Abstract

We describe low-index porous alumina thin films deposited from aqueous solutions containing flat-Al13 clusters and the nonionic block copolymer Pluronic F127. The films exhibit surface roughness as low as 0.5 nm, a characteristic useful for the fabrication of multilayer optical devices. We have investigated the chemical, optical, and structural properties of the films and their formation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. By varying the Pluronic F127 concentration, film porosities can be tuned to produce refractive indexes between n = 1.26 and 1.54 (λ = 550 nm).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).
  2. H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-Reflective Coatings: A Critical, in-Depth Review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
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  3. T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342(1), 83–92 (1999).
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  6. J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. E. Schubert, D. Ye, T. M. Lu, S.-Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, “Very Low-Refractive-Index Optical Thin Films Consisting of an Array of SiO2 Nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 601–603 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
  8. B. Pal and M. Sharon, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Highly Porous ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 76(1), 82–87 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Yu, X. Zhao, and Q. Zhao, “Effect of Surface Structure on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Thin Solid Films 379(1–2), 7–14 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Tadanaga, K. Kitamuro, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Formation of Superhydrophobic Alumina Coating Films with High Transparency on Polymer Substrates by the Sol-Gel Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 705–708 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. S.-B. Jung, T.-J. Ha, and H.-H. Park, “Roughness and Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films for the Enhancement of Electrical Properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024109 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. W. Smith, W. Wang, D. A. Keszler, and J. F. Conley, “Solution Based Prompt Inorganic Condensation and Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Films: A Side-by-Side Comparison,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 32(4), 041501 (2014).
  14. K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Zhang and Y. M. Lam, “Controlled Synthesis and Association Behavior of Graft Pluronic in Aqueous Solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 306(2), 398–404 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D. N. Goldstein, J. A. Mccormick, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition with Trimethylaluminum and Ozone Studied by in Situ Transmission FTIR Spectroscopy and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(49), 19530–19539 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. Cai, J. Yu, and M. Jaroniec, “Effect of Nonionic Structure-Directing Agents on Adsorption and Structural Properties of Mesoporous Alumina,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(25), 9066–9072 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. Hale and B. Johs, CompleteEASE Data Analysis Manual (J. A. Wollam Inc., 2012)

2016 (2)

R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. W. Smith, W. Wang, D. A. Keszler, and J. F. Conley, “Solution Based Prompt Inorganic Condensation and Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Films: A Side-by-Side Comparison,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 32(4), 041501 (2014).

2012 (1)

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-Reflective Coatings: A Critical, in-Depth Review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, J. Yu, and M. Jaroniec, “Effect of Nonionic Structure-Directing Agents on Adsorption and Structural Properties of Mesoporous Alumina,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(25), 9066–9072 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. N. Goldstein, J. A. Mccormick, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition with Trimethylaluminum and Ozone Studied by in Situ Transmission FTIR Spectroscopy and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(49), 19530–19539 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

Y. Zhang and Y. M. Lam, “Controlled Synthesis and Association Behavior of Graft Pluronic in Aqueous Solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 306(2), 398–404 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.-B. Jung, T.-J. Ha, and H.-H. Park, “Roughness and Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films for the Enhancement of Electrical Properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024109 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Tadanaga, K. Kitamuro, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Formation of Superhydrophobic Alumina Coating Films with High Transparency on Polymer Substrates by the Sol-Gel Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 705–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

B. Pal and M. Sharon, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Highly Porous ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 76(1), 82–87 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Yu, X. Zhao, and Q. Zhao, “Effect of Surface Structure on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Thin Solid Films 379(1–2), 7–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342(1), 83–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical studies of the structure of porous silicon films formed in p-type degenerate and non-degenerate silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 17(35), 6535–6552 (1984).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. T.

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Atanassov, G.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342(1), 83–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bagal, A.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beale, M. I. J.

C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical studies of the structure of porous silicon films formed in p-type degenerate and non-degenerate silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 17(35), 6535–6552 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, J. Yu, and M. Jaroniec, “Effect of Nonionic Structure-Directing Agents on Adsorption and Structural Properties of Mesoporous Alumina,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(25), 9066–9072 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chabal, Y. J.

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-H.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Conley, J. F.

S. W. Smith, W. Wang, D. A. Keszler, and J. F. Conley, “Solution Based Prompt Inorganic Condensation and Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Films: A Side-by-Side Comparison,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 32(4), 041501 (2014).

Dai, M.

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y. S.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342(1), 83–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dandley, E. C.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ditto, J.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eicher, J.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fairley, K. C.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, J. K.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342(1), 83–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fullmer, L. B.

R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ganesh, V. A.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-Reflective Coatings: A Critical, in-Depth Review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Juan, P.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garfunkel, E. L.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

George, S. M.

D. N. Goldstein, J. A. Mccormick, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition with Trimethylaluminum and Ozone Studied by in Situ Transmission FTIR Spectroscopy and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(49), 19530–19539 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, D. N.

D. N. Goldstein, J. A. Mccormick, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition with Trimethylaluminum and Ozone Studied by in Situ Transmission FTIR Spectroscopy and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(49), 19530–19539 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gordon, R. G.

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

Greef, R.

C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical studies of the structure of porous silicon films formed in p-type degenerate and non-degenerate silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 17(35), 6535–6552 (1984).
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, T.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ha, T.-J.

S.-B. Jung, T.-J. Ha, and H.-H. Park, “Roughness and Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films for the Enhancement of Electrical Properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Halls, M. D.

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hayes, S. E.

W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hegmann, J.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herman, G. S.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, T.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hong, D.

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoshino, K.

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hung, C. M.

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jahn, R.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Järn, M.

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jaroniec, M.

W. Cai, J. Yu, and M. Jaroniec, “Effect of Nonionic Structure-Directing Agents on Adsorption and Structural Properties of Mesoporous Alumina,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(25), 9066–9072 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, K.

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, D. W.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juneja, J. S.

Jung, S.-B.

S.-B. Jung, T.-J. Ha, and H.-H. Park, “Roughness and Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films for the Enhancement of Electrical Properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kemnitz, E.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keszler, D. A.

R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. W. Smith, W. Wang, D. A. Keszler, and J. F. Conley, “Solution Based Prompt Inorganic Condensation and Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Films: A Side-by-Side Comparison,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 32(4), 041501 (2014).

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. E. Schubert, D. Ye, T. M. Lu, S.-Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, “Very Low-Refractive-Index Optical Thin Films Consisting of an Array of SiO2 Nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 601–603 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitamuro, K.

K. Tadanaga, K. Kitamuro, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Formation of Superhydrophobic Alumina Coating Films with High Transparency on Polymer Substrates by the Sol-Gel Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 705–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kreissig, U.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kwon, J.

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lacroix, M.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lam, Y. M.

Y. Zhang and Y. M. Lam, “Controlled Synthesis and Association Behavior of Graft Pluronic in Aqueous Solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 306(2), 398–404 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langereis, E.

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leskelä, M.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Levänen, E.

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, E. E. Schubert, D. Ye, T. M. Lu, S.-Y. Lin, and J. S. Juneja, “Very Low-Refractive-Index Optical Thin Films Consisting of an Array of SiO2 Nanorods,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 601–603 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lintner, B.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Löbmann, P.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. M.

Mansergh, R. H.

R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mäntylä, T.

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, A.

K. Tadanaga, K. Kitamuro, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Formation of Superhydrophobic Alumina Coating Films with High Transparency on Polymer Substrates by the Sol-Gel Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 705–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mccormick, J. A.

D. N. Goldstein, J. A. Mccormick, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition with Trimethylaluminum and Ozone Studied by in Situ Transmission FTIR Spectroscopy and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(49), 19530–19539 (2008).
[Crossref]

Merrill, D. R.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyers, S. T.

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Minami, T.

K. Tadanaga, K. Kitamuro, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Formation of Superhydrophobic Alumina Coating Films with High Transparency on Polymer Substrates by the Sol-Gel Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 705–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nair, A. S.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-Reflective Coatings: A Critical, in-Depth Review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Noack, J.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nyman, M.

R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oldham, C. J.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oleksak, R. P.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Page, C. J.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pal, B.

B. Pal and M. Sharon, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Highly Porous ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 76(1), 82–87 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, D.-H.

R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-H.

S.-B. Jung, T.-J. Ha, and H.-H. Park, “Roughness and Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films for the Enhancement of Electrical Properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Parsons, G. N.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pearson, P. J.

C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical studies of the structure of porous silicon films formed in p-type degenerate and non-degenerate silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 17(35), 6535–6552 (1984).
[Crossref]

Peltonen, J.

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pickering, C.

C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical studies of the structure of porous silicon films formed in p-type degenerate and non-degenerate silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 17(35), 6535–6552 (1984).
[Crossref]

Pilvi, T.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pore, V.

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Puukilainen, E.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-Reflective Coatings: A Critical, in-Depth Review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rau, H.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raut, H. K.

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-Reflective Coatings: A Critical, in-Depth Review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ritala, M.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Robbins, D. J.

C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical studies of the structure of porous silicon films formed in p-type degenerate and non-degenerate silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 17(35), 6535–6552 (1984).
[Crossref]

Scheurell, K.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. E.

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Sharon, M.

B. Pal and M. Sharon, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Highly Porous ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 76(1), 82–87 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Smith, S. W.

S. W. Smith, W. Wang, D. A. Keszler, and J. F. Conley, “Solution Based Prompt Inorganic Condensation and Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Films: A Side-by-Side Comparison,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 32(4), 041501 (2014).

Sontheimer, T.

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tadanaga, K.

K. Tadanaga, K. Kitamuro, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Formation of Superhydrophobic Alumina Coating Films with High Transparency on Polymer Substrates by the Sol-Gel Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 705–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

Turlo, J.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342(1), 83–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vuorinen, T.

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wager, J. F.

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. W. Smith, W. Wang, D. A. Keszler, and J. F. Conley, “Solution Based Prompt Inorganic Condensation and Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Films: A Side-by-Side Comparison,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 32(4), 041501 (2014).

W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wentz, K. M.

W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, K. N.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B.-I.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xi, J. Q.

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Xu, C.

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, D.

Yu, J.

W. Cai, J. Yu, and M. Jaroniec, “Effect of Nonionic Structure-Directing Agents on Adsorption and Structural Properties of Mesoporous Alumina,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(25), 9066–9072 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, X. Zhao, and Q. Zhao, “Effect of Surface Structure on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Thin Solid Films 379(1–2), 7–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zakharov, L. N.

L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. A.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang and Y. M. Lam, “Controlled Synthesis and Association Behavior of Graft Pluronic in Aqueous Solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 306(2), 398–404 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

J. Yu, X. Zhao, and Q. Zhao, “Effect of Surface Structure on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Thin Solid Films 379(1–2), 7–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

J. Yu, X. Zhao, and Q. Zhao, “Effect of Surface Structure on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Thin Solid Films 379(1–2), 7–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

K. C. Fairley, D. R. Merrill, K. N. Woods, J. Ditto, C. Xu, R. P. Oleksak, T. Gustafsson, D. W. Johnson, E. L. Garfunkel, G. S. Herman, D. C. Johnson, and C. J. Page, “Non-Uniform Composition Profiles in Inorganic Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(1), 667–672 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. (1)

J. T. Anderson, W. Wang, K. Jiang, T. Gustafsson, C. Xu, E. L. Garfunkel, and D. A. Keszler, “Chemically Amplified Dehydration of Thin Oxide Films,” ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng. 3(6), 1081–1085 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, E. C. Dandley, J. Zhao, C. J. Oldham, B.-I. Wu, G. N. Parsons, and C.-H. Chang, “Ordered 3D Thin-Shell Nanolattice Materials with Near-Unity Refractive Indices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(42), 6644–6649 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (4)

S. T. Meyers, J. T. Anderson, D. Hong, C. M. Hung, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Solution-Processed Aluminum Oxide Phosphate Thin-Film Dielectrics,” Chem. Mater. 19(16), 4023–4029 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. H. Mansergh, L. B. Fullmer, D.-H. Park, M. Nyman, and D. A. Keszler, “Reaction Pathway: Aqueous Hexatantalate Clusters to High-Density Tantalum Oxide Nanofilms,” Chem. Mater. 28(5), 1553–1558 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Jiang, J. T. Anderson, K. Hoshino, D. Li, J. F. Wager, and D. A. Keszler, “Low-Energy Path to Dense HfO2 Thin Films with Aqueous Precursor,” Chem. Mater. 23(4), 945–952 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5023–5028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

L. B. Fullmer, R. H. Mansergh, L. N. Zakharov, D. A. Keszler, and M. Nyman, “Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 Thin Films from Polyoxometalate Precursors: A Single Proton Makes a Difference,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3885–3892 (2015).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-Reflective Coatings: A Critical, in-Depth Review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

W. Wang, K. M. Wentz, S. E. Hayes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler, “Synthesis of the Hydroxide Cluster [Al13(μ3-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from an Aqueous Solution,” Inorg. Chem. 50(11), 4683–4685 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-B. Jung, T.-J. Ha, and H.-H. Park, “Roughness and Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Films for the Enhancement of Electrical Properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024109 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

Y. Zhang and Y. M. Lam, “Controlled Synthesis and Association Behavior of Graft Pluronic in Aqueous Solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 306(2), 398–404 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

X. Zhang, M. Järn, J. Peltonen, V. Pore, T. Vuorinen, E. Levänen, and T. Mäntylä, “Analysis of Roughness Parameters to Specify Superhydrophobic Antireflective Boehmite Films Made by the Sol–gel Process,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(11), 2177–2181 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

W. Cai, J. Yu, and M. Jaroniec, “Effect of Nonionic Structure-Directing Agents on Adsorption and Structural Properties of Mesoporous Alumina,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(25), 9066–9072 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Noack, K. Scheurell, E. Kemnitz, P. Garcia-Juan, H. Rau, M. Lacroix, J. Eicher, B. Lintner, T. Sontheimer, T. Hofmann, J. Hegmann, R. Jahn, and P. Löbmann, “MgF2 Antireflective Coatings by Sol–gel Processing: Film Preparation and Thermal Densification,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18535 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. (1)

C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical studies of the structure of porous silicon films formed in p-type degenerate and non-degenerate silicon,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 17(35), 6535–6552 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

D. N. Goldstein, J. A. Mccormick, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition with Trimethylaluminum and Ozone Studied by in Situ Transmission FTIR Spectroscopy and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(49), 19530–19539 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kwon, M. Dai, M. D. Halls, E. Langereis, Y. J. Chabal, and R. G. Gordon, “In Situ Infrared Characterization during Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(2), 654–660 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Tadanaga, K. Kitamuro, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Formation of Superhydrophobic Alumina Coating Films with High Transparency on Polymer Substrates by the Sol-Gel Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 705–708 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. (1)

S. W. Smith, W. Wang, D. A. Keszler, and J. F. Conley, “Solution Based Prompt Inorganic Condensation and Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Films: A Side-by-Side Comparison,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces. Film. 32(4), 041501 (2014).

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Pal and M. Sharon, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Highly Porous ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Process,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 76(1), 82–87 (2002).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical Thin-Film Materials with Low Refractive Index for Broadband Elimination of Fresnel Reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (2)

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, “Mechanical, Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342(1), 83–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, X. Zhao, and Q. Zhao, “Effect of Surface Structure on Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Thin Solid Films 379(1–2), 7–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. J. Sailor, Porous Silicon in Practice: Preparation, Characterization and Applications (Wiley-VCH, 2012), Chap. 5.

J. Hale and B. Johs, CompleteEASE Data Analysis Manual (J. A. Wollam Inc., 2012)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) FTIR spectra of the Al-F127 precursor film after anneals at 200 °C (blue) and 500 °C (red). (b) Temperature programmed desorption data for Al-F127 film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Film thicknesses as a function of the concentration of F127 after heating at 100 °C and 500 °C; control (blue), 5% F127 (red), 10% F127 (black).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical dispersion curves for Al2O3 films deposited from solutions with indicated amounts of F127 after annealing at 500 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Film thickness vs. Al solution concentration for 10% w/v F127 film annealed at 500 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional TEM micrographs of porous Al2O3 film deposited from solution with 10% F127 and annealed at 500 °C anneal (left) and the same film at higher magnification in STEM mode (right). Pores are light in TEM mode and dark in STEM mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The micrograph clearly shows porous nature of the film remained after higher thermal treatment for the 10% F127 film. (b) The diffraction pattern shows the formation of broad peaks consistent with γ-Al2O3. The SiO2 formed upon annealing and is present in both the TEM and as an amorphous halo in the diffraction pattern centered at ~22°. The silicon substrate peaks are indicated with a diamond (♦).

Equations (5)

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n= ( 1+ 1.362 λ 2 λ 2 0.0877 2 ) 1 2 no F127
n= ( 1+ 0.728 λ 2 λ 2 0.119 2 ) 1 2 5% F127
n= ( 1+ 0.553 λ 2 λ 2 0.122 2 ) 1 2 10% F127
P ( n air  2   n p 2 ) ( n air 2  + 2 n p 2 ) +(1P) ( n s 2    n p 2 ) ( n s 2  + 2 n p 2 )  = 0
t =[ 177.2c  M 1 ] nm

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