Abstract

Reported herein are the in situ creation and characterization of crossed-linked copolymer networks with a polarized photoluminescence. The π-extended fluorene-based reactive mesogen with photopolymerizable acrylate groups has been copolymerized with conventional reactive mesogen RM-257 in a uniformly aligned nematic LC host. Networks are localized at surfaces as thin films. The copolymer networks exhibit a strong optical anisotropy with a uniaxial orientation of the mesogens, templated by nematic order of the host LC. As a result, the network shows dichroic absorption for excitation and polarized photoluminescence. The degree of the orientational order of the fluorophore has been decreased during the polymerization process. The order parameter of the fluorophore has been curtailed from S = 0.57 for the reaction mixture prior to polymerization to S = 0.32 for the bare polymer networks after polymerization and removal of unreacted LC molecules.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Dual wavelength in situ photoalignment for stable planar alignment of nematic liquid crystals

Vineet Kumar, Aboozar Nasrollahi, Vijay Kumar Baliyan, Heung-Shik Park, Myong-Hoon Lee, and Shin-Woong Kang
Opt. Mater. Express 8(8) 2366-2377 (2018)

Fast copolymer network liquid crystals for tunable birefringence colors

Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh and Alexander Lorenz
Appl. Opt. 58(20) 5587-5594 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Smith and P. J. Lemstra, “Ultra-high-strength polyethylene filaments by solution spinning/drawing,” J. Mater. Sci. 15(2), 505–514 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. A. San Jose, S. Matsushita, Y. Moroishi, and K. Akagi, “Disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives that Exhibit linearly polarized blue and green emissions,” Macromolecules 44(16), 6288–6302 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. S. Jeong and K. Akagi, “Liquid crystalline PEDOT derivatives exhibiting reversible anisotropic electrochromism and linearly and circularly polarized dichroism,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(28), 10472–10481 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Neher, “Substituted rigid rod-like polymers-building blocks for photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 7(8), 691–702 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Cimrová, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Grüner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Photo-cross-linkable poly(p-phenylene)s. Synthesis, Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer film properties and pattern formation,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 198(8), 2551–2561 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. N. Marks, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, and C. Taliani, “Polarised electroluminescence from vacuum-grown organic light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 32(6), 523–528 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Yanagi and S. Okamoto, “Orientation-controlled organic electroluminescence of p-sexiphenyl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2563–2565 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  15. M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. A. M. Hikmet, D. B. Braun, A. G. J. Staring, H. F. M. Schoo, J. Lub, “Electroluminescent device having electroluminescent compound and liquid crystalline compound,” Patent Appl. US 08/700, US5748271 A (1998).
  17. D. J. Broer, “Creation of supramolecular thin film architectures with liquid-crystalline networks,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 261(1), 513–523 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. M. Blinov, V.A. Kizel, V. G. Rumyantsev, V. V. Titov, Sov. Phys.Ð Crystallogr. 20, 750 (1976).
  19. A. P. Davey, R. G. Howard, and W. J. Blau, “Polarised photoluminescence from oriented polymer liquid crystal films,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(3), 417–420 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Park, T. Yu, T. Inagaki, and K. Akagi, “Helical network polymers exhibiting circularly polarized luminescence with thermal stability. Synthesis via photo-cross-link polymerizations of methacrylate derivatives in a chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Macromolecules 48(7), 1930–1940 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Polarizing energy transfer in photoluminescent materials for display applications,” Nature 392(6673), 261–264 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Photoinduced localization of orientationally ordered polymer networks at the surface of a liquid crystal host,” Macromolecules 35(25), 9372–9376 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

J. Park, T. Yu, T. Inagaki, and K. Akagi, “Helical network polymers exhibiting circularly polarized luminescence with thermal stability. Synthesis via photo-cross-link polymerizations of methacrylate derivatives in a chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Macromolecules 48(7), 1930–1940 (2015).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. A. San Jose, S. Matsushita, Y. Moroishi, and K. Akagi, “Disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives that Exhibit linearly polarized blue and green emissions,” Macromolecules 44(16), 6288–6302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Jeong and K. Akagi, “Liquid crystalline PEDOT derivatives exhibiting reversible anisotropic electrochromism and linearly and circularly polarized dichroism,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(28), 10472–10481 (2011).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Photoinduced localization of orientationally ordered polymer networks at the surface of a liquid crystal host,” Macromolecules 35(25), 9372–9376 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Polarizing energy transfer in photoluminescent materials for display applications,” Nature 392(6673), 261–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (5)

H. Yanagi and S. Okamoto, “Orientation-controlled organic electroluminescence of p-sexiphenyl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2563–2565 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Grüner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Photo-cross-linkable poly(p-phenylene)s. Synthesis, Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer film properties and pattern formation,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 198(8), 2551–2561 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. P. Davey, R. G. Howard, and W. J. Blau, “Polarised photoluminescence from oriented polymer liquid crystal films,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(3), 417–420 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

V. Cimrová, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (4)

R. N. Marks, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, and C. Taliani, “Polarised electroluminescence from vacuum-grown organic light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 32(6), 523–528 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Neher, “Substituted rigid rod-like polymers-building blocks for photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 7(8), 691–702 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. J. Broer, “Creation of supramolecular thin film architectures with liquid-crystalline networks,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 261(1), 513–523 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

P. Smith and P. J. Lemstra, “Ultra-high-strength polyethylene filaments by solution spinning/drawing,” J. Mater. Sci. 15(2), 505–514 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ahn, T.

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akagi, K.

J. Park, T. Yu, T. Inagaki, and K. Akagi, “Helical network polymers exhibiting circularly polarized luminescence with thermal stability. Synthesis via photo-cross-link polymerizations of methacrylate derivatives in a chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Macromolecules 48(7), 1930–1940 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. A. San Jose, S. Matsushita, Y. Moroishi, and K. Akagi, “Disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives that Exhibit linearly polarized blue and green emissions,” Macromolecules 44(16), 6288–6302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Jeong and K. Akagi, “Liquid crystalline PEDOT derivatives exhibiting reversible anisotropic electrochromism and linearly and circularly polarized dichroism,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(28), 10472–10481 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andersson, M. R.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bastiaansen, C.

C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Polarizing energy transfer in photoluminescent materials for display applications,” Nature 392(6673), 261–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Berggren, M.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Biscarini, F.

R. N. Marks, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, and C. Taliani, “Polarised electroluminescence from vacuum-grown organic light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 32(6), 523–528 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

A. P. Davey, R. G. Howard, and W. J. Blau, “Polarised photoluminescence from oriented polymer liquid crystal films,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(3), 417–420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Borghesi, A.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
[Crossref]

Broer, D. J.

D. J. Broer, “Creation of supramolecular thin film architectures with liquid-crystalline networks,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 261(1), 513–523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Photoinduced localization of orientationally ordered polymer networks at the surface of a liquid crystal host,” Macromolecules 35(25), 9372–9376 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cimrová, V.

V. Cimrová, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

Davey, A. P.

A. P. Davey, R. G. Howard, and W. J. Blau, “Polarised photoluminescence from oriented polymer liquid crystal films,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(3), 417–420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Debnath, S.

M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Destri, S.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dyreklev, P.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Garnier, F.

R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gill, R. E.

R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gim, M.-J.

M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grell, M.

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grüner, J.

J. Grüner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hadziioannou, G.

R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hennecke, M.

B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hjertberg, T.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Howard, R. G.

A. P. Davey, R. G. Howard, and W. J. Blau, “Polarised photoluminescence from oriented polymer liquid crystal films,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(3), 417–420 (1997).
[Crossref]

Inagaki, T.

J. Park, T. Yu, T. Inagaki, and K. Akagi, “Helical network polymers exhibiting circularly polarized luminescence with thermal stability. Synthesis via photo-cross-link polymerizations of methacrylate derivatives in a chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Macromolecules 48(7), 1930–1940 (2015).
[Crossref]

Inganäs, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y. S.

Y. S. Jeong and K. Akagi, “Liquid crystalline PEDOT derivatives exhibiting reversible anisotropic electrochromism and linearly and circularly polarized dichroism,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(28), 10472–10481 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y. J.

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ka, J. W.

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. W.

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Photoinduced localization of orientationally ordered polymer networks at the surface of a liquid crystal host,” Macromolecules 35(25), 9372–9376 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, E. C.

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lang, P.

R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lemstra, P. J.

P. Smith and P. J. Lemstra, “Ultra-high-strength polyethylene filaments by solution spinning/drawing,” J. Mater. Sci. 15(2), 505–514 (1980).
[Crossref]

Marks, R. N.

R. N. Marks, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, and C. Taliani, “Polarised electroluminescence from vacuum-grown organic light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 32(6), 523–528 (1995).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, S.

B. A. San Jose, S. Matsushita, Y. Moroishi, and K. Akagi, “Disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives that Exhibit linearly polarized blue and green emissions,” Macromolecules 44(16), 6288–6302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Montali, A.

C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Polarizing energy transfer in photoluminescent materials for display applications,” Nature 392(6673), 261–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moroishi, Y.

B. A. San Jose, S. Matsushita, Y. Moroishi, and K. Akagi, “Disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives that Exhibit linearly polarized blue and green emissions,” Macromolecules 44(16), 6288–6302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Neher, D.

J. Grüner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Photo-cross-linkable poly(p-phenylene)s. Synthesis, Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer film properties and pattern formation,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 198(8), 2551–2561 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Cimrová, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Neher, “Substituted rigid rod-like polymers-building blocks for photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 7(8), 691–702 (1995).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, S.

H. Yanagi and S. Okamoto, “Orientation-controlled organic electroluminescence of p-sexiphenyl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2563–2565 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

J. Park, T. Yu, T. Inagaki, and K. Akagi, “Helical network polymers exhibiting circularly polarized luminescence with thermal stability. Synthesis via photo-cross-link polymerizations of methacrylate derivatives in a chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Macromolecules 48(7), 1930–1940 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Porzio, W.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rao, N. V. S.

M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remmers, M.

J. Grüner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Photo-cross-linkable poly(p-phenylene)s. Synthesis, Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer film properties and pattern formation,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 198(8), 2551–2561 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Cimrová, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

San Jose, B. A.

B. A. San Jose, S. Matsushita, Y. Moroishi, and K. Akagi, “Disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives that Exhibit linearly polarized blue and green emissions,” Macromolecules 44(16), 6288–6302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sarwa, C.

C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sassella, A.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schartel, B.

B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
[Crossref]

Smith, P.

C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Polarizing energy transfer in photoluminescent materials for display applications,” Nature 392(6673), 261–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Smith and P. J. Lemstra, “Ultra-high-strength polyethylene filaments by solution spinning/drawing,” J. Mater. Sci. 15(2), 505–514 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sprunt, S.

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Photoinduced localization of orientationally ordered polymer networks at the surface of a liquid crystal host,” Macromolecules 35(25), 9372–9376 (2002).
[Crossref]

Taliani, C.

R. N. Marks, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, and C. Taliani, “Polarised electroluminescence from vacuum-grown organic light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 32(6), 523–528 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tubino, R.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Turlapati, S.

M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wachtendorf, V.

B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weder, C.

A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Polarizing energy transfer in photoluminescent materials for display applications,” Nature 392(6673), 261–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegner, G.

M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Photo-cross-linkable poly(p-phenylene)s. Synthesis, Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer film properties and pattern formation,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 198(8), 2551–2561 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Cimrová, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wennerström, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, J. C.

R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, H.

H. Yanagi and S. Okamoto, “Orientation-controlled organic electroluminescence of p-sexiphenyl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2563–2565 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yi, M. H.

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D. K.

M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

J. Park, T. Yu, T. Inagaki, and K. Akagi, “Helical network polymers exhibiting circularly polarized luminescence with thermal stability. Synthesis via photo-cross-link polymerizations of methacrylate derivatives in a chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Macromolecules 48(7), 1930–1940 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zamboni, R.

R. N. Marks, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, and C. Taliani, “Polarised electroluminescence from vacuum-grown organic light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 32(6), 523–528 (1995).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

M.-J. Gim, S. Turlapati, S. Debnath, N. V. S. Rao, and D. K. Yoon, “Highly polarized fluorescent illumination using liquid crystal phase,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(5), 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (7)

R. E. Gill, G. Hadziioannou, P. Lang, F. Garnier, and J. C. Wittmann, “Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates,” Adv. Mater. 9(4), 331–334 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, “Organic molecular beam deposition of highly oriented β-Tetrahexylsexithiophene films,” Adv. Mater. 10(12), 931–934 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerström, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7(1), 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Neher, “Substituted rigid rod-like polymers-building blocks for photonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 7(8), 691–702 (1995).
[Crossref]

V. Cimrová, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8(2), 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Grüner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Yanagi and S. Okamoto, “Orientation-controlled organic electroluminescence of p-sexiphenyl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2563–2565 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

R. N. Marks, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, and C. Taliani, “Polarised electroluminescence from vacuum-grown organic light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 32(6), 523–528 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

Y. S. Jeong and K. Akagi, “Liquid crystalline PEDOT derivatives exhibiting reversible anisotropic electrochromism and linearly and circularly polarized dichroism,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(28), 10472–10481 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. P. Davey, R. G. Howard, and W. J. Blau, “Polarised photoluminescence from oriented polymer liquid crystal films,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(3), 417–420 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

P. Smith and P. J. Lemstra, “Ultra-high-strength polyethylene filaments by solution spinning/drawing,” J. Mater. Sci. 15(2), 505–514 (1980).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

J. Kim, J. Park, Y. J. Jung, E. C. Kim, T. Ahn, J. W. Ka, and M. H. Yi, “Synthesis and characterisation of photopolymerisable liquid crystals based on the π-extended fluorene core and their corresponding non-reactive analogues,” Liq. Cryst. 38(5), 589–599 (2011).
[Crossref]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Photo-cross-linkable poly(p-phenylene)s. Synthesis, Langmuir-Blodgett multilayer film properties and pattern formation,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 198(8), 2551–2561 (1997).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (3)

B. A. San Jose, S. Matsushita, Y. Moroishi, and K. Akagi, “Disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives that Exhibit linearly polarized blue and green emissions,” Macromolecules 44(16), 6288–6302 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Photoinduced localization of orientationally ordered polymer networks at the surface of a liquid crystal host,” Macromolecules 35(25), 9372–9376 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Park, T. Yu, T. Inagaki, and K. Akagi, “Helical network polymers exhibiting circularly polarized luminescence with thermal stability. Synthesis via photo-cross-link polymerizations of methacrylate derivatives in a chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Macromolecules 48(7), 1930–1940 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A (1)

D. J. Broer, “Creation of supramolecular thin film architectures with liquid-crystalline networks,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 261(1), 513–523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Polarizing energy transfer in photoluminescent materials for display applications,” Nature 392(6673), 261–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Schartel, V. Wachtendorf, M. Grell, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. Hennecke, “Polarized fluorescence and orientational order parameters of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 60(1), 277–283 (1999).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

C. Weder, C. Sarwa, A. Montali, C. Bastiaansen, and P. Smith, “Incorporation of photoluminescent polarizers into liquid crystal displays,” Science 279(5352), 835–837 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. M. Blinov, V.A. Kizel, V. G. Rumyantsev, V. V. Titov, Sov. Phys.Ð Crystallogr. 20, 750 (1976).

R. A. M. Hikmet, D. B. Braun, A. G. J. Staring, H. F. M. Schoo, J. Lub, “Electroluminescent device having electroluminescent compound and liquid crystalline compound,” Patent Appl. US 08/700, US5748271 A (1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Chemical structures and phase transition temperatures for the materials used in the study: (a) host nematic LC, (b) fluorescent reactive mesogen FRM, (c) conventional reactive mesogen RM-257, and (d) photinitiator Irgacure 651. Numbers in parenthesis correspond to the transition temperature observed from cooling.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Polarized optical images for various samples: (a) reaction mixture confined by LC cell prior to polymerization, (b)/(c) cell after polymerization at different azimuthal orientations with respect to a polarizer, (d) cell after removal of LC, and separate substrates for (e) near UV-side substrate and (f) far UV-side substrate. Crossed arrows and thiner arrows represent polarizer directions and surface rub-direction (i.e., nematic director of a host LC), respectively. For all samples, uniaxial optic axes are aligned parallel to the nematic director.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fluorescence microscope images of the FRM and polymerized FRM with single polarized: (a)/(b) reaction mixture confined by the LC cell prior to polymerization, (c)/(d) cell after polymerization, and (e)/(f) templated polymer networks formed on the near UV-side substrate. White and yellow arrows denote the polarization direction of incident excitation light and surface-rub direction, respectively. No analyzer is used.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 UV-vis absorption spectrum and polarized fluorescence spectra of the FRM and polymerized FRM: (a) absorption and emission spectra of the FRM dissolved in methylene chloride, (b) reaction mixture confined by the LC cell prior to polymerization, (c) cell after polymerization, and (d) and templated bare polymer networks formed on the near UV-side substrate.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM micrographs of the copolymer networks templated on the uniaxially aligned nematic host: networks on the (a)/(b) near UV-side and (c) far UV-side substrates. Arrows represent the direction of a nematic director of a host LC.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic illustration of the process for forming thin polymer networks with polarized photo-luminescence: (a) polymerization of comonomers in a uniformly aligned nematic host, (b) surface localization of the networks under the gradient of UV-light intensity, (c) uniaxially aligned localized copolymer networks after completion of polymerization, and (d) illustration of uniaxially aligned fluorescent RM copolymer networks with the conventional RM-257. Color gradient in green indicates UV-light intensity. Blue and white ellipses represent fluorescent and non-fluorescent acrylate monomers. Double ended arrow on the SEM image denotes the surface-rub direction.

Metrics