Abstract

Harvesting the thermal loss energy emitted as electro-magnetic (EM) waves (at solar, micrometer and millimeter spectral wavelengths) over the broadest possible spectral range is a major target in the development of sustainable energy solutions. Solar cells and rectennas suffer unavoidable energy losses due to heat generation as well as due to the transparency window (λ > 1100 nm for Si), which is not utilized in photo-electrical conversion. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermoelectric conversion system is presented as an extension of a typical Si solar cell and demonstrates additional capability in harvesting energy over the entirety of the solar spectrum. Nano-textured silicon - black-Si - was used to reduce reflectivity of the cell surface and a Ge-Sn layer was added below to facilitate absorption over the IR wing of the solar spectrum. An up to 7% improvement to the voltage generated by photo-voltaic conversion was obtained via the thermal-to-electrical contribution.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (6)

S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Morikawa, M. R. G. Seniutinas, A. Balčytis, K. Maximova, X. W. Wang, M. Zamengo, E. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Nanostructured antireflective and thermoisolative cicada wings,” Langmuir 32, 4698–4703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Juntunen, J. Heinonen, V. Vahanissi, P. Repo, D. Valluru, and H. Savin, “Near-unity quantum efficiency of broadband black silicon photodiodes with an induced junction,” Nature Photon. 10, 777–781 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Nishijima, R. Komatsu, S. Ota, G. Seniutinas, A. Balčytis, and S. Juodkazis, “Anti-reflective surfaces: cascading nano/micro-structuring,” APL Photonics 1, 076104 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Kirihara, K. Kondo, M. Ishida, K. Ihara, Y. Iwasaki, H. Someya, A. Matsuba, K. Uchida, E. Saitoh, N. Yamamoto, S. Kohmoto, and T. Murakami, “Flexible heat-flow sensing sheets based on the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect using one-dimensional spin-current conducting films,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23114 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, G. Tagliabue, H. Eghlidi, C. Holler, S. Droscher, G. Hong, and D. Poulikakos, “A rapid response thin-film plasmonic-thermoelectric light detector,” Sci. Rep. 6, 37564 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

A. Balčytis, M. Ryu, G. Seniutinas, Y. Nishijima, Y. Hikima, M. Zamengo, J. Morikawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Si-based infrared optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 54, 127103 (2015).

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garin, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotech. 10, 624–628 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Komatsu, A. Balčytis, G. Seniutinas, T. Yamamura, Y. Nishijima, and S. Juodkazis, “Plasmonic photothermoelectric energy converter with black-Si absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 143, 72–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Seniutinas, G. Gervinskas, R. Verma, B. D. Gupta, F. Lapierre, P. R. Stoddart, F. Clark, S. L. McArthur, and S. Juodkazis, “Versatile SERS sensing based on black silicon,” Opt. Express 23, 6763–6772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 3927–3932 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

E. P. Ivanova, J. Hasan, H. K. Webb, G. Gervinskas, S. Juodkazis, V. K. Truong, A. H. F. Wu, R. N. Lamb, V. Baulin, G. S. Watson, J. A. Watson, D. E. Mainwaring, and R. J. Crawford, “Bactericidal activity of nanostructured black silicon,” Nature Commun. 4, 2838 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Juodkazis, J. Juodkazytě, B. Sebeka, I. Savickaja, and S. Juodkazis, “Photoelectrochemistry of silicon in HF solution,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 17, 2269–2276 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Eyderman, S. John, and A. Deinega, “Solar light trapping in slanted conical-pore photonic crystals: Beyond statistical ray trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 154315 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kikkawa, K. Uchida, Y. Shiomi, Z. Qiu, D. Hou, D. Tian, H. Nakayama, X. F. Jin, and E. Saitoh, “Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 067207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2 % efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nature Nanotechn. 7, 743–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 5, 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwatter, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Georgiadis, G. Andia, and A. Collado, “Rectenna design and optimization using reciprocity theory and harmonic balance analysis for electromagnetic (EM) energy harvesting,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 9444–446 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

T. Paing, J. Shin, R. Zane, and Z. Popovic, “Resistor emulation approach to low-power RF energy harvesting,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 23, 1494–1501 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Santbergen and R. J. C. van Zolingen, “The absorption factor of crystalline silicon pv cells: A numerical and experimental study,” Soler Energy Mater. Soler Cells 92, 432–444 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1305–1310 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Uchida, S. Takahashi, K. Harii, J. Ieda, W. Koshibae, K. Ando, S. Maekawa, and E. Saitoh, “Observation of the spin Seebeck effect,” Nature 455, 778 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. R. Stoddart, P. J. Cadusch, T. M. Boyce, R. M. Erasmus, and J. D. Comins, “Optical properties of chitin: surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates based on antireflection structures on cicada wings,” Nanotechnology 17, 680–686 (2006).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin film solar cells,” Science 285, 692–698 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband transitions in SnXGe1−X alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1937–1940 (1997).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. E. Jaffe and A. Zunger, “Theory of the band-gap anomaly in ABC2 chalcopyrite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 29, 1882–1906 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 889–907 (1982).
[Crossref]

Alcubilla, R.

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garin, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotech. 10, 624–628 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andia, G.

A. Georgiadis, G. Andia, and A. Collado, “Rectenna design and optimization using reciprocity theory and harmonic balance analysis for electromagnetic (EM) energy harvesting,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 9444–446 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ando, K.

K. Uchida, S. Takahashi, K. Harii, J. Ieda, W. Koshibae, K. Ando, S. Maekawa, and E. Saitoh, “Observation of the spin Seebeck effect,” Nature 455, 778 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband transitions in SnXGe1−X alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1937–1940 (1997).
[Crossref]

Atwatter, H. A.

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwatter, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balcytis, A.

Y. Nishijima, R. Komatsu, S. Ota, G. Seniutinas, A. Balčytis, and S. Juodkazis, “Anti-reflective surfaces: cascading nano/micro-structuring,” APL Photonics 1, 076104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Morikawa, M. R. G. Seniutinas, A. Balčytis, K. Maximova, X. W. Wang, M. Zamengo, E. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Nanostructured antireflective and thermoisolative cicada wings,” Langmuir 32, 4698–4703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Komatsu, A. Balčytis, G. Seniutinas, T. Yamamura, Y. Nishijima, and S. Juodkazis, “Plasmonic photothermoelectric energy converter with black-Si absorber,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 143, 72–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Balčytis, M. Ryu, G. Seniutinas, Y. Nishijima, Y. Hikima, M. Zamengo, J. Morikawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Si-based infrared optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 54, 127103 (2015).

Barbastathis, G.

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 5, 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baulin, V.

E. P. Ivanova, J. Hasan, H. K. Webb, G. Gervinskas, S. Juodkazis, V. K. Truong, A. H. F. Wu, R. N. Lamb, V. Baulin, G. S. Watson, J. A. Watson, D. E. Mainwaring, and R. J. Crawford, “Bactericidal activity of nanostructured black silicon,” Nature Commun. 4, 2838 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beard, M. C.

S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 3927–3932 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boriskina, S. V

S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boyce, T. M.

P. R. Stoddart, P. J. Cadusch, T. M. Boyce, R. M. Erasmus, and J. D. Comins, “Optical properties of chitin: surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates based on antireflection structures on cicada wings,” Nanotechnology 17, 680–686 (2006).
[Crossref]

Branz, H. M.

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2 % efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nature Nanotechn. 7, 743–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bronstein, N. D.

S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Byrnes, S. J.

S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 3927–3932 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cadusch, P. J.

P. R. Stoddart, P. J. Cadusch, T. M. Boyce, R. M. Erasmus, and J. D. Comins, “Optical properties of chitin: surface-enhanced raman scattering substrates based on antireflection structures on cicada wings,” Nanotechnology 17, 680–686 (2006).
[Crossref]

Callahan, D. M.

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwatter, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[Crossref]

Calle, E.

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garin, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotech. 10, 624–628 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

S. J. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, and F. Capasso, “Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 3927–3932 (2014).
[Crossref]

Catchpole, K

S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Celanovic, I.

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J. Morikawa, M. R. G. Seniutinas, A. Balčytis, K. Maximova, X. W. Wang, M. Zamengo, E. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Nanostructured antireflective and thermoisolative cicada wings,” Langmuir 32, 4698–4703 (2016).
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S. V Boriskina, M. A. Green, K Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J.-J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18, 073004 (2016).
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T. Kikkawa, K. Uchida, Y. Shiomi, Z. Qiu, D. Hou, D. Tian, H. Nakayama, X. F. Jin, and E. Saitoh, “Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 067207 (2013).
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A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin film solar cells,” Science 285, 692–698 (1999).
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M. A. Juntunen, J. Heinonen, V. Vahanissi, P. Repo, D. Valluru, and H. Savin, “Near-unity quantum efficiency of broadband black silicon photodiodes with an induced junction,” Nature Photon. 10, 777–781 (2016).
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M. A. Juntunen, J. Heinonen, V. Vahanissi, P. Repo, D. Valluru, and H. Savin, “Near-unity quantum efficiency of broadband black silicon photodiodes with an induced junction,” Nature Photon. 10, 777–781 (2016).
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Wang, X. W.

J. Morikawa, M. R. G. Seniutinas, A. Balčytis, K. Maximova, X. W. Wang, M. Zamengo, E. Ivanova, and S. Juodkazis, “Nanostructured antireflective and thermoisolative cicada wings,” Langmuir 32, 4698–4703 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Air mass 1.5 solar light energy spectrum [23] with portions utilized by a crystalline Si solar cell, losses due to transparency and heating highlighted separately. (b) Schematic illustrating the concept of a hybrid cell for solar-to-electrical energy conversion by harnessing the full solar spectrum; the n-type Si region is formed on b-Si by phosphorus doping the the p-type b-Si substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ge-Sn film on b-Si: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) images. Single crystal p-type Si was used as the substrate in the final solar cell design shown in Fig. 1. (b) Reflection spectra of b-Si/Ge-Sn surface from visible-to-near-IR wavelengths in comparison with b-Si (Data from ref. [24]) and a mirror-polished Si substrate (IR detector was not optimized for the short wavelength visible part of the solar spectrum). Interference due to a thin-film etalon effect is apparent in the b-Si/Ge-Sn reflectivity. Background shaded region shows the characteristic intensity profile of the solar spectrum. (c) FDTD simulated spectral dependence of absorbance in the structure depicted in panel (a), illustrating the separate contributions of b-Si and Ge-Sn layers. (d) FDTD simulated spatial distributions of absorbance at wavelengths λ = 500, 800, and 2000 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectra of light sources used to simulate visible and visible-to-near-IR illumination. The combined halogen and metal halide light source had a total intensity Il = 72.8 mW/cm2. Inset shows a simplified schematic of experiment: light source is illuminating nanotextured surface with tailored absorption at near-IR spectral range, all placed on a Peltier element. The right-panel spectra were acquired at the near-IR to mid-IR spectral range, as measured using FT-IR. (b) Photo-thermal response of b-Si, Ge-Sn on b-Si and textured b-Si.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) FDTD simulated spectral dependence of absorbance in the hybrid photo-voltaic/thermovoltaic solar cell depicted in Fig. 1(b), illustrating the separate contributions of b-Si and Ge-Sn layers. (b) FDTD simulated spatial distributions of absorbance at wavelengths λ = 500, 800, and 2000 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photovoltaic performance of the hybrid cell with combined solar-to-electrical and thermal-to-electrical action. The IV characteristic of a solar cell with and without Ge-Sn. The inset shows the photothermal response of the cell with a Ge-Sn layer. Key parameters are: short circuit current Isc = 11.06 mA, open circuit voltage Voc = 0.46 V, maximum power Pmax = 1.72 mW, fill factor FF = Pmax/(IscVoc) = 33.8% (for solar harvesting surface area S = 1 cm2). The top-side was textured by wet etching with μm-sized pyramidal structures.