Abstract

Despite tremendous advances in the fundamentals and applications of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), investigations in this field have primarily been limited to optical cavities composed of purely dielectric materials. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid metal-dielectric nanocavity design and realize it in the InAs/GaAs quantum photonics platform utilizing angled rotational metal evaporation. Key features of our nanometallic light-matter interface include: (i) order of magnitude reduction in mode volume compared to that of leading photonic crystal CQED systems; (ii) surface-emitting nanoscale cylindrical geometry and therefore good collection efficiency; and finally (iii) strong and broadband spontaneous emission rate enhancement (Purcell factor ~ 8) of single photons. This light-matter interface may play an important role in quantum technologies.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

S. Hu and S. M. Weiss, “Design of photonic crystal cavities for extreme light concentration,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1647–1653 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciraci, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Pibiri, P. Holzmeister, B. Lalkens, G. P. Acuna, and P. Tinnefeld, “Single-molecule positioning in zeromode waveguides by DNA origami nanoadapters,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3499–3503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kamide, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Impact of the dark path on quantum dot single photon emitters in small cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(14), 143604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

H. Nakajima, H. Kumano, H. Iijima, S. Odashima, and I. Suemue, “Carrier-transfer dynamics between neutral and charged excitonic states in a single quantum dot probed with second-order photon correlation measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 88(4), 045324 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, V. Ivády, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, A. Gali, and T. Ohshima, “A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 151–156 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haroche, “Nobel Lecture: Controlling photons in a box and exploring the quantum to classical boundary,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1083–1102 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoglu, “Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon,” Nature 491(7424), 426–430 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. L. Andersen, S. Stobbe, A. S. Sorensen, and P. Lodahl, “Strongly modified plasmon-matter interaction with mesoscopic quantum emitters,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Bulu, T. Babinec, B. Hausmann, J. T. Choy, and M. Loncar, “Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5268–5276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(18), 180502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, S. Itzhakov, D. Gachet, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, D. Oron, and J. Wenger, “Colloidal quantum dots as probes of excitation field enhancement in photonic antennas,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4571–4578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450(7171), 862–865 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. F. Wang, A. Badolato, I. Wilson-Rae, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, J. Urayama, and A. Imamoglu, “Optical properties of single InAs quantum dots in close proximity to surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3423–3425 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Submicrosecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205324 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 1(1), 10–13 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abe, E.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acuna, G. P.

E. Pibiri, P. Holzmeister, B. Lalkens, G. P. Acuna, and P. Tinnefeld, “Single-molecule positioning in zeromode waveguides by DNA origami nanoadapters,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3499–3503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akselrod, G. M.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciraci, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andersen, M. L.

M. L. Andersen, S. Stobbe, A. S. Sorensen, and P. Lodahl, “Strongly modified plasmon-matter interaction with mesoscopic quantum emitters,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, S. Itzhakov, D. Gachet, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, D. Oron, and J. Wenger, “Colloidal quantum dots as probes of excitation field enhancement in photonic antennas,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4571–4578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Kamide, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Impact of the dark path on quantum dot single photon emitters in small cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(14), 143604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyropoulos, C.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciraci, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babinec, T.

Babinec, T. M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Wang, A. Badolato, I. Wilson-Rae, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, J. Urayama, and A. Imamoglu, “Optical properties of single InAs quantum dots in close proximity to surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3423–3425 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrow, S. J.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benz, F.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Besbes, M.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(18), 180502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beveratos, A.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(18), 180502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3008–3020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Bulu, T. Babinec, B. Hausmann, J. T. Choy, and M. Loncar, “Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5268–5276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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H. Nakajima, H. Kumano, H. Iijima, S. Odashima, and I. Suemue, “Carrier-transfer dynamics between neutral and charged excitonic states in a single quantum dot probed with second-order photon correlation measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 88(4), 045324 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ohshima, T.

S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, V. Ivády, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, A. Gali, and T. Ohshima, “A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 151–156 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

H. Aouani, S. Itzhakov, D. Gachet, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, D. Oron, and J. Wenger, “Colloidal quantum dots as probes of excitation field enhancement in photonic antennas,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4571–4578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450(7171), 862–865 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelc, J. S.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petroff, P.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petroff, P. M.

C. F. Wang, A. Badolato, I. Wilson-Rae, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, J. Urayama, and A. Imamoglu, “Optical properties of single InAs quantum dots in close proximity to surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3423–3425 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pibiri, E.

E. Pibiri, P. Holzmeister, B. Lalkens, G. P. Acuna, and P. Tinnefeld, “Single-molecule positioning in zeromode waveguides by DNA origami nanoadapters,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3499–3503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3008–3020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, S. Itzhakov, D. Gachet, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, D. Oron, and J. Wenger, “Colloidal quantum dots as probes of excitation field enhancement in photonic antennas,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4571–4578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3008–3020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robert-Philip, I.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(18), 180502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogobete, L.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosta, E.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagnes, I.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(18), 180502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santori, C.

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Submicrosecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scherman, O. A.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, C.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciraci, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solomon, G. S.

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Submicrosecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sorensen, A. S.

M. L. Andersen, S. Stobbe, A. S. Sorensen, and P. Lodahl, “Strongly modified plasmon-matter interaction with mesoscopic quantum emitters,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450(7171), 862–865 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stavrias, N.

S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, V. Ivády, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, A. Gali, and T. Ohshima, “A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 151–156 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stobbe, S.

M. L. Andersen, S. Stobbe, A. S. Sorensen, and P. Lodahl, “Strongly modified plasmon-matter interaction with mesoscopic quantum emitters,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stoltz, N.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suemue, I.

H. Nakajima, H. Kumano, H. Iijima, S. Odashima, and I. Suemue, “Carrier-transfer dynamics between neutral and charged excitonic states in a single quantum dot probed with second-order photon correlation measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 88(4), 045324 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tinnefeld, P.

E. Pibiri, P. Holzmeister, B. Lalkens, G. P. Acuna, and P. Tinnefeld, “Single-molecule positioning in zeromode waveguides by DNA origami nanoadapters,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3499–3503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Togan, E.

W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoglu, “Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon,” Nature 491(7424), 426–430 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Umeda, T.

S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, V. Ivády, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, A. Gali, and T. Ohshima, “A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 151–156 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urayama, J.

C. F. Wang, A. Badolato, I. Wilson-Rae, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, J. Urayama, and A. Imamoglu, “Optical properties of single InAs quantum dots in close proximity to surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3423–3425 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Submicrosecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Waks, E.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Submicrosecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. F.

C. F. Wang, A. Badolato, I. Wilson-Rae, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, J. Urayama, and A. Imamoglu, “Optical properties of single InAs quantum dots in close proximity to surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3423–3425 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, S. M.

S. Hu and S. M. Weiss, “Design of photonic crystal cavities for extreme light concentration,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1647–1653 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wenger, J.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, S. Itzhakov, D. Gachet, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, D. Oron, and J. Wenger, “Colloidal quantum dots as probes of excitation field enhancement in photonic antennas,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4571–4578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3008–3020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson-Rae, I.

C. F. Wang, A. Badolato, I. Wilson-Rae, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, J. Urayama, and A. Imamoglu, “Optical properties of single InAs quantum dots in close proximity to surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3423–3425 (2004).
[Crossref]

Winger, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wrachtrup, J.

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yacoby, A.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Submicrosecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(18), 180502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zarda, P.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Aouani, S. Itzhakov, D. Gachet, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, H. Rigneault, D. Oron, and J. Wenger, “Colloidal quantum dots as probes of excitation field enhancement in photonic antennas,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4571–4578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

S. Hu and S. M. Weiss, “Design of photonic crystal cavities for extreme light concentration,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1647–1653 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. F. Wang, A. Badolato, I. Wilson-Rae, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, J. Urayama, and A. Imamoglu, “Optical properties of single InAs quantum dots in close proximity to surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3423–3425 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 1(1), 10–13 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pibiri, P. Holzmeister, B. Lalkens, G. P. Acuna, and P. Tinnefeld, “Single-molecule positioning in zeromode waveguides by DNA origami nanoadapters,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3499–3503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, V. Ivády, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, A. Gali, and T. Ohshima, “A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 151–156 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. M. Akselrod, C. Argyropoulos, T. B. Hoang, C. Ciraci, C. Fang, J. Huang, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Probing the mechanisms of large Purcell enhancement in plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 835–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond-silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. L. Andersen, S. Stobbe, A. S. Sorensen, and P. Lodahl, “Strongly modified plasmon-matter interaction with mesoscopic quantum emitters,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (8)

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453(7198), 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoglu, “Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon,” Nature 491(7424), 426–430 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450(7171), 862–865 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. Nakajima, H. Kumano, H. Iijima, S. Odashima, and I. Suemue, “Carrier-transfer dynamics between neutral and charged excitonic states in a single quantum dot probed with second-order photon correlation measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 88(4), 045324 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vučković, G. S. Solomon, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Submicrosecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 69(20), 205324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

K. Kamide, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Impact of the dark path on quantum dot single photon emitters in small cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(14), 143604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 290–293 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, and P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(18), 180502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(13), 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. Haroche, “Nobel Lecture: Controlling photons in a box and exploring the quantum to classical boundary,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1083–1102 (2013).
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Other (4)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1960).

H. J. Kimble, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic Press, 1994), Chap. 7.

D. Takamiya, Y. Ota, R. Ohta, H. Takagi, N. Kumagai, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Large vacuum rabi splitting in an H0 photonic crystal nanocavity-quantum dot system,” in 2013 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper MI2_2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depiction of the hybrid metal(εm)-dielectric(εd) nanocavity from (a) top-down and (b) side views. FDTD simulation of the nanocylinder cavity field intensity (|Ex|2) for the x-polarized TE11 waveguide mode viewed in the nanocylinder cross-section (c) and along the nanocylinder axis (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FDTD simulation of Purcell factor as a function of emission wavelength for an r = 50 nm, h = 200 nm cavity, demonstrating an approximate Q ~ 25.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FDTD parameter study of (a) pillar resonances as a function of radius r, for pillar height h = 200 nm and (b) as a function of pillar height h, for a fixed pillar radius r = 50 nm. These results demonstrate cavity resonance shift as a function of the pillar parameters in line with the intuitive description of the nanocavity as a Fabry-Perot terminated cylindrical waveguide. Here, refractive index of the pillar is n = 3.46 corresponding to GaAs at a temperature of 10 K in the studied wavelength range, and the pillar coating is Ag with refractive index from optical constant data [28].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM micrograph of a bare pillar with resist mask removed to show the vertical etch profile. For actual devices, the resist mask is used to lift off metal after the angled rotational deposition process, leaving an uncapped pillar that is surrounded by metal (inset of a). (b) |Ex|2 of a pillar with a 20 nm air gap to the metal wall, showing field localization in the gap, with an SEM micrograph of a fabricated pillar with standard top-down metal deposition that exhibits the air gap (inset of b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Representative photoluminescence spectrum of a nanocavity containing a single quantum dot. The single exciton (X) line is highlighted for coupling to the nanometallic cavity Xc (black) and a reference bare pillar Xp (green) that are offset horizontally (0.8 nm) and vertically (arbitrary) for clarity. (b) Total number of single photons collected per second (black circles) for quasi-resonant excitation of the exciton line Xc. The horizontal axis corresponds to incident power, measured before the objective lens, and the source is excited with pulses at an 80MHz repetition rate. The data is fit to a saturation model (dashed red line). (c) Intensity autocorrelation g(2)(τ) measurements filtered on the single exciton line well above saturation powers show strong photon anti-bunching. (d) Fluorescence decay measurements (black circles) with an exponential decay fit (red line) taken with a streak camera for an exciton line in a hybrid metal-dielectric nanocavity, showing 8-fold enhancement in the radiative decay rate (spontaneous emission) over an exciton line in a bare pillar (inset).

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