Abstract

The optical damage performance of electrically conductive gallium nitride (GaN) and indium tin oxide (ITO) films is addressed using large area, high power laser beam exposures at 1064 nm sub-bandgap wavelength. Analysis of the laser damage process assumes that onset of damage (threshold) is determined by the absorption and heating of a nanoscale region of a characteristic size reaching a critical temperature. This model is used to rationalize semi-quantitatively the pulse width scaling of the damage threshold from picosecond to nanosecond timescales, along with the pulse width dependence of the damage threshold probability derived by fitting large beam damage density data. Multi-shot exposures were used to address lifetime performance degradation described by an empirical expression based on the single exposure damage model. A damage threshold degradation of at least 50% was observed for both materials. Overall, the GaN films tested had 5-10 × higher optical damage thresholds than the ITO films tested for comparable transmission and electrical conductivity. The route to optically robust, large aperture transparent electrodes and power optoelectronics may thus involve use of next generation widegap semiconductors such as GaN.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

T. J. Flack, B. N. Pushpakaran, and S. B. Bayne, “GaN technology for power electronic applications: a review,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(6), 2673–2682 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Yoo, M. G. Menor, J. J. Adams, R. N. Raman, J. R. I. Lee, T. Y. Olson, N. Shen, J. Suh, S. G. Demos, J. Bude, and S. Elhadj, “Laser damage mechanisms in conductive widegap semiconductor films,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17616–17634 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

H. Peelaers, E. Kioupakis, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Free-carrier absorption in transparent conducting oxides: Phonon and impurity scattering in SnO2,” Phys. Rev. B 92(23), 235201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Sun, M. Lenzner, and W. Rudolph, “Generic incubation law for laser damage and ablation thresholds,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(7), 073102 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wallace, “Four 800 kW laser-diode arrays to pump high-pulse-rate HAPLS petawatt laser,” Laser Focus World 51(5), 15–16 (2015).

2014 (1)

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Effects of carbon on the electrical and optical properties of InN, GaN, and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035204 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Z. Yu, H. He, W. Sun, H. Qi, M. Yang, Q. Xiao, and M. Zhu, “Damage threshold influenced by the high absorption defect at the film-substrate interface under ultraviolet laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4308–4311 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. O. Demchenko, I. C. Diallo, and M. A. Reshchikov, “Yellow Luminescence of Gallium Nitride Generated by Carbon Defect Complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

H. Peelaers, E. Kioupakis, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamental limits on optical transparency of transparent conducting oxides: Free-carrier absorption in SnO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011914 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xiao, E. L. Gurevich, and A. Ostendorf, ““Incubation effect and its influence on laser patterning of ITO thin film,” Appl. Phys,” A-Matter. 107(2), 333–338 (2012).

F. Harth, T. Ulm, M. Lührmann, R. Knappe, A. Klehr, T. Hoffmann, G. Erbert, and J. A. L’huillier, “High power laser pulses with voltage controlled durations of 400 - 1000 ps,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7002–7007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–816 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Wang, Z. M. Huang, D. Y. Zhang, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, Y. Q. Luo, W. P. Wang, and X. J. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Wang, D. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Luo, X. J. Zhao, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, and W. P. Wang, “Fabrication and study of laser-damage-resistant transparent conductive W-doped In2O3 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215101 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. A. Cross and C. W. Carr, “Analysis of 1ω bulk laser damage in KDP,” Appl. Opt. 50(22), D7–D11 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Tomm, M. Ziegler, M. Hempel, and T. Elsaesser, “Mechanisms and fast kinetics of the catastrophic optical damage (COD) in GaAs-based diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 422–441 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

M. Lalande, J. C. Diot, S. Vauchamp, J. Andrieu, V. Bertrand, B. Beillard, B. Vergne, V. Couderc, D. Barthelemy, D. Gontier, R. Guillerey, and M. Brishoual, “An ultra wideband impulse optoelectronic radar: rugbi,” Pr. Electromagn. Res. B 11, 205–222 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, J. W. Tomm, D. Reeber, T. Elsaesser, U. Zeimer, H. E. Larsen, P. M. Petersen, and P. E. Andersen, “Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. S. Sullivan and J. R. Stanley, “Wide Bandgap extrinsic photoconductive switches,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36(5), 2528–2532 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grezes-Besset, J. Y. Natoli, and M. Commandre, “Investigation of nanoprecursors threshold distribution in laser-damage testing,” Opt. Commun. 256(1–3), 184–189 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. A. Willis, “Thermal mechanisms of laser micromachining of indium tin oxide,” Proc. SPIE 5339, 313–320 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–82 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, ““A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” proc,” SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2003).

2002 (4)

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, and I. L. Pokotilo, “Efficiency of various mechanisms of the laser damage in transparent solids,” Quantum Electron. 32(7), 623–628 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, and I. L. Pokotilo, “Mechanical damage in transparent solids caused by laser pulses of different durations,” Quantum Electron. 32(4), 335–340 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Correlations between embedded single gold nanoparticles in SiO2 thin film and nanoscale crater formation induced by pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5720–5728 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. Runkel, “Analysis of bulk DKDP damage distribution, obscuration and pulse length dependence,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 383–388 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. J. Coutts, D. L. Young, and X. Li, “Characterization of transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 58–65 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (5)

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7B), L839–L841 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Yavas, C. Ochiai, and M. Takai, ““Substrate-assisted laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys,” A-Matter. 69(1), S875–S878 (1999).

M. D. Feit, F. Y. Genin, A. M. Rubenchik, L. M. Sheehan, S. Schwartz, M. R. Kozlowski, J. DiJon, P. Garrec, and J. Hue, “Statistical description of laser damage initiation in NIF and LMJ Optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 188–195 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1–4), 101–106 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, and I. L. Pokotilo, “Formulation of the criterion of thermoelastic laser damage of transparent dielectrics and the dependence of damage threshold on pulse duration,” Quantum Electron. 27(10), 918–922 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. G. Eliseev, “Optical strength of semiconductor laser materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 1–82 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Szörényi, L. D. Laude, I. Bertoti, Z. Kantor, and Z. Geretovszky, “Excimer-Laser Processing of Indium-Tin-Oxide Films - an Optical Investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(10), 6211–6219 (1995).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

W. T. Pawlewicz and R. Busch, “Reactively sputtered oxide optical coatings for inertial confinement fusion laser components,” Thin Solid Films 63(2), 251–256 (1979).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, P. M. Petroff, R. A. Logan, and F. R. Merritt, “Catastrophic damage of AlXGa1-XAs double-heterostructure laser material,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(5), 3721–3732 (1979).
[Crossref]

Adams, J. J.

Andersen, P. E.

M. Ziegler, J. W. Tomm, D. Reeber, T. Elsaesser, U. Zeimer, H. E. Larsen, P. M. Petersen, and P. E. Andersen, “Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andrieu, J.

M. Lalande, J. C. Diot, S. Vauchamp, J. Andrieu, V. Bertrand, B. Beillard, B. Vergne, V. Couderc, D. Barthelemy, D. Gontier, R. Guillerey, and M. Brishoual, “An ultra wideband impulse optoelectronic radar: rugbi,” Pr. Electromagn. Res. B 11, 205–222 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1–4), 101–106 (1999).
[Crossref]

Auerbach, J.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, ““A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” proc,” SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2003).

Awwal, A.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

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T. J. Flack, B. N. Pushpakaran, and S. B. Bayne, “GaN technology for power electronic applications: a review,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(6), 2673–2682 (2016).
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A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
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J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
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A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
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M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, and I. L. Pokotilo, “Formulation of the criterion of thermoelastic laser damage of transparent dielectrics and the dependence of damage threshold on pulse duration,” Quantum Electron. 27(10), 918–922 (1997).
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P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7B), L839–L841 (1999).
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S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Correlations between embedded single gold nanoparticles in SiO2 thin film and nanoscale crater formation induced by pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5720–5728 (2002).
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M. D. Feit, F. Y. Genin, A. M. Rubenchik, L. M. Sheehan, S. Schwartz, M. R. Kozlowski, J. DiJon, P. Garrec, and J. Hue, “Statistical description of laser damage initiation in NIF and LMJ Optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 188–195 (1999).
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Seppala, L.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
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Spaeth, M. L.

Speck, J. S.

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D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1–4), 101–106 (1999).
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J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
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Stolz, C. J.

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
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P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7B), L839–L841 (1999).
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Sullivan, J. S.

J. S. Sullivan and J. R. Stanley, “Wide Bandgap extrinsic photoconductive switches,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36(5), 2528–2532 (2008).
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Sun, H. B.

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7B), L839–L841 (1999).
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Sun, H.-B.

P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
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Sun, W.

Sun, Z. L.

Z. L. Sun, M. Lenzner, and W. Rudolph, “Generic incubation law for laser damage and ablation thresholds,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(7), 073102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suratwala, T.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Szörényi, T.

T. Szörényi, L. D. Laude, I. Bertoti, Z. Kantor, and Z. Geretovszky, “Excimer-Laser Processing of Indium-Tin-Oxide Films - an Optical Investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(10), 6211–6219 (1995).
[Crossref]

Takai, M.

O. Yavas, C. Ochiai, and M. Takai, ““Substrate-assisted laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys,” A-Matter. 69(1), S875–S878 (1999).

Tien, A. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tomm, J. W.

J. W. Tomm, M. Ziegler, M. Hempel, and T. Elsaesser, “Mechanisms and fast kinetics of the catastrophic optical damage (COD) in GaAs-based diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 422–441 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, J. W. Tomm, D. Reeber, T. Elsaesser, U. Zeimer, H. E. Larsen, P. M. Petersen, and P. E. Andersen, “Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tse, E.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Ulm, T.

Van de Walle, C. G.

H. Peelaers, E. Kioupakis, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Free-carrier absorption in transparent conducting oxides: Phonon and impurity scattering in SnO2,” Phys. Rev. B 92(23), 235201 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Effects of carbon on the electrical and optical properties of InN, GaN, and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035204 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Peelaers, E. Kioupakis, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamental limits on optical transparency of transparent conducting oxides: Free-carrier absorption in SnO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vauchamp, S.

M. Lalande, J. C. Diot, S. Vauchamp, J. Andrieu, V. Bertrand, B. Beillard, B. Vergne, V. Couderc, D. Barthelemy, D. Gontier, R. Guillerey, and M. Brishoual, “An ultra wideband impulse optoelectronic radar: rugbi,” Pr. Electromagn. Res. B 11, 205–222 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vergne, B.

M. Lalande, J. C. Diot, S. Vauchamp, J. Andrieu, V. Bertrand, B. Beillard, B. Vergne, V. Couderc, D. Barthelemy, D. Gontier, R. Guillerey, and M. Brishoual, “An ultra wideband impulse optoelectronic radar: rugbi,” Pr. Electromagn. Res. B 11, 205–222 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vickers, J. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, ““A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” proc,” SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2003).

Wallace, J.

J. Wallace, “Four 800 kW laser-diode arrays to pump high-pulse-rate HAPLS petawatt laser,” Laser Focus World 51(5), 15–16 (2015).

Walmer, D.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. F.

H. F. Wang, Z. M. Huang, D. Y. Zhang, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, Y. Q. Luo, W. P. Wang, and X. J. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Wang, D. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Luo, X. J. Zhao, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, and W. P. Wang, “Fabrication and study of laser-damage-resistant transparent conductive W-doped In2O3 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. P.

H. F. Wang, Z. M. Huang, D. Y. Zhang, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, Y. Q. Luo, W. P. Wang, and X. J. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Wang, D. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Luo, X. J. Zhao, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, and W. P. Wang, “Fabrication and study of laser-damage-resistant transparent conductive W-doped In2O3 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P. J.

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, ““A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” proc,” SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2003).

Weiland, T. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, ““A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” proc,” SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2003).

Widmayer, C.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Williams, K.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Willis, D. A.

D. A. Willis, “Thermal mechanisms of laser micromachining of indium tin oxide,” Proc. SPIE 5339, 313–320 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, J.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Wong, N.

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Q.

Xiao, S. Z.

S. Z. Xiao, E. L. Gurevich, and A. Ostendorf, ““Incubation effect and its influence on laser patterning of ITO thin film,” Appl. Phys,” A-Matter. 107(2), 333–338 (2012).

Yang, M.

Yavas, O.

O. Yavas, C. Ochiai, and M. Takai, ““Substrate-assisted laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys,” A-Matter. 69(1), S875–S878 (1999).

Yoo, J.-H.

Young, D. L.

T. J. Coutts, D. L. Young, and X. Li, “Characterization of transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 58–65 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Zeimer, U.

M. Ziegler, J. W. Tomm, D. Reeber, T. Elsaesser, U. Zeimer, H. E. Larsen, P. M. Petersen, and P. E. Andersen, “Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. Y.

H. F. Wang, D. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Luo, X. J. Zhao, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, and W. P. Wang, “Fabrication and study of laser-damage-resistant transparent conductive W-doped In2O3 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215101 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Wang, Z. M. Huang, D. Y. Zhang, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, Y. Q. Luo, W. P. Wang, and X. J. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. J.

H. F. Wang, Z. M. Huang, D. Y. Zhang, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, Y. Q. Luo, W. P. Wang, and X. J. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Wang, D. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Luo, X. J. Zhao, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, and W. P. Wang, “Fabrication and study of laser-damage-resistant transparent conductive W-doped In2O3 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

Ziegler, M.

J. W. Tomm, M. Ziegler, M. Hempel, and T. Elsaesser, “Mechanisms and fast kinetics of the catastrophic optical damage (COD) in GaAs-based diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 422–441 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, J. W. Tomm, D. Reeber, T. Elsaesser, U. Zeimer, H. E. Larsen, P. M. Petersen, and P. E. Andersen, “Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191101 (2009).
[Crossref]

A-Matter. (2)

S. Z. Xiao, E. L. Gurevich, and A. Ostendorf, ““Incubation effect and its influence on laser patterning of ITO thin film,” Appl. Phys,” A-Matter. 107(2), 333–338 (2012).

O. Yavas, C. Ochiai, and M. Takai, ““Substrate-assisted laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys,” A-Matter. 69(1), S875–S878 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Pulsed high-power AlGaN-cladding-free blue laser diodes on semipolar GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Peelaers, E. Kioupakis, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamental limits on optical transparency of transparent conducting oxides: Free-carrier absorption in SnO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011914 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ziegler, J. W. Tomm, D. Reeber, T. Elsaesser, U. Zeimer, H. E. Larsen, P. M. Petersen, and P. E. Andersen, “Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1–4), 101–106 (1999).
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IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

J. S. Sullivan and J. R. Stanley, “Wide Bandgap extrinsic photoconductive switches,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36(5), 2528–2532 (2008).
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J. Appl. Phys. (5)

Z. L. Sun, M. Lenzner, and W. Rudolph, “Generic incubation law for laser damage and ablation thresholds,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(7), 073102 (2015).
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S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Correlations between embedded single gold nanoparticles in SiO2 thin film and nanoscale crater formation induced by pulsed-laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5720–5728 (2002).
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T. Szörényi, L. D. Laude, I. Bertoti, Z. Kantor, and Z. Geretovszky, “Excimer-Laser Processing of Indium-Tin-Oxide Films - an Optical Investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(10), 6211–6219 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. F. Wang, Z. M. Huang, D. Y. Zhang, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, Y. Q. Luo, W. P. Wang, and X. J. Zhao, “Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113111 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, P. M. Petroff, R. A. Logan, and F. R. Merritt, “Catastrophic damage of AlXGa1-XAs double-heterostructure laser material,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(5), 3721–3732 (1979).
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J. Electron. Mater. (1)

T. J. Flack, B. N. Pushpakaran, and S. B. Bayne, “GaN technology for power electronic applications: a review,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(6), 2673–2682 (2016).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. F. Wang, D. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Luo, X. J. Zhao, F. Luo, L. X. Huang, Y. L. Li, and W. P. Wang, “Fabrication and study of laser-damage-resistant transparent conductive W-doped In2O3 films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. G. Eliseev, H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “Laser-induced damage threshold and surface processing of GaN at 400 nm wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(7B), L839–L841 (1999).
[Crossref]

Laser Focus World (1)

J. Wallace, “Four 800 kW laser-diode arrays to pump high-pulse-rate HAPLS petawatt laser,” Laser Focus World 51(5), 15–16 (2015).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. W. Tomm, M. Ziegler, M. Hempel, and T. Elsaesser, “Mechanisms and fast kinetics of the catastrophic optical damage (COD) in GaAs-based diode lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 422–441 (2011).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

T. J. Coutts, D. L. Young, and X. Li, “Characterization of transparent conducting oxides,” MRS Bull. 25(08), 58–65 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–816 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Krol, L. Gallais, C. Grezes-Besset, J. Y. Natoli, and M. Commandre, “Investigation of nanoprecursors threshold distribution in laser-damage testing,” Opt. Commun. 256(1–3), 184–189 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, T. A. Laurence, K. Stanion, G. Guss, D. A. Cross, P. J. Wegner, and C. J. Stolz, “Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers,” Opt. Eng. 56(1), 011008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Effects of carbon on the electrical and optical properties of InN, GaN, and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035204 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Peelaers, E. Kioupakis, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Free-carrier absorption in transparent conducting oxides: Phonon and impurity scattering in SnO2,” Phys. Rev. B 92(23), 235201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. O. Demchenko, I. C. Diallo, and M. A. Reshchikov, “Yellow Luminescence of Gallium Nitride Generated by Carbon Defect Complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3883–3886 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pr. Electromagn. Res. B (1)

M. Lalande, J. C. Diot, S. Vauchamp, J. Andrieu, V. Bertrand, B. Beillard, B. Vergne, V. Couderc, D. Barthelemy, D. Gontier, R. Guillerey, and M. Brishoual, “An ultra wideband impulse optoelectronic radar: rugbi,” Pr. Electromagn. Res. B 11, 205–222 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (6)

J. Heebner, M. Borden, P. Miller, S. Hunter, K. Christensen, M. Scanlan, C. Haynam, P. Wegner, M. Hermann, G. Brunton, E. Tse, A. Awwal, N. Wong, L. Seppala, M. Franks, E. Marley, K. Williams, T. Budge, M. Henesian, C. Stolz, T. Suratwala, M. Monticelli, D. Walmer, S. Dixit, C. Widmayer, J. Wolfe, J. Bude, K. McCarty, and J. M. DiNicola, “Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the national ignition facility,” Proc. SPIE 7916, 79160H (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–82 (2004).
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P. G. Eliseev, S. Juodkazis, T. Sugahara, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, S. Sakai, and H. Misawa, “GaN surface ablation by femtosecond pulses: atomic force microscopy studies and accumulation effects,” Proc. SPIE 4065, 546–556 (2000).
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M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. Runkel, “Analysis of bulk DKDP damage distribution, obscuration and pulse length dependence,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 383–388 (2001).
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M. D. Feit, F. Y. Genin, A. M. Rubenchik, L. M. Sheehan, S. Schwartz, M. R. Kozlowski, J. DiJon, P. Garrec, and J. Hue, “Statistical description of laser damage initiation in NIF and LMJ Optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 188–195 (1999).
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D. A. Willis, “Thermal mechanisms of laser micromachining of indium tin oxide,” Proc. SPIE 5339, 313–320 (2004).
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Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. G. Eliseev, “Optical strength of semiconductor laser materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20(1), 1–82 (1996).
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M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, and I. L. Pokotilo, “Efficiency of various mechanisms of the laser damage in transparent solids,” Quantum Electron. 32(7), 623–628 (2002).
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M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, and I. L. Pokotilo, “Mechanical damage in transparent solids caused by laser pulses of different durations,” Quantum Electron. 32(4), 335–340 (2002).
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M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, and I. L. Pokotilo, “Formulation of the criterion of thermoelastic laser damage of transparent dielectrics and the dependence of damage threshold on pulse duration,” Quantum Electron. 27(10), 918–922 (1997).
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SPIE (1)

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, ““A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” proc,” SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2003).

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W. T. Pawlewicz and R. Busch, “Reactively sputtered oxide optical coatings for inertial confinement fusion laser components,” Thin Solid Films 63(2), 251–256 (1979).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) Large area single pulse beam exposure illustrating ITO and (B) GaN film damage (τp = 3 ns). (C) The corresponding beam pulse fluence maps are shown for ITO and (D) for GaN.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) GaN film damage density data and curve fits (Eq. (1)) for the laser pulse widths indicated. The defect densities shown in parenthesis along with (B) the laser damage threshold distribution were extracted from data fit. A schematic of beam pulses and absorbing regions illustrates long and short pulse exposures resulting in conditions when the thermal diffusion length, L, (C) is much smaller than the size of a large absorbing region, R, (D) or when L is much larger than R for longer pulses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Single exposure laser damage threshold intensity pulse scaling data and model calculations for GaN and ITO. Solid lines are predictions based on the melting point temperature damage criteria, Tc. Dashed lines are based on selected lower temperature criteria to describe the lower bound threshold intensities of ITO and GaN of Tc = 1000K and Tc = 1500K, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) Damage probability curves (solid lines) for ITO and GaN films for the indicated number of exposures, Np = 9.5 ns). the dashed line represent the calculated probability curve based on the fit of data in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). (B) Lifetime damage threshold performance data dependence on number of exposures for ITO and GaN (τp = 9.5 ns).

Equations (4)

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ρ( F )= N d F texp( σ 2 + t 2 2 ν 2 ) I 0 ( tσ ν 2 )dt
ρ d C p dT dt = α( F/ τ p ) 1+6 Dt/ R 2
F th ( 1 )= 18KΔT τ p R 2 α(6 D τ p / R 2 Ln(1+6 D τ p / R 2 ))
F th (N)= F th ()+[ F th (1) F th ()]exp[S(N1)]

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