata model fit to the integrated µ-PL intensity data points. Here, PL integrated intensity is obtained by peak deconvolution process.

Equations (1)

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I T = I 0 1+Nexp( E n / k B T) 1+Dexp( E d / k B T)

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