Abstract

PbS quantum dots (QDs) and channels containing QDs were fabricated by irradiation with a continuous-wave (cw) laser at λ = 532 nm. Channels with diameters of 36 ~52 μm were formed by scanning with the laser at 6-8 μm•s−1. Photoluminescence centered at λ = 1290 nm was recorded. Precipitation of PbS QDs inside glasses increased their refractive indices by as much as ~0.002. These channels are expected to provide active waveguides that operate in telecommunication windows once the diameters of PbS QDs can be controlled precisely.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Han, W. B. Im, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “A Complete Inorganic Colour Converter Based on Quantum-Dot-Embedded Silicate Glasses for White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(17), 3564–3567 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Espiau de Lamaestre, J. Majimel, F. Jomard, and H. Bernas, “Synthesis of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals by Sequential Ion Implantation in Silica,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19148–19155 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).
  6. G. Bell, A. I. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 063112 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. So, C. Liu, and J. Heo, “Plasmon-Assisted Precipitation of PbS Quantum Dots in Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(8), 2420–2422 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Bhardwaj, A. Hreibi, W. W. Yu, C. Liu, J. Heo, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, and F. Gérôme, “Optical Fibers Doped by Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Avenue for New Fiber Laser Sources” in Proceedings of14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON,2012),M. Jaworski, M. Marciniak, ed. (IEEE, 2012),We.C1.2. pp 1–5
  9. S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. U. Woggon, Optical Properites of Semiconductor Quantum dots (Springer, Berlin, 1997), p105.
  11. S. I. Sadovnikov, N. S. Kozhevnikova, and A. A. Rempel, “Stability and recrystallization of PbS Nanoparticles,” Inorg. Mater. 47(8), 837–843 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).
  13. C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

K. Han, W. B. Im, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “A Complete Inorganic Colour Converter Based on Quantum-Dot-Embedded Silicate Glasses for White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(17), 3564–3567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bell, A. I. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 063112 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

B. So, C. Liu, and J. Heo, “Plasmon-Assisted Precipitation of PbS Quantum Dots in Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(8), 2420–2422 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. I. Sadovnikov, N. S. Kozhevnikova, and A. A. Rempel, “Stability and recrystallization of PbS Nanoparticles,” Inorg. Mater. 47(8), 837–843 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).

2008 (1)

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Espiau de Lamaestre, J. Majimel, F. Jomard, and H. Bernas, “Synthesis of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals by Sequential Ion Implantation in Silica,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19148–19155 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).

Auxier, J. M.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bell, G.

G. Bell, A. I. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 063112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bernas, H.

R. Espiau de Lamaestre, J. Majimel, F. Jomard, and H. Bernas, “Synthesis of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals by Sequential Ion Implantation in Silica,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19148–19155 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chung, W. J.

K. Han, W. B. Im, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “A Complete Inorganic Colour Converter Based on Quantum-Dot-Embedded Silicate Glasses for White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(17), 3564–3567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danileiko, Yu. K.

Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).

Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

R. Espiau de Lamaestre, J. Majimel, F. Jomard, and H. Bernas, “Synthesis of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals by Sequential Ion Implantation in Silica,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19148–19155 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filin, A. I.

G. Bell, A. I. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 063112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

K. Han, W. B. Im, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “A Complete Inorganic Colour Converter Based on Quantum-Dot-Embedded Silicate Glasses for White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(17), 3564–3567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

K. Han, W. B. Im, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “A Complete Inorganic Colour Converter Based on Quantum-Dot-Embedded Silicate Glasses for White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(17), 3564–3567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. So, C. Liu, and J. Heo, “Plasmon-Assisted Precipitation of PbS Quantum Dots in Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(8), 2420–2422 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Im, W. B.

K. Han, W. B. Im, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “A Complete Inorganic Colour Converter Based on Quantum-Dot-Embedded Silicate Glasses for White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(17), 3564–3567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jomard, F.

R. Espiau de Lamaestre, J. Majimel, F. Jomard, and H. Bernas, “Synthesis of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals by Sequential Ion Implantation in Silica,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19148–19155 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanehira, S.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khaimov-mal’kov, V. Y.

Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).

Kim, B. H.

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).

Kozhevnikova, N. S.

S. I. Sadovnikov, N. S. Kozhevnikova, and A. A. Rempel, “Stability and recrystallization of PbS Nanoparticles,” Inorg. Mater. 47(8), 837–843 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y. K.

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Levis, R. J.

G. Bell, A. I. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 063112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

B. So, C. Liu, and J. Heo, “Plasmon-Assisted Precipitation of PbS Quantum Dots in Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(8), 2420–2422 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Majimel, J.

R. Espiau de Lamaestre, J. Majimel, F. Jomard, and H. Bernas, “Synthesis of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals by Sequential Ion Implantation in Silica,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19148–19155 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manekov, A.A.

Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).

Miura, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morrell, M. M.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nechitailo, V. S.

Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).

Peyghambarian, N.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Prokhorov, A. M.

Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).

Rempel, A. A.

S. I. Sadovnikov, N. S. Kozhevnikova, and A. A. Rempel, “Stability and recrystallization of PbS Nanoparticles,” Inorg. Mater. 47(8), 837–843 (2011).
[Crossref]

Romanov, D. A.

G. Bell, A. I. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 063112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sadovnikov, S. I.

S. I. Sadovnikov, N. S. Kozhevnikova, and A. A. Rempel, “Stability and recrystallization of PbS Nanoparticles,” Inorg. Mater. 47(8), 837–843 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schülzgen, A.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sen, S.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. W.

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

So, B.

B. So, C. Liu, and J. Heo, “Plasmon-Assisted Precipitation of PbS Quantum Dots in Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(8), 2420–2422 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sohn, I.-B.

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).

West, B. R.

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, S. Sen, and N. F. Borrelli, “Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(25), 6098–6100 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Bell, A. I. Filin, D. A. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 063112 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

K. Han, W. B. Im, J. Heo, and W. J. Chung, “A Complete Inorganic Colour Converter Based on Quantum-Dot-Embedded Silicate Glasses for White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(17), 3564–3567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

S. I. Sadovnikov, N. S. Kozhevnikova, and A. A. Rempel, “Stability and recrystallization of PbS Nanoparticles,” Inorg. Mater. 47(8), 837–843 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, J. Heo, B. H. Kim, and I.-B. Sohn, “Controlled precipitation of lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses using the femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1221–1224 (2010).

B. So, C. Liu, and J. Heo, “Plasmon-Assisted Precipitation of PbS Quantum Dots in Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(8), 2420–2422 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

R. Espiau de Lamaestre, J. Majimel, F. Jomard, and H. Bernas, “Synthesis of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals by Sequential Ion Implantation in Silica,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19148–19155 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

Yu. K. Danileiko, A.A. Manekov, V. S. Nechitailo, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. Y. Khaimov-mal’kov, “The Role of Absorbing Impurities in Laser-Induced Damage of Transparent Dielectrics,” Sov. Phys. JETP 36(3), 541–543 (1973).

Other (2)

A. Bhardwaj, A. Hreibi, W. W. Yu, C. Liu, J. Heo, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, and F. Gérôme, “Optical Fibers Doped by Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Avenue for New Fiber Laser Sources” in Proceedings of14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON,2012),M. Jaworski, M. Marciniak, ed. (IEEE, 2012),We.C1.2. pp 1–5

U. Woggon, Optical Properites of Semiconductor Quantum dots (Springer, Berlin, 1997), p105.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic drawing of irradiation process. The stage is moved parallel to beam direction with a speed of 5 ~8 μm•s−1

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscope image of the channel formed with a scan speed 6 μm•s−1. Due to the limitation of the setup, maximum total length of the channel was 4 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-sectional area of a channel formed with 6 μm•s−1 scan speed at the center. The image was recorded by back-scattered electron detector of Scanning electron microscope. White particles: nanoparticles. (b) Transmission electron microscopic image and fast Fourier transformation pattern of QD (c) An enlarged image of a white particle closer to the center; Inset: the compositional profile around the white particle measured by EDS (d) Expanded image of the area marked as a rectangular shape in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Refractive index profile. The channel with 6 μm•s−1 was located at the center (x = 0). (b) Photoluminescence spectrum from the channel excited laterally at 800 nm.

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