Abstract

We have investigated that femtosecond laser induced optical waveguides in AF32 and in Borofloat-33 glasses. Type-I positive and type-II negative refractive index change mechanisms were established in AF32 and in Borofloat-33 glass waveguides, respectively. Lowest propagation loss of 1.1 ± 0.31 dB/cm could be attained in AF32 glass, which has a typically higher index change than in Borofloat-33 glass. Resultant losses are directly correlated with densification and non-bridging oxygen hole centers, which can be authenticated by Raman and photoluminescence studies.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (3)

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. M. Pätzold, A. Demircan, and U. Morgner, “Low-loss curved waveguides in polymers written with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 25(1), 263–270 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lancry, B. Hari Babu, N. Ollier, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of silica glass through fictive temperature reduction,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 8(3), 285–290 (2017).

2016 (7)

W. Nie, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient second harmonic generation in 3D non-linear optical lattice-like cladding waveguide splitters by femtosecond laser inscription,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lv, X. Hao, and F. Chen, “Green up-conversion and near-infrared luminescence of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in Er3+, MgO co-doped nearly stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25482–25490 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Nie, R. He, C. Cheng, U. Rocha, J. Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2169–2172 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hari Babu, M. Lancry, N. Ollier, H. El Hamzaoui, M. Bouazoui, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of sol-gel derived silica fiber performs through fictive temperature reduction,” Appl. Opt. 55(27), 7455–7461 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hari Babu and V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, “Warm white light generation of γ-irradiated Dy3+, Eu3+ codoped sodium aluminoborate glasses,” J. Lumin. 169, 16–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lapointe, Y. Ledemi, S. Loranger, V. L. Iezzi, E. Soares de Lima Filho, F. Parent, S. Morency, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Kashyap, “Fabrication of ultrafast laser written low-loss waveguides in flexible As2S3 chalcogenide glass tape,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 203–206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, T. Fernandez, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, R. R. Thomson, M. Aguiló, A. K. Kar, J. Solis, and F. Díaz, “3D laser-written silica glass step-index high-contrast waveguides for the 3.5 μm mid-infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5818–5821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Optimization of waveguide structures for beam splitters fabricated in fused silica by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 60–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. K. Yadav and P. Singh, “A review of the structures of oxide glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” RSC Advances 5(83), 67583–67609 (2015).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, C. Cheng, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Waveguides and proportional beam splitters in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) produced by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Mater. 49, 110–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Thiel, G. Flachenecker, and W. Schade, “Femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguide bundles in bulk glass,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1266–1269 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2011 (6)

S. L. Li, P. Han, M. Shi, Y. Yao, B. Hu, M. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Low-loss channel optical waveguide fabrication in Nd3+-doped silicate glasses by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23958–23964 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Maniu, T. Iliescu, I. Ardelean, S. Cinta-Pinzaru, N. Tarcea, and W. Kiefer, “Raman study on B2O3-CaO glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 651–653, 485–488 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1976 (1)

W. L. Konijnendijk and J. M. Stevels, “The structure of borosilicate glasses studied by Raman scattering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 20(2), 193–224 (1976).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

Ams, M.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arai, A.

Ardelean, I.

D. Maniu, T. Iliescu, I. Ardelean, S. Cinta-Pinzaru, N. Tarcea, and W. Kiefer, “Raman study on B2O3-CaO glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 651–653, 485–488 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Babu, B. H.

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

Beresna, M.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bhatnagar, A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blewett, I. J.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

-Blondin, A. M.

Bonse, J.

Bouazoui, M.

Bovatsek, J.

Bricchi, E.

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brisset, F.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

Cerkauskaite, A.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chahid-Erraji, A.

Chalapathi, K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

W. Nie, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient second harmonic generation in 3D non-linear optical lattice-like cladding waveguide splitters by femtosecond laser inscription,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lv, X. Hao, and F. Chen, “Green up-conversion and near-infrared luminescence of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in Er3+, MgO co-doped nearly stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25482–25490 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Nie, R. He, C. Cheng, U. Rocha, J. Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2169–2172 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, C. Cheng, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Waveguides and proportional beam splitters in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) produced by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Mater. 49, 110–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Optimization of waveguide structures for beam splitters fabricated in fused silica by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 60–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

W. Nie, R. He, C. Cheng, U. Rocha, J. Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2169–2172 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, C. Cheng, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Waveguides and proportional beam splitters in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) produced by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Mater. 49, 110–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiodini, N.

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cinta-Pinzaru, S.

D. Maniu, T. Iliescu, I. Ardelean, S. Cinta-Pinzaru, N. Tarcea, and W. Kiefer, “Raman study on B2O3-CaO glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 651–653, 485–488 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cook, K.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corbari, C.

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Demircan, A.

Dhaman, R. K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Díaz, F.

Domingo, C.

Dong, N.

Drevinskas, R.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S.

Eaton, S. M.

Eberstein, M.

Eichler, H. J.

El Hamzaoui, H.

Fedotov, S. S.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, P.

Fernandez, T.

Flachenecker, G.

Franchina, E.

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grehn, M.

Gross, S.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, P.

Hao, X.

Hao, X.-T.

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Optimization of waveguide structures for beam splitters fabricated in fused silica by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 60–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, C. Cheng, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Waveguides and proportional beam splitters in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) produced by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Mater. 49, 110–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hari Babu, B.

M. Lancry, B. Hari Babu, N. Ollier, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of silica glass through fictive temperature reduction,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 8(3), 285–290 (2017).

B. Hari Babu and V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, “Warm white light generation of γ-irradiated Dy3+, Eu3+ codoped sodium aluminoborate glasses,” J. Lumin. 169, 16–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Hari Babu, M. Lancry, N. Ollier, H. El Hamzaoui, M. Bouazoui, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of sol-gel derived silica fiber performs through fictive temperature reduction,” Appl. Opt. 55(27), 7455–7461 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haro-González, P.

He, R.

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Hernandez, M.

Hewak, D.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

Hu, B.

Hughes, M.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hushur, A.

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iezzi, V. L.

Iliescu, T.

D. Maniu, T. Iliescu, I. Ardelean, S. Cinta-Pinzaru, N. Tarcea, and W. Kiefer, “Raman study on B2O3-CaO glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 651–653, 485–488 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

Jha, A.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y.

W. Nie, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient second harmonic generation in 3D non-linear optical lattice-like cladding waveguide splitters by femtosecond laser inscription,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kar, A. K.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, T. Fernandez, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, R. R. Thomson, M. Aguiló, A. K. Kar, J. Solis, and F. Díaz, “3D laser-written silica glass step-index high-contrast waveguides for the 3.5 μm mid-infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5818–5821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

Kazansky, P. G.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, K. Sakaguchi, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Low loss photonic components in high index bismuth borate glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16215–16226 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, W.

D. Maniu, T. Iliescu, I. Ardelean, S. Cinta-Pinzaru, N. Tarcea, and W. Kiefer, “Raman study on B2O3-CaO glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 651–653, 485–488 (2003).
[Crossref]

Konijnendijk, W. L.

W. L. Konijnendijk and J. M. Stevels, “The structure of borosilicate glasses studied by Raman scattering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 20(2), 193–224 (1976).
[Crossref]

Lancry, M.

M. Lancry, B. Hari Babu, N. Ollier, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of silica glass through fictive temperature reduction,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 8(3), 285–290 (2017).

B. Hari Babu, M. Lancry, N. Ollier, H. El Hamzaoui, M. Bouazoui, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of sol-gel derived silica fiber performs through fictive temperature reduction,” Appl. Opt. 55(27), 7455–7461 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

Lauria, A.

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ledemi, Y.

Li, S. L.

Lipatiev, A. S.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Little, D. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loranger, S.

Lotarev, S. V.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q.

Lv, J.

Lv, J.-M.

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, C. Cheng, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Waveguides and proportional beam splitters in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) produced by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Mater. 49, 110–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Optimization of waveguide structures for beam splitters fabricated in fused silica by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 60–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mallik, A.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Manghnani, M. H.

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maniu, D.

D. Maniu, T. Iliescu, I. Ardelean, S. Cinta-Pinzaru, N. Tarcea, and W. Kiefer, “Raman study on B2O3-CaO glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 651–653, 485–488 (2003).
[Crossref]

Martínez, J.

Mathur, D.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Messaddeq, Y.

Miese, C. T.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Morency, S.

Morgner, U.

Ng, M. L.

Nie, W.

W. Nie, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient second harmonic generation in 3D non-linear optical lattice-like cladding waveguide splitters by femtosecond laser inscription,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22310 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Nie, R. He, C. Cheng, U. Rocha, J. Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2169–2172 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, M.

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ollier, N.

M. Lancry, B. Hari Babu, N. Ollier, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of silica glass through fictive temperature reduction,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 8(3), 285–290 (2017).

B. Hari Babu, M. Lancry, N. Ollier, H. El Hamzaoui, M. Bouazoui, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of sol-gel derived silica fiber performs through fictive temperature reduction,” Appl. Opt. 55(27), 7455–7461 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paleari, A.

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Parent, F.

Pätzold, W. M.

Poulin, J.-C.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poumellec, B.

M. Lancry, B. Hari Babu, N. Ollier, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of silica glass through fictive temperature reduction,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 8(3), 285–290 (2017).

B. Hari Babu, M. Lancry, N. Ollier, H. El Hamzaoui, M. Bouazoui, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of sol-gel derived silica fiber performs through fictive temperature reduction,” Appl. Opt. 55(27), 7455–7461 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qin, W.

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

B. Hari Babu and V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, “Warm white light generation of γ-irradiated Dy3+, Eu3+ codoped sodium aluminoborate glasses,” J. Lumin. 169, 16–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rocha, U.

Ródenas, A.

Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, J.

Rosenfeld, A.

Sakaguchi, K.

Schade, W.

Sekine, T.

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seuthe, T.

Shah, L.

Shen, S.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shi, M.

Siegel, J.

Sigaev, V. N.

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
[Crossref]

Singh, P.

A. K. Yadav and P. Singh, “A review of the structures of oxide glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” RSC Advances 5(83), 67583–67609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Singh, P. C.

J. A. Dharmadhikari, A. K. Dharmadhikari, A. Bhatnagar, A. Mallik, P. C. Singh, R. K. Dhaman, K. Chalapathi, and D. Mathur, “Writing low-loss waveguides in borosilicate (BK7) glass with a low-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(2), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soares de Lima Filho, E.

Solis, J.

Sotillo, B.

Stebbins, J. F.

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stevels, J. M.

W. L. Konijnendijk and J. M. Stevels, “The structure of borosilicate glasses studied by Raman scattering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 20(2), 193–224 (1976).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

Tarcea, N.

D. Maniu, T. Iliescu, I. Ardelean, S. Cinta-Pinzaru, N. Tarcea, and W. Kiefer, “Raman study on B2O3-CaO glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 651–653, 485–488 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thiel, M.

Thomson, R. R.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, T. Fernandez, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, R. R. Thomson, M. Aguiló, A. K. Kar, J. Solis, and F. Díaz, “3D laser-written silica glass step-index high-contrast waveguides for the 3.5 μm mid-infrared range,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5818–5821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Toney Fernandez, T.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 626–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wang, M.

Wang, Y.

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

Williams, Q.

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yadav, A. K.

A. K. Yadav and P. Singh, “A review of the structures of oxide glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” RSC Advances 5(83), 67583–67609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, K. Sakaguchi, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Low loss photonic components in high index bismuth borate glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16215–16226 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

Yoshino, F.

Yuan, W.-H.

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Optimization of waveguide structures for beam splitters fabricated in fused silica by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 60–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, C. Cheng, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Waveguides and proportional beam splitters in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) produced by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Mater. 49, 110–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Paleari, E. Franchina, N. Chiodini, A. Lauria, E. Bricchi, and P. G. Kazansky, “SnO2 nanoparticles in silica: Nanosized tools for femtosecond-laser machining of refractive index patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131912 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. S. Fedotov, R. Drevinskas, S. V. Lotarev, A. S. Lipatiev, M. Beresna, A. Cerkauskaite, V. N. Sigaev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071905 (2016).
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R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121102 (2005).
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M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
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Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

M. Lancry, B. Hari Babu, N. Ollier, and B. Poumellec, “Radiation hardening of silica glass through fictive temperature reduction,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 8(3), 285–290 (2017).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. H. Manghnani, A. Hushur, T. Sekine, J. Wu, J. F. Stebbins, and Q. Williams, “Raman, Brillouin and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on shocked borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113509 (2011).
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B. Hari Babu and V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, “Warm white light generation of γ-irradiated Dy3+, Eu3+ codoped sodium aluminoborate glasses,” J. Lumin. 169, 16–23 (2016).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J.-C. Poulin, and F. Brisset, “Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 953–962 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Optimization of waveguide structures for beam splitters fabricated in fused silica by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Laser Technol. 74, 60–64 (2015).
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W. Nie, R. He, C. Cheng, U. Rocha, J. Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2169–2172 (2016).
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M. Thiel, G. Flachenecker, and W. Schade, “Femtosecond laser writing of Bragg grating waveguide bundles in bulk glass,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1266–1269 (2015).
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Opt. Mater. (2)

W.-H. Yuan, J.-M. Lv, C. Cheng, X.-T. Hao, and F. Chen, “Waveguides and proportional beam splitters in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) produced by direct femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Mater. 49, 110–115 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. H. Babu, M. Niu, X. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Feng, W. Qin, and X.-T. Hao, “Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Mater. 72, 501–507 (2017).
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Opt. Mater. Express (2)

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A. K. Yadav and P. Singh, “A review of the structures of oxide glasses by Raman spectroscopy,” RSC Advances 5(83), 67583–67609 (2015).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Nie, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient second harmonic generation in 3D non-linear optical lattice-like cladding waveguide splitters by femtosecond laser inscription,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22310 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscopic images of optical waveguide cross-section (a) AF32 (b) Borofloat-33 glasses associated with near field intensity distributions at 632.8 nm (c) AF32 and (d) Borofloat-33 (B-33) glass waveguides for TE polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation losses of AF32 and Borofloat-33 glass waveguides as a function of pulse energies at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Exemplary integrated profile and phase change pictures of (a) AF32 and (b) Borofloat-33 glasses for a pulse energy of 0.53 µJ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase changes (Δφ) across the laser track as a function of pulse energies of AF32 and Borofloat-33 glasses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical Raman spectra of AF32 and Borofloat-33 glass, before and after femtosecond laser ionization. Inset shows zoom of the D2 defect band.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoluminescence spectra (λex = 532 nm) (a) Borofloat-33 glass waveguides for various pulse energies and (b) Comparative study of AF32 and Borofloat-33 glass for type-I waveguides at constant pulse energy of 2.61 µJ.