Abstract

A new type of saturable absorber (SA) based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser has been demonstrated experimentally. High quality ITO nanocrystals were prepared by the coprecipitation method. As a degenerate oxide semiconductor, the ITO has a wide range of saturable absorption regions, strong plasmonic absorption peaks, and ultra-fast recovery time. The nonlinear absorption properties of ITO are investigated by a balanced twin-detector measurement system. The saturation intensity and modulation depths are 9.87 MW/cm2 and 0.83%, respectively. We successfully fabricated ITO SAs by depositing the ITO dispersion solution at the end of a fiber connector. By inserting the ITO SAs into an EDF fiber cavity, stable passively Q-switched pulses with the minimum pulse width of 1.15 μs under a repetition rate of 81.28 kHz were obtained. The maximum output power of 1722 μW and pulse energy of 21.19 nJ were realized when the pump power was 480 mW at the wavelength of 1530.3 nm. The results suggest that ITO nanocrystals are expected to develop into another effective SA for ultrafast photonics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (4)

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. C. Yao, Y. J. Rao, S. W. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Y. Feng, C. Choi, H. Liu, H. F. Qi, X. F. Duan, G. D. Peng, and C. W. Wong, “Graphene Q-switched distributed feedback fiber lasers with narrow linewidth approaching the transform limit,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8202–8211 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging low-dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 827–846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Salim, K. Thambiratnam, S. F. Norizan, and S. W. Harun, “A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(9), 095103 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahma, M. Suthaskumar, Z. C. Tiu, A. Zarei, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 20–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 603–609 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (6)

2013 (4)

2011 (2)

D. Popa, Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

Y. X. Wang, D. Z. Yang, P. P. Jiang, and Y. H. Shen, “Linearly polarized Q-switched pulse Yb fiber laser with average output power over 10 W,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 461–464 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, M. L. Gong, P. Yan, and Q. Liu, “Q-switched fiber laser by all-fiber piezoelectric modulation and pulsed pump,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2066–2069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kanehara, H. Koike, T. Yoshinaga, and T. Teranishi, “Indium tin oxide nanoparticles with compositionally tunable surface plasmon resonance frequencies in the near-ir region,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(49), 17736–17737 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

B. L. Davydov and A. A. Krylov, “30-W Yb3+-pulsed fiber laser with wavelength tuning,” Laser Phys. 17(12), 1404–1415 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbiumdoped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

Y. K. Danileiko, A. A. Manenkov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-Mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 36(36), 541 (1973).

Ahma, H.

H. Ahma, M. Suthaskumar, Z. C. Tiu, A. Zarei, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 20–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Salim, K. Thambiratnam, S. F. Norizan, and S. W. Harun, “A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(9), 095103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alam, M. Z.

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzuhri, S. R.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

Bi, G.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Z.

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Che, K.

Chen, J.

Chen, Q.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, X.

Cho, J.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.

Chu, J. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, X.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

Dai, X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danileiko, Y. K.

Y. K. Danileiko, A. A. Manenkov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-Mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 36(36), 541 (1973).

Davydov, B. L.

B. L. Davydov and A. A. Krylov, “30-W Yb3+-pulsed fiber laser with wavelength tuning,” Laser Phys. 17(12), 1404–1415 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhanjal, S.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Dong, C. Y. Liaw, J. Hao, and J. Hu, “Nanotube Q-switched low-threshold linear cavity tunable erbiumdoped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 49(31), 5989–5992 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dou, Z.

Duan, X. F.

Fang, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbiumdoped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z. Y.

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Filippov, V. N.

Fisher, I. R.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

Gong, M. L.

B. Peng, M. L. Gong, P. Yan, and Q. Liu, “Q-switched fiber laser by all-fiber piezoelectric modulation and pulsed pump,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2066–2069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging low-dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 827–846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guoyu, H.

Hao, J.

Harun, S. W.

H. Ahma, M. Suthaskumar, Z. C. Tiu, A. Zarei, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 20–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Salim, K. Thambiratnam, S. F. Norizan, and S. W. Harun, “A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(9), 095103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

Howe, R. C. T.

Hu, G.

Hu, J.

Huang, S. W.

Huang, Y.

Hussain, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ismail, M. A.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ismail, M. F.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jang, S. Y.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, P. P.

Y. X. Wang, D. Z. Yang, P. P. Jiang, and Y. H. Shen, “Linearly polarized Q-switched pulse Yb fiber laser with average output power over 10 W,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 461–464 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Jung, M.

Kanehara, M.

M. Kanehara, H. Koike, T. Yoshinaga, and T. Teranishi, “Indium tin oxide nanoparticles with compositionally tunable surface plasmon resonance frequencies in the near-ir region,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(49), 17736–17737 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Khaimov-Mal’kov, V. Y.

Y. K. Danileiko, A. A. Manenkov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-Mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 36(36), 541 (1973).

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kir’yanov, A. V.

Koike, H.

M. Kanehara, H. Koike, T. Yoshinaga, and T. Teranishi, “Indium tin oxide nanoparticles with compositionally tunable surface plasmon resonance frequencies in the near-ir region,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(49), 17736–17737 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, J.

Krylov, A. A.

B. L. Davydov and A. A. Krylov, “30-W Yb3+-pulsed fiber laser with wavelength tuning,” Laser Phys. 17(12), 1404–1415 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lan, C.

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Li, C.

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi2Se3 film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

Li, L.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Liaw, C. Y.

Lin, Z.

Liu, H.

Liu, M.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

B. Peng, M. L. Gong, P. Yan, and Q. Liu, “Q-switched fiber laser by all-fiber piezoelectric modulation and pulsed pump,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2066–2069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. K.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging low-dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 827–846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, D. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

Luo, Z. C.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malmstrom, M.

Manenkov, A. A.

Y. K. Danileiko, A. A. Manenkov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-Mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 36(36), 541 (1973).

Mao, D.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

Margulis, W.

Mei, L.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, S. K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naik, G. V.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nechitailo, V. S.

Y. K. Danileiko, A. A. Manenkov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-Mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 36(36), 541 (1973).

Norizan, S. F.

H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Salim, K. Thambiratnam, S. F. Norizan, and S. W. Harun, “A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(9), 095103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78 μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3233–3236 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Offerhaus, H. L.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pan, L.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbiumdoped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

Peng, B.

B. Peng, M. L. Gong, P. Yan, and Q. Liu, “Q-switched fiber laser by all-fiber piezoelectric modulation and pulsed pump,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2066–2069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, G. D.

Peng, J.

Petropoulos, P.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78 μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3233–3236 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popov, S. V.

Prokhorov, A. M.

Y. K. Danileiko, A. A. Manenkov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-Mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 36(36), 541 (1973).

Qi, H. F.

Qi, X. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

Qin, Z.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging low-dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 827–846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, Y. J.

Rashid, F. A. A.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Razak, M. Z. A.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Salim, M. A. M.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Salim, K. Thambiratnam, S. F. Norizan, and S. W. Harun, “A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(9), 095103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shaharuddin, R. A.

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. H.

Y. X. Wang, D. Z. Yang, P. P. Jiang, and Y. H. Shen, “Linearly polarized Q-switched pulse Yb fiber laser with average output power over 10 W,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 461–464 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, C.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, F.

Song, Y.

Song, Y. W.

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Starodumov, A. N.

Sun, Z. P.

D. Popa, Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suthaskumar, M.

H. Ahma, M. Suthaskumar, Z. C. Tiu, A. Zarei, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 20–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, R.

Tarasenko, O.

Taylor, J. R.

Teranishi, T.

M. Kanehara, H. Koike, T. Yoshinaga, and T. Teranishi, “Indium tin oxide nanoparticles with compositionally tunable surface plasmon resonance frequencies in the near-ir region,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(49), 17736–17737 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thambiratnam, K.

H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Salim, K. Thambiratnam, S. F. Norizan, and S. W. Harun, “A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(9), 095103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Tiu, Z. C.

H. Ahma, M. Suthaskumar, Z. C. Tiu, A. Zarei, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 20–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

Utkin, I.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbiumdoped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78 μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3233–3236 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. Z.

Wang, J.

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. X.

Y. X. Wang, D. Z. Yang, P. P. Jiang, and Y. H. Shen, “Linearly polarized Q-switched pulse Yb fiber laser with average output power over 10 W,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 461–464 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

Wei, L.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Weng, J.

Wiersma, K.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

Woodward, R. I.

Wu, K.

Wu, Y.

Xia, H.

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Xu, W. C.

Xu, Y.

Yan, P.

B. Peng, M. L. Gong, P. Yan, and Q. Liu, “Q-switched fiber laser by all-fiber piezoelectric modulation and pulsed pump,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2066–2069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. Z.

Y. X. Wang, D. Z. Yang, P. P. Jiang, and Y. H. Shen, “Linearly polarized Q-switched pulse Yb fiber laser with average output power over 10 W,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 461–464 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, B. C.

Yao, Y.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, K.

Yoshinaga, T.

M. Kanehara, H. Koike, T. Yoshinaga, and T. Teranishi, “Indium tin oxide nanoparticles with compositionally tunable surface plasmon resonance frequencies in the near-ir region,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(49), 17736–17737 (2009).
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Yu, H.

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 603–609 (2016).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Yu, Z.

Yuan, P.

Zarei, A.

H. Ahma, M. Suthaskumar, Z. C. Tiu, A. Zarei, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 20–23 (2016).
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Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. J.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. C.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

Zhang, X.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Zheludev, N. I.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3619–3621 (1999).
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Zheng, X.

Zhong, M.

Zhou, D. P.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78 μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3233–3236 (2013).
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Zong, J.

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. Guo, Y. Yao, Z. C. Luo, Z. Qin, G. Xie, M. Liu, J. Kang, S. Zhang, G. Bi, X. Liu, and J. Qiu, “Universal near-infrared and mid-infrared optical modulation for ultrafast pulse generation enabled by colloidal plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9463–9469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging low-dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 827–846 (2017).
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G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3619–3621 (1999).
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D. Popa, Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
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H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 99, 1 (2017).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbiumdoped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Sheng, L. Li, Q. Chen, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at 1190 nm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 743–746 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, H. Xia, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 69–72 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Kanehara, H. Koike, T. Yoshinaga, and T. Teranishi, “Indium tin oxide nanoparticles with compositionally tunable surface plasmon resonance frequencies in the near-ir region,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(49), 17736–17737 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

Y. K. Danileiko, A. A. Manenkov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-Mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 36(36), 541 (1973).

Laser Phys. (1)

B. L. Davydov and A. A. Krylov, “30-W Yb3+-pulsed fiber laser with wavelength tuning,” Laser Phys. 17(12), 1404–1415 (2007).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. X. Wang, D. Z. Yang, P. P. Jiang, and Y. H. Shen, “Linearly polarized Q-switched pulse Yb fiber laser with average output power over 10 W,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 461–464 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. A. A. Rashid, S. R. Azzuhri, M. A. M. Salim, R. A. Shaharuddin, M. A. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, M. Z. A. Razak, and H. Ahmad, “Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(8), 085102 (2016).
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H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Salim, K. Thambiratnam, S. F. Norizan, and S. W. Harun, “A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(9), 095103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Peng, M. L. Gong, P. Yan, and Q. Liu, “Q-switched fiber laser by all-fiber piezoelectric modulation and pulsed pump,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2066–2069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

Z. Yu, M. Malmstrom, O. Tarasenko, W. Margulis, and F. Laurell, “Actively Q-switched all-fiber laser with an electrically controlled microstructured fiber,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11052–11057 (2010).
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B. C. Yao, Y. J. Rao, S. W. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Y. Feng, C. Choi, H. Liu, H. F. Qi, X. F. Duan, G. D. Peng, and C. W. Wong, “Graphene Q-switched distributed feedback fiber lasers with narrow linewidth approaching the transform limit,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8202–8211 (2017).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi2Se3 film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. Ahma, M. Suthaskumar, Z. C. Tiu, A. Zarei, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 20–23 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Science (2)

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
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Other (1)

Y. Wang, X. Zhu, J. Zong, K. Wiersma, A. Chavez-Pirson, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “SESAM Q-switched fiber laser at 1.2 μm,” In Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2016 Conference on (pp. 1–2). IEEE. (2016, June).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process of the ITO SAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The TEM image and particle size distribution of the ITO nanocrystals. (b) The HRTEM image of the ITO nanocrystals. (c) EDX data from the ITO nanocrystals. (d) The XRD pattern of the ITO nanocrystals. (e) The absorption spectrum from the ITO dispersion solution. (f) Measured saturable absorption data of the ITO SAs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of Q-switched fiber laser: laser diode, single mode fiber (SMF) wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), erbium-doped fiber (EDF), polarization controller (PC), polarization-independent isolator (PI-ISO), output coupler and ITO SAs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Typical Q-switched pulse train, (b) single pulse profile and (c) output optical spectrum from EDF laser based on ITO SAs at pump power of 320 mW. (d) Evolution of Q-switched pulse trains with increasing pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The repetition rate and the pulse width as a function of pump power, (b) The output power and the pulse energy as a function of pump power. (c) The output power was measured every hour at a fixed pump power of 480 mW.

Equations (1)

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T( I )=1ΔT×exp(I/ I sat ) T ns .